Unraveling the Complexities of Metastasis: Transition from a Segmented View to a Conceptual Continuum provides a critical overview of the recent developments of metastasis research and how progress can be further enhanced in the field. Metastasis is a highly complicated mechanism and prognostic analysis of different metastatic patterns in advanced cancer patients is becoming increasingly problematic. It is therefore essential to take a step back and focus on the underlying mechanisms of metastasis before moving ahead for effective translation of laboratory findings to clinically effective therapeutics. This book is surely helpful in putting together missing pieces of an incomplete jig-saw puzzle of molecular cancer. The book discusses topics such as the role of TRAIL-mediated signaling, late metastasis and mechanisms underlying tumor cell dormancy, CTCs and exomes, non-coding way of metastasis, and stem cells. Additionally, it brings relevant and updated information on nanotechnology-based docetaxel and the peculiarities of cancer cell metabolism. This book is a valuable source for cancer researchers, medical doctors and several members of biomedical field who need to understand better the complex mechanism of metastasis. Explains the mechanism of metastasis from basic to advanced level through easy and comprehensive chapters written by internationally distinguished researchers Provides simplified version of important process of metastasis for the readers to comprehend the latest advancements made in the field Presents colorful diagrams to make different aspects of scientifically difficult topics easier for young researchers and new-comers in the field of cancer metastasis
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2016-09-03|
|ISBN 10||: 0128041587|
|Pages||: 390 pages|
Molecular and Cellular Basis of Metastasis: Road to Therapy, the latest in the Advances in Cancer Research series, provides invaluable information on the exciting and fast-moving field of cancer research. Here, once again, outstanding and original reviews are presented on a variety of topics, with this volume covering the molecular and cellular basis of metastasis. Presents groundbreaking information on the molecular and cellular basis of metastasis Provides information on cancer research Outstanding and original reviews Suitable for both researchers and students
|Author||: Tanasa S. Osborne|
|Release Date||: 2011|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
The most significant problem for cancer patients is the dissemination of cancer cells and the formation of metastatic disease. Emblematic of the problem is the clinical progression seen in most patients with osteosarcoma, where metastasis to the lung is the most common cause of death. The primary research need in the field is to understand the biology of metastasis in osteosarcoma so as to improve outcomes for future patients. Unraveling the complexity of metastasis demands a focus on new tools, reagents, and biology in order to investigate hypotheses. Accordingly, this body of work introduces an outcome-linked human ostoesarcoma tissue microarray (new tool) used to detect and validate protein biomarkers across a variety of patients and an ex vivo pulmonary metastasis assay (new reagent) that allows real-time assessment of metastatic progression in a relevant microenvironment. Furthermore, cancer cells are believed to efficiently regulate protein translation at specific times and locations in a cell in response to changes in their environment. Preventing the dynamic regulation of these proteins (many of which have been associated with cancer/metastasis) may be an effective treatment strategy in the management of metastasis. Within the process of protein translation the abundance and activation of the mRNA cap-binding phosphoprotein, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is considered to be both rate and process limiting. We describe for the first time, the biological role of eIF4E (new biology) in metastatic osteosarcoma. We employed a comparative approach to study the biology of metastasis in osteosarcoma by using tissues and reagents from murine and human osteosarcomas. Using overexpression and knockdown techniques we modulated eIF4E expression in murine and human osteosarcoma cell lines and then evaluated the consequences at various steps within the metastatic cascade in vitro and in vivo. We found that suppression of eIF4E significantly delayed migration and reduced the number and size of colonies that formed in soft agar. Additionally, suppression of eIF4E inhibited spontaneous pulmonary metastases. eIF4E overexpression did not change the phenotype of previously nonmetastatic cells. These results suggest eIF4E may be a necessary, but not sufficient, requirement for metastasis in osteosarcoma. The goals of this research were to utilize these new tools and reagents to identify proteins and/or processes that define the metastatic phenotype of osteosarcoma and to use our newfound understanding of eIF4E in osteosarcoma metastasis to develop novel therapeutic strategies to prevent growth of metastases and improve treatment outcomes for patients.
Metastasis is the primary cause of mortality associated with cancer, and tumor genomic heterogeneity is a likely source for the cells that support cancer progression, resistance to therapy, and disease relapse. This book connects cancer metastasis with genomic instability in a comprehensive manner. Section 1 outlines the fundamental mechanisms responsible for these cellular and tissue phenotypes. Section 2 discusses in silico, in vitro, and in vivo models used for the experimental study of these processes. Section 3 reviews emerging themes (ex., microenvironment, mechanotransduction, and immunomodulation), and Section 4 highlights new therapeutic approaches to overcome the unique challenges presented by the heterogeneous and metastatic tumor. This book is intended for undergraduates and postgraduates with an interest in the areas of medicine, oncology, and cancer biology as well as for the content expert searching for thorough reviews of current knowledge in these areas.
