understanding process equipment for operators and engineers

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Understanding Process Equipment for Operators and Engineers
Author : Norman Lieberman
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2019-05-08
ISBN 10 : 0128161620
Pages : 431 pages
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Understanding Process Equipment for Operators and Engineers explains how process equipment functions. As problems often arise in plants that must be solved by unit engineers, this book offers successful solutions and methods for their implementation. The concepts explained are based on Norm Lieberman’s personal, hands-on experience. Like you, Norm attended a university and was exposed to technical seminars which did not always provide the needed solutions. In this text, you will learn the functioning of a variety of equipment types, including Fired Heater Draft, Centrifugal Pump Head, Distillation Tray Efficiency, Vacuum Jets, Recip Compressors, Steam Turbines, Thermosyphon Circulation Reboilers and Air Cooler. Includes methods and procedures on how to make field measurements Outlines fire heater principles and operation and how they develop draft Describes distillation column operation and methods to increase their efficiency Includes computer modeling and provides use case examples

Working Guide to Process Equipment, Third Edition
Author : Norman Lieberman,Elizabeth Lieberman
Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
Release Date : 2008-05-18
ISBN 10 : 9780071640961
Pages : 600 pages
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Diagnose and Troubleshoot Problems in Chemical Process Equipment with This Updated Classic! Chemical engineers and plant operators can rely on the Third Edition of A Working Guide to Process Equipment for the latest diagnostic tips, practical examples, and detailed illustrations for pinpointing trouble and correcting problems in chemical process equipment. This updated classic contains new chapters on Control Valves, Cooling Towers, Waste Heat Boilers, Catalytic Effects, Fundamental Concepts of Process Equipment, and Process Safety. Filled with worked-out calculations, the book examines everything from trays, reboilers, instruments, air coolers, and steam turbines...to fired heaters, refrigeration systems, centrifugal pumps, separators, and compressors. The authors simplify complex issues and explain the technical issues needed to solve all kinds of equipment problems. Comprehensive and clear, the Third Edition of A Working Guide to Process Equipment features: Guidance on diagnosing and troubleshooting process equipment problems Explanations of how theory applies to real-world equipment operations Many useful tips, examples, illustrations, and worked-out calculations New to this edition: Control Valves, Cooling Towers, Waste Heat Boilers, Catalytic Effects, and Process Safety Inside this Renowned Guide to Solving Process Equipment Problems • Trays • Tower Pressure • Distillation Towers • Reboilers • Instruments • Packed Towers • Steam and Condensate Systems • Bubble Point and Dew Point • Steam Strippers • Draw-Off Nozzle Hydraulics • Pumparounds and Tower Heat Flows • Condensers and Tower Pressure Control • Air Coolers • Deaerators and Steam Systems • Vacuum Systems • Steam Turbines • Surface Condensers • Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers • Fire Heaters • Refrigeration Systems • Centrifugal Pumps • Separators • Compressors • Safety • Corrosion • Fluid Flow • Computer Modeling and Control • Field Troubleshooting Process Problems

Process Equipment Malfunctions: Techniques to Identify and Correct Plant Problems
Author : Norman Lieberman
Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
Release Date : 2011-12-02
ISBN 10 : 0071770216
Pages : 560 pages
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A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO TROUBLESHOOTING PROCESS EQUIPMENT MALFUNCTIONS Process Equipment Malfunctions offers proven techniques for finding and fixing process plant problems and contains details on failure identification. Diagnostic tips, examples, and illustrations help to pinpoint and correct faults in chemical process and petroleum refining equipment. Complex math has been omitted. An essential resource for plant operators and process engineers, this book is based on the author's long career in field troubleshooting process problems. COVERAGE INCLUDES: Distillation tray malfunctions Packed tower problems Distillation tower pressure and composition control Fractionator product stripping Pumparounds Reboiled and steam side strippers Inspecting tower internals Process reboilers--thermosyphon circulation Heat exchangers Condenser limitations Air coolers Cooling water systems Steam condensate collection systems Steam quality problems Level control problems Process plant corrosion and fouling Vapor-liquid separation vessels Hydrocarbon-water separation and desalters Fired heaters--draft and excess O2 Disabling safety systems Vacuum systems and steam jets Vacuum surface condensers Centrifugal pump limitations Steam turbine drivers Centrifugal compressors Reciprocating compressors

Troubleshooting Process Plant Control
Author : Norman P. Lieberman
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2017-03-14
ISBN 10 : 1119267773
Pages : 336 pages
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Examines real life problems and solutions for operators and engineers running process controls Expands on the first book with the addition of five new chapters as well as new troubleshooting examples Written for the working operator and engineer, with straightforward instruction not hinged on complex math Includes real-life examples of control problems that commonly arise and how to fix them Emphasizes single and well-established process engineering principles that will help working engineers and operators switch manual control loops to automatic control

Process Engineering
Author : Norman P. Lieberman
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2017-04-10
ISBN 10 : 1119370272
Pages : 368 pages
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This is not your average technical book! Using a humorous and easy-to-understand approach to solving common process engineering problems, this unique volume is the go-to guide for any veteran or novice engineer in the plant, office, or classroom. Textbooks are often too theoretical to help the average process engineer solve everyday problems in the plant, and generic handbooks are often out of date and not comprehensive. This guide focuses on the most common problems that every engineer faces and how to solve them. The “characters” walk the reader through every problem and solution step-by-step, through dialogues that literally occur every day in process plants around the world. With over half a century of experience and many books, videos, and seminars to his credit, Norm Lieberman is well-known all over the world and has helped countless companies and engineers through issues with equipment, processes, and training. This is the first time that this knowledge has appeared in a format like this, quite unlike anything ever published before in books on process engineering. This is a must-have for any engineer working in process engineering.

