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The Sharing Economy Book Summary : The wide-ranging implications of the shift to a sharing economy, a new model of organizing economic activity that may supplant traditional corporations. Sharing isn't new. Giving someone a ride, having a guest in your spare room, running errands for someone, participating in a supper club--these are not revolutionary concepts. What is new, in the "sharing economy," is that you are not helping a friend for free; you are providing these services to a stranger for money. In this book, Arun Sundararajan, an expert on the sharing economy, explains the transition to what he describes as "crowd-based capitalism"--a new way of organizing economic activity that may supplant the traditional corporate-centered model. As peer-to-peer commercial exchange blurs the lines between the personal and the professional, how will the economy, government regulation, what it means to have a job, and our social fabric be affected? Drawing on extensive research and numerous real-world examples--including Airbnb, Lyft, Uber, Etsy, TaskRabbit, France's BlaBlaCar, China's Didi Kuaidi, and India's Ola, Sundararajan explains the basics of crowd-based capitalism. He describes the intriguing mix of "gift" and "market" in its transactions, demystifies emerging blockchain technologies, and clarifies the dizzying array of emerging on-demand platforms. He considers how this new paradigm changes economic growth and the future of work. Will we live in a world of empowered entrepreneurs who enjoy professional flexibility and independence? Or will we become disenfranchised digital laborers scurrying between platforms in search of the next wedge of piecework? Sundararajan highlights the important policy choices and suggests possible new directions for self-regulatory organizations, labor law, and funding our social safety net.
Handbook of the Sharing Economy Book Summary : With the radical growth in the ubiquity of digital platforms, the sharing economy is here to stay. This Handbook explores the nature and direction of the sharing economy, interrogating its key dynamics and evolution over the past decade and critiquing its effect on society.
Law and the Sharing Economy Book Summary : Controversy shrouds sharing economy platforms. It stems partially from the platforms’ economic impact, which is felt most acutely in certain sectors: Uber drivers compete with taxi drivers; Airbnb hosts compete with hotels. Other consequences lie elsewhere: Uber is associated with a trend toward low-paying, precarious work, whereas Airbnb is accused of exacerbating real estate speculation and raising the cost of long-term rental housing. While governments in some jurisdictions have attempted to rein in the platforms, technology has enabled such companies to bypass conventional regulatory categories, generating accusations of “unfair competition” as well as debates about the merits of existing regulatory regimes. Indeed, the platforms blur a number of familiar distinctions, including personal versus commercial activity; infrastructure versus content; contractual autonomy versus hierarchical control. These ambiguities can stymie legal regimes that rely on these distinctions as organizing principles, including those relating to labour, competition, tax, insurance, information, the prohibition of discrimination, as well as specialized sectoral regulation. This book is organized around five themes: technologies of regulation; regulating technology; the sites of regulation (local to global); regulating markets; and regulating labour. Together, the chapters offer a rich variety of insights on the regulation of the sharing economy, both in terms of the traditional areas of law they bring to bear, and the theoretical perspectives that inform their analysis. This book is published in English. - La controverse entoure les plateformes d’économie de partage, partiellement en raison de leur impact économique. Certains secteurs subissent des contrecoups de manière plus aigüe : les chauffeurs d’Uber font concurrence aux chauffeurs de taxi, ou les hôtes Airbnb rivalisent avec les hôtels. Par ailleurs, Uber exacerberait l’emploi précaire et mal rémunéré tandis qu’Airbnb amplifierait la spéculation immobilière et entraînerait, à terme, une hausse du coût de location. On a tenté de réglementer ce type de plateformes, mais la technologie est telle qu’elle permet aux entreprises d’aisément contourner la réglementation conventionnelle, si bien que les accusations de « concurrence déloyale » fusent de toutes parts, provoquant une remise en question du cadre réglementaire. En effet, de telles plateformes viennent brouiller les cartes, confondant les distinctions convenues entre personnel et commercial, infrastructure et contenu, autonomie contractuelle et contrôle hiérarchique. Cette ambiguïté peut avoir d’importantes répercussions sur le bon fonctionnement de l’appareil réglementaire qui encadre les principes organisateurs du travail, de la concurrence, de l’impôt, de l’assurance, de l’information et de de l’interdiction de la discrimination, sans parler de la réglementation sectorielle spécialisée. Cinq thématiques sont abordées dans cet ouvrage : les technologies de la réglementation; la réglementation de la technologie; les lieux de la réglementation (du local au mondial); la réglementation des marchés; et la réglementation du travail. Les chapitres se conjuguent pour offrir une réflexion d’une gamme d’experts sur la jurisprudence traditionnelle que sur