Although ninety percent of fatal cancer cases involve the spread of a primary tumor, the formation of metastases is still a poorly understood, complex process and a significant problem in the treatment of cancer patients. In Metastasis Research Protocols, leading international investigators describe the key methods needed to investigate why and how metastasis occurs. Volume I of this two-volume set, Analysis of Cells and Tissues, presents a comprehensive collection of established and leading-edge techniques for analyzing the expression of key molecules and for examining their production at the genetic level. The work focuses on the analysis and mapping of molecules produced by cells and tissues, and on the molecular biology underlying their expression. The traditional methods range from the histopathological and the immunocytochemical to SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, and enzyme zymography. Newer and more specialized techniques for analyzing the genetic aspects of metastasis include in situ hybridization to localize mRNAs, FISH, CGH, methylation analysis of CpG islands, RT-PCR, and differential display. The second volume of this set, Analysis of Cell Behavior In Vitro and In Vivo, moves to the level of living cells and tissues to present methodologies applicable to examining metastatic behavior in vitro and in the whole animal. Comprehensive and authoritative, the two volumes of Metastasis Research Protocols constitute a gold-standard collection of readily reproducible methods for understanding the metastatic cascade-first at the cellular and molecular levels, then at the level of the whole organism-responsible for the spread of cancer and for developing novel strategies to combat its spread.
"Metastasis is the most dreaded aspect of the carcinogenic process. More than ninety percent of all cancer deaths are attributable to the consequences of the primary tumor successfully colonizing distant organs. Unlike the situation with colon cancer, a patient with breast cancer can never be considered cured, since as many as a third of breast cancer patients who have apparently curative surgery for their primary tumors ultimately relapse with metastatic disease, sometimes decades later. Much effort is now devoted to understanding this process of metastasis, and finding ways to predict and prevent its occurrence. This publication covers recent advances in the field, specifically as they relate to breast cancer. The availability of new tools and technological approaches has prompted a reconsideration of the very definition of a metastasis. Furthermore, a number of commonly held myths are being explored and a new definition of a metastasis, with important implications for clinical staging, is being proposed. Also, a novel conceptual framework for cancer progression based on the system-level dynamics of regulatory networks is presented and the role of chemokines in mediating some of the evolving transactional processes between tumor and stroma is being reviewed."
The process of metastasis formation is hugely complex, as described in the introductory chapter of this book, and this complexity has led us to compile two volumes of methods, from a vastly divergent background that attempts to encompass the whole spectrum of cancer biology. This first volume, Metastasis Research Protocols: Analysis of Cells and Tissues, concentrates on analysis and mapping of molecules produced by cells and tissues and analysis of the molecular biology underlying their expression, whereas the second volume, Metastasis Research Protocols: Cell Behavior In Vitro and In Vivo,focuses sharply on the determination of cell behavior in vitro and in vivo. We have deliberately included chapters describing well-established and familiar te- niques (for example, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting [Chapter 11], and immunocytochemistry [Chapter 2]) in addition to the newer and more speci- ized approaches and specific examples of their application, because—although the methodology is readily available in the published literature and established in many laboratories—we wished these volumes to “stand alone” and to make accessible here the standard techniques that underpin much metastasis research for both the newcomer to the field and the seasoned researcher. Undoubtedly, owing to the complexity of the metastatic cascade and the wealth of research techniques involved in scientific approaches to its unraveling, and despite our best efforts to make these volumes as comprehensive as seems feasible, this is a tall order, and there will inevitably be omissions. For these we apologize.
These are the Proceedings of the 2nd International Metastasis Congress of the Metastasis Research Society which took place in the town hall (Stadthalle) of Heidelberg, FRG, in September, 1988. This first Metastasis Congress in the FRG was organized in conjunction with the German Association of Cancer Research (SEK) of the German Cancer Society. The congress topic generated tremendous interest and attracted about 400 scientists from 22 countries. Most participants came from Europe, Israel, and the United States. Why did we organize the Metastasis Congress? Only about 50% of all people who develop some form of cancer are curable. Despite improved patient care and increasingly innovative and effective techniques for diagnosing and treating primary cancers, the development of secondary cancer colonies, i. e. , metastasis, can not be prevented and is the major cause of death. In the Federal Republic of Germany there are still as many as 160 000 cancer patients per year who succumb to their disease, often after periods of terrible suffering, and this overall figure is not improving. Partly because of the complexity of the process, basic research on metastasis has lagged behind other disciplines such as carcino genesis and cancer genetics. Metastasis formation involves the ability of malig nant cells to invade adjacent tissue and to penetrate into lymphatic or blood circulatory systems, or both, and to spread to near or distant sites to form new tumor colonies. Meanwhile, research on metastasis is receiving much attention.