Troubleshooting Vacuum Systems
Author : Norman P. Lieberman
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2012-12-03
ISBN 10 : 1118290348
Pages : 253 pages
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Vacuum systems are in wide spread use in the petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries and power generation plants. The existing texts on this subject are theoretical in nature and only deal with how the equipment functions when in good mechanical conditions, from the viewpoint of the equipment vendor. In this much-anticipated volume, one of the most well-respected and prolific process engineers in the world takes on troubleshooting vacuum systems, and especially steam ejectors, an extremely complex and difficult subject that greatly effects the profitability of the majority of the world's refineries.

Process Plant Equipment
Author : Michael D. Holloway,Chikezie Nwaoha,Oliver A. Onyewuenyi
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2012-08-20
ISBN 10 : 1118162544
Pages : 728 pages
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“Process Plant Equipment Book is another greatpublication from Wiley as a reference book for final year studentsas well as those who will work or are working in chemicalproduction plants and refinery…” -Associate Prof.Dr. Ramli Mat, Deputy Dean (Academic), Faculty of ChemicalEngineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia “…give[s] readers access to both fundamentalinformation on process plant equipment and to practical ideas, bestpractices and experiences of highly successful engineers fromaround the world… The book is illustrated throughout withnumerous black & white photos and diagrams and also containscase studies demonstrating how actual process plants haveimplemented the tools and techniques discussed in the book. Anextensive list of references enables readers to explore eachindividual topic in greater depth…”–Stainless Steel World and Valve World, November 2012 Discover how to optimize process plant equipment, fromselection to operation to troubleshooting From energy to pharmaceuticals to food, the world depends onprocessing plants to manufacture the products that enable people tosurvive and flourish. With this book as their guide, readers havethe information and practical guidelines needed to select, operate,maintain, control, and troubleshoot process plant equipment so thatit is efficient, cost-effective, and reliable throughout itslifetime. Following the authors' careful explanations andinstructions, readers will find that they are better able to reducedowntime and unscheduled shutdowns, streamline operations, andmaximize the service life of processing equipment. Process Plant Equipment: Operation, Control, andReliability is divided into three sections: Section One: Process Equipment Operations covers suchkey equipment as valves, pumps, cooling towers, conveyors, andstorage tanks Section Two: Process Plant Reliability sets forth avariety of tested and proven tools and methods to assess and ensurethe reliability and mechanical integrity of process equipment,including failure analysis, Fitness-for-Service assessment,engineering economics for chemical processes, and process componentfunction and performance criteria Section Three: Process Measurement, Control, andModeling examines flow meters, process control, and processmodeling and simulation Throughout the book, numerous photos and diagrams illustrate theoperation and control of key process equipment. There are also casestudies demonstrating how actual process plants have implementedthe tools and techniques discussed in the book. At the end of eachchapter, an extensive list of references enables readers to exploreeach individual topic in greater depth. In summary, this text offers students, process engineers, andplant managers the expertise and technical support needed tostreamline and optimize the operation of process plant equipment,from its initial selection to operations to troubleshooting.

Troubleshooting Process Operations
Author : Norman P. Lieberman
Publisher : PennWell Books
Release Date : 1991
ISBN 10 : 9780878143481
Pages : 550 pages
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The author, a highly respected consultant to major U.S. refineries, shares information on topics such as common coke quality questions, catalyst-feed mixing, light hydrocarbon distillation, steam to heater passes, haze in jet fuel, optimizing excess air, convection and radiation, reboiler-induced foaming, flooding and computer control consoles. Of special interest in the new section on gas drying and compression. A troubleshooting checklist accompanies each chapter. The author expertly combines field observations with engineering principles to unravel and solve specific process operation problems using an easy-to-understand style devoid of textbook terminology and excessive mathematics. Contents: Specific processes Process equipment Practical problems Gas drying and compression The process engineer's job Appendix.