Sharing Economy Book Summary : This edited book examines the challenges and opportunities arising from today’s sharing economy from an operations management perspective. Individual chapter authors present state-of-the-art research that examines the general impact of sharing economy on production and consumption; the intermediary role of a sharing platform; crowdsourcing management; and context-based operational problems. Sharing economy refers to a market model that enables and facilitates the sharing of access to goods and services. For example, Uber allows riders to share a car. Airbnb allows homeowners to share their extra rooms with renters. Groupon crowdsources demands, enabling customers to share the benefit of discounted goods and services, whereas Kickstarter crowdsources funds, enabling backers to fund a project jointly. Unlike the classic supply chain settings in which a firm makes inventory and supply decisions, in sharing economy, supply is crowdsourced and can be modulated by a platform. The matching-supply-with-demand process in a sharing economy requires novel perspectives and tools to address challenges and identify opportunities. The book is comprised of 20 chapters that are divided into four parts. The first part explores the general impact of sharing economy on the production, consumption, and society. The second part explores the intermediary role of a sharing platform that matches crowdsourced supply with demand. The third part investigates the crowdsourcing management on a sharing platform, and the fourth part is dedicated to context-based operational problems of popular sharing economy applications. “While sharing economy is becoming omnipresence, the operations management (OM) research community has begun to explore and examine different business models in the transportation, healthcare, financial, accommodation, and sourcing sectors. This book presents a collection of the state-of-the-art research work conducted by a group of world-leading OM researchers in this area. Not only does this book cover a wide range of business models arising from the sharing economy, but it also showcases different modeling frameworks and research methods that cannot be missed. Ultimately, this book is a tour de force – informative and insightful!” Christopher S. Tang Distinguished Professor and Edward Carter Chair in Business Administration UCLA Anderson School of Management
Uber Lyft Airbnb and the Sharing Economy Book Summary : Something remarkable emerged as a result of the Great Recession of the early twenty-first century: a sharing economy. Among the loss of jobs and mortgages and uncertainty about the future, people got creative with the way they earnedand spenttheir money. Democratic platforms like Uber and Airbnb have skyrocketed in popularity, prompting tighter government regulations. But are they the answer to an economy increasingly controlled by giant corporations? Or are they just a different way for people to profit from and exploit struggling workers? Learn more from viewpoints written by todays experts.
The Sharing Economy Book Summary : The sharing economy is just one of several possible expressions to designate the complex model of social and economic relationships based on the intensive use of digital technology. Constant permutations and combinations allow these relationships to be established through the intervention of a third party making traditional contractual positions flexible in such a way that today’s employee is tomorrow’s entrepreneur, or today’s consumer is tomorrow’s supplier of goods and services. The current legal framework is, in many respects, unable to accommodate such big changes and new legal regulations are required where adaptation of the existing ones proves to be inadequate. This book highlights where changes are needed and where adaptations are required, with a particular focus on the Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, British and Brazilian contexts. For that, four different approaches are undertaken, namely the meta-legal, macro-legal, micro-legal and transnational approaches. The study that results from these different approaches enables readers to acquire a general view on the current legal problems arising from the sharing economy, and was a direct result of a research project of the Centre for Legal and Economic Research, at the University of Porto, funded by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia.
The Sharing Economy Book Summary : Challenging the widely held assumptions of the current globalized economy, this book examines the origins and experience of a radical alternative. Drawing on the varied experiences of business and community leaders from around the globe, and from Brazil and Italy in particular, the book examines the potential of this emerging alternative economic geography to offer a new vision of globalization.
Sharing Economy and the Impact of Collaborative Consumption Book Summary : The introduction of new technology and technological services worldwide has ushered in a new wave of peer-to-peer and access-driven companies that are disrupting the most established business categories. The emergence of these new business models has upset the flow in contemporary society and transformed people's behavior towards sharing-based economies. Companies and entrepreneurs can see this significant change in people’s behavior as both an opportunity and a threat. Sharing Economy and the Impact of Collaborative Consumption provides emerging research on the impact that the sharing services are having on society as well as the importance of the sharing economy development in the coming years, dealing with relevant issues such as regulations, the technological aspects involved in these platforms, the impact in the tourism sector, and consumer behavior in relation to these services. Multidisciplinary in nature, this publication establishes links between economics, finance, marketing, consumer behavior, and IT, and covers topics that include e-commerce, consumer behavior, and peer economy. It is ideally designed for researchers, students, business professionals, and entrepreneurs seeking current research on the impact that this industry has on various economic, marketing, and societal aspects of different countries.
Theorizing the Sharing Economy Book Summary : This volume takes advantage of this opportunity by presenting a collection of empirical and conceptual work that explores the variety and the trajectories of new forms of organizing in the sharing economy, and in doing so builds on, rejuvenates, and refines existing organization theories.