|Author||: Angela M. Mabb|
|Release Date||: 2007|
|Pages||: 212 pages|
The epidemiological and clinical importance of bone metastasis has long been recognized, but the past decade has seen an explosion in the fields of bone biology and bone cancer research. This period of time has been marked by a number of key discoveries that have led to the opening up of entirely new areas for investigation as well as new therapies which combine surgery and biological therapeutic approaches. Bone is a common site of cancer metastases - cancer cells commonly develop in bone and spread to other organ systems through the bloodstream. For example, the incidence of bone metastases in breast and prostate cancers is 70%, whereas it is only 30 to 40% in metastatic lung cancer. In clinical terms, bone metastases have substantial negative effects on a patient's quality of life and are a main cause of patient mortality. Given the global prevalence of breast and prostate cancers, knowledge of bone biology has become essential for the medical and cancer research communities. This book provides, all in one resource, the most recent data on bone cancer development (cellular and molecular mechanisms), genomic and proteomic analyses, clinical analyses (histopathology, imaging, pain monitoring), as well as new therapeutic approaches and clinical trials for primary bone tumors and bone metastases. Feature Presents a comprehensive, translational source for all aspects of bone cancer in one reference work Bone cancer experts (from all areas of research and practice) take readers from the bench research (cellular and molecular mechanism), through genomic and proteomic analysis, all the way to clinical analysis (histopathology and imaging) and new therapeutic approaches. Clear presentation by bone biologists of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying bone tumors and bone cancer metastasis as well as the genomic and proteomic assays used in detecting cancer within given organ systems Clear presentation by oncologists and radiologists of how histopathology, imaging, and pain monitoring can lead to new therapeutic approaches Benefit Saves researchers and clinicians time in quickly accessing the very latest details on a broad range of bone cancer issues, as opposed to searching through thousands of journal articles. Provides a common language for cancer researchers, bone biologists, oncologists, and radiologists to discuss bone tumors and how bone cancer metastases affects each major organ system Correct diagnosis (and therefore correct treatment) of cancer depends on a strong understanding of the molecular basis for the disease – both oncologists and radiologists will benefit Bone biologists will gain insight into how clinical observations and practices can feed back into the research cycle and will, therefore, be able to develop more targeted genomic and proteomic assays
The analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a real-time liquid biopsy approach can be used to obtain new insights into metastasis biology, and as companion diagnostics to improve the stratification of therapies and to obtain insights into the therapy-induced selection of cancer cells. In this book, we will cover all the different facets of CTCs to assemble a huge corpus of knowledge on cancer dissemination: technologies for their enrichment, detection, and characterization; their analysis at the single-cell level; their journey as CTC microemboli; their clinical relevance; their biology with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); their stem-cell properties; their potential to initiate metastasis at distant sites; their ex vivo expansion; and their escape from the immune system.
"This book, in both its direct and indirect inferences, points to the need for disease-specific neurocognitive methods in broadly occurring CNS and non-CNS cancers... All in all, this is a beautifully conceptualized book that should be on the bookshelves of many specialists who work in the very challenging field of Oncology."--Carol L. Armstrong, PhD, Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Interest in the neurocognitive and sensory impairments resulting from many cancers and their interventions has grown considerably over the past decades as an important aspect of quality of life issues for cancer patients and survivors. The Neuropsychology of Cancer and Oncology features current findings on the neuropsychological effects of these cancers and their treatments along with the most promising neuropsychological and behavioral health interventions available to mitigate these deficits. This edited volume, part of the Contemporary Neuropsychology series, bridges the gap between the knowledge of neuropsychologists, who are grounded in the biological and physiological bases of cognition and behavior but not in pathology, and that of oncologists, who often lack expertise in the neuropsychological aspects of cancer. This text first addresses the biological components and medical care of these cancers, and issues relating to bioimaging. It then discusses the neurological impact of these cancers as they affect different functions, such as memory, learning, and sensory-motor ability, as well as discusses the effects of childhood cancers on neurological development. State-of-the-art neuropsychological and behavioral health interventions are considered, including neuropsychological/cognitive rehabilitation and habituation, pharmacological interventions, and collaborative medical practices. This text is a unique and timely resource for clinical neuropsychologists, clinical psychologists, neurologists, oncologists, oncology nurses, and neurorehabilitation professionals. Key Features: Bridges the gap of knowledge between neuropsychologists and oncologists Explores the most current research on the neuropsychological effects of various cancers and their treatments Provides state-of-the-art information on promising neuropsychological and behavioralñhealth interventions for impairments created by cancers and their treatments Represents a collaboration between some of the foremost scholars and practitioners in neuropsychology and oncology
Cellular Endocrinology in Health and Disease describes the underlying basis of endocrine function, providing an important tool to understand the fundamentals of endocrine diseases. Delivering a comprehensive review of the basic science of endocrinology, from cell biology to human disease, this work explores and dissects the function of a number of cellular systems. Among these are those whose function was not obvious until recently, including the endocrine functions of bone and the adipose tissue. Providing content that crosses disciplines, Cellular Endocrinology in Health and Disease details how cellular endocrine function contributes to system physiology and mediates endocrine disorders. A methods section proves novel and useful approaches across research focus that will be attractive to medical students, residents, and specialists in the field of endocrinology, as well as to those interested in cellular regulation. Editors Alfredo Ulloa-Aguirre and P. Michael Conn, experts in molecular and cellular aspects of endocrinology, deliver contributions carefully selected for relevance, impact, and clarity of expression from leading field experts. Covers systemic endocrine action at the cellular level in both health and disease Delivers information on the integration of cell identity and endocrinology Incorporates recent developments in endocrinology to provide an up-to-date reference to researchers