An Applied Guide to Process and Plant Design
Author : Sean Moran
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release Date : 2015-03-30
ISBN 10 : 0128003820
Pages : 390 pages
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An Applied Guide to Process and Plant Design is a guide to process plant design for both students and professional engineers. The book covers plant layout and the use of spreadsheet programmes and key drawings produced by professional engineers as aids to design; subjects which are usually learned on the job rather than in education. You will learn how to produce smarter plant design through the use of computer tools, including Excel and AutoCAD, "What If Analysis", statistical tools, and Visual Basic for more complex problems. The book also includes a wealth of selection tables, covering the key aspects of professional plant design which engineering students and early-career engineers tend to find most challenging. Professor Moran draws on over 20 years' experience in process design to create an essential foundational book ideal for those who are new to process design, compliant with both professional practice and the IChemE degree accreditation guidelines. Explains how to deliver a process design that meets both business and safety criteria Covers plant layout and the use of spreadsheet programmes and key drawings as aids to design Includes a comprehensive set of selection tables, covering those aspects of professional plant design which early-career designers find most challenging

Chemical Process Equipment - Selection and Design (Revised 2nd Edition)
Author : James R. Couper,W. Roy Penney,James R. Fair, PhD
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release Date : 2009-08-11
ISBN 10 : 9780080919720
Pages : 832 pages
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A facility is only as efficient and profitable as the equipment that is in it: this highly influential book is a powerful resource for chemical, process, or plant engineers who need to select, design or configures plant sucessfully and profitably. It includes updated information on design methods for all standard equipment, with an emphasis on real-world process design and performance. The comprehensive and influential guide to the selection and design of a wide range of chemical process equipment, used by engineers globally • Copious examples of successful applications, with supporting schematics and data to illustrate the functioning and performance of equipment Revised edition, new material includes updated equipment cost data, liquid-solid and solid systems, and the latest information on membrane separation technology Provides equipment rating forms and manufacturers’ data, worked examples, valuable shortcut methods, rules of thumb, and equipment rating forms to demonstrate and support the design process Heavily illustrated with many line drawings and schematics to aid understanding, graphs and tables to illustrate performance data

Chemical Engineering for Non-Chemical Engineers
Author : Jack Hipple
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2017-01-05
ISBN 10 : 1119309654
Pages : 416 pages
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Outlines the concepts of chemical engineering so that non-chemical engineers can interface with and understand basic chemical engineering concepts Overviews the difference between laboratory and industrial scale practice of chemistry, consequences of mistakes, and approaches needed to scale a lab reaction process to an operating scale Covers basics of chemical reaction eningeering, mass, energy, and fluid energy balances, how economics are scaled, and the nature of various types of flow sheets and how they are developed vs. time of a project Details the basics of fluid flow and transport, how fluid flow is characterized and explains the difference between positive displacement and centrifugal pumps along with their limitations and safety aspects of these differences Reviews the importance and approaches to controlling chemical processes and the safety aspects of controlling chemical processes, Reviews the important chemical engineering design aspects of unit operations including distillation, absorption and stripping, adsorption, evaporation and crystallization, drying and solids handling, polymer manufacture, and the basics of tank and agitation system design

Problem Solving for Process Operators and Specialists
Author : Joseph M. Bonem
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2011-04-18
ISBN 10 : 047093462X
Pages : 344 pages
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This book provides methods to train process operators to solve challenging problems. The book is split into two parts. The first part consists of two parts; first developing a daily monitoring system and second providing a structured 5 step problem solving approach that combines cause and effect problem solving thinking with the formulation of theoretically correct hypotheses. The 5 step approach emphasizes the classical problem solving approach (defining the sequence of events) with the addition of the steps of formulating a theoretically correct working hypothesis, providing a means to test the hypothesis, and providing a foolproof means to eliminate the problem. The initial part of the book focuses on defining the problem that must be solved and obtaining the location, time and quantity based specifications of the problem. This part of the book also presents techniques to find and define problems at an early point before they progress to the critical level. The second part of the book deals with the utilization of fundamental chemical engineering skills to develop a technically correct working hypothesis that is the key to successful problem solving. The primary emphasis is on simple pragmatic calculation techniques that are theoretically correct. It is believed that any operator can perform these calculations if he is provided the correct prototype. Throughout the book, the theory behind each pragmatic calculation technique is explained in understandable terms prior to presenting the author's approach. These techniques have been developed by the author in 50+ years of industrial experience. The book includes many sample problems and examples of real world problem solving. Using these techniques, theoretically correct working hypotheses can be developed in an expedient fashion.

Ludwig's Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants
Author : A. Kayode Coker
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-08-30
ISBN 10 : 9780080469706
Pages : 1024 pages
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This complete revision of Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, Volume 1 builds upon Ernest E. Ludwig’s classic text to further enhance its use as a chemical engineering process design manual of methods and proven fundamentals. This new edition includes important supplemental mechanical and related data, nomographs and charts. Also included within are improved techniques and fundamental methodologies, to guide the engineer in designing process equipment and applying chemical processes to properly detailed equipment. All three volumes of Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants serve the practicing engineer by providing organized design procedures, details on the equipment suitable for application selection, and charts in readily usable form. Process engineers, designers, and operators will find more chemical petrochemical plant design data in: Volume 2, Third Edition, which covers distillation and packed towers as well as material on azeotropes and ideal/non-ideal systems. Volume 3, Third Edition, which covers heat transfer, refrigeration systems, compression surge drums, and mechanical drivers. A. Kayode Coker, is Chairman of Chemical & Process Engineering Technology department at Jubail Industrial College in Saudi Arabia. He’s both a chartered scientist and a chartered chemical