Analytics for the Sharing Economy Mathematics Engineering and Business Perspectives Book Summary : The book provides an encompassing overview of all aspects relating to the sharing economy paradigm in different fields of study, and shows the ongoing research efforts in filling previously identified gaps in understanding in this area. Control and optimization analytics for the sharing economy explores bespoke analytics, tools, and business models that can be used to help design collaborative consumption services (the shared economy). It provides case studies of collaborative consumption in the areas of energy and mobility. The contributors review successful examples of sharing systems, and explore the theory for designing effective and stable shared-economy models. They discuss recent innovations in and uses of shared economy models in niche areas, such as energy and mobility. Readers learn the scientific challenging issues associated with the realization of a sharing economy. Conceptual and practical matters are examined, and the state-of-the-art tools and techniques to address such applications are explained. The contributors also show readers how topical problems in engineering, such as energy consumption in power grids, or bike sharing in transportation networks, can be formulated and solved from a general collaborative consumption perspective. Since the book takes a mathematical perspective to the topic, researchers in business, computer science, optimization and control find it useful. Practitioners also use the book as a point of reference, as it explores and investigates the analytics behind economy sharing.
Hustle and Gig Book Summary : Choose your hours, choose your work, be your own boss, control your own income. Welcome to the sharing economy, a nebulous collection of online platforms and apps that promise to transcend capitalism. Supporters argue that the gig economy will reverse economic inequality, enhance worker rights, and bring entrepreneurship to the masses. But does it? In Hustle and Gig, Alexandrea J. Ravenelle shares the personal stories of nearly eighty predominantly millennial workers from Airbnb, Uber, TaskRabbit, and Kitchensurfing. Their stories underline the volatility of working in the gig economy: the autonomy these young workers expected has been usurped by the need to maintain algorithm-approved acceptance and response rates. The sharing economy upends generations of workplace protections such as worker safety; workplace protections around discrimination and sexual harassment; the right to unionize; and the right to redress for injuries. Discerning three types of gig economy workers—Success Stories, who have used the gig economy to create the life they want; Strugglers, who can’t make ends meet; and Strivers, who have stable jobs and use the sharing economy for extra cash—Ravenelle examines the costs, benefits, and societal impact of this new economic movement. Poignant and evocative, Hustle and Gig exposes how the gig economy is the millennial’s version of minimum-wage precarious work.
European VAT and the Sharing Economy Book Summary : A breadth of new digital platforms has dramatically expanded the range of possibilities for exchanging anything required by business or personal needs from accommodation to rides. In the virtual marketplaces shaped and ruled by these novel matchmakers, rather than by a single centralized entity, value is created through the granular interaction of many dispersed individuals. By allowing instantaneous and smooth interaction among millions of individuals, platforms have indeed pushed the digital frontier farther and farther, so as to include within it even services once not capable of direct delivery from a remote location such as accommodation and passenger transport. Legal disruption is also underway with foundational dichotomous categories, such as those between suppliers and customers, business and private spheres, employees and self-employed, no longer viable as organizational legal structures. This is the essential background of the first book to relate what is synthetically captured under the umbrella definition of ‘sharing economy’ to key features at the core of European Value Added Tax (EU VAT) and to look at the feasibility of a reformed EU VAT system capable of addressing the main challenges posed by these new models of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. Specifically, the study analyses five legal propositions underpinning the current EU VAT system as the following: taxable persons; taxable transactions; composite supplies; place of supply rules; and liability regimes for collection and remittance of VAT. Exploration of these five legal propositions is meant to assess the practical feasibility of shoehorning the main sharing economy business models – notably, those available in the accommodation and passenger transport sectors – into the framework of existing EU VAT provisions. The author further draws on the normative standards of equality, neutrality, simplicity, flexibility and proportionality to test the ‘reflexes’ of the current EU VAT system in the sharing economy domain. Opportunities for reform of the current EU VAT system are in turn evaluated with each chapter including cogent proposals in the form of incremental and targeted amendments to the current EU VAT provisions. As the first comprehensive analysis of the treatment of the sharing economy for VAT purposes, the book provides not only a theoretical framework for future studies in the tax field but also indispensable practical guidance for VAT specialists confronting daily with the many challenges ushered in by the sharing economy. Moreover, the various solutions and recommendations advanced in the book offer valuable insights to international and national policymakers dealing with similar issues under other VAT systems.
Practicing Law in the Sharing Economy Book Summary : Transactional lawyers are needed, en masse, to aid in an epic reinvention of our economic system. This reinvention is referred to by many names the "sharing economy," "collaborative consumption," the "grassroots economy" and involves different ways of meeting people's needs, participating in production, and transacting with each other. This book illustrates the nine primary areas of work that a sharing lawyer must know, including drafting agreements, structuring entities, employment regulations, intellectual property, and much more. The work of a sharing lawyer will often be challenging, but will always be interesting and demand creativity. Perhaps best of all, the work of sharing lawyer will contribute importantly to the creation of a world in which innumerable people have now decided they want to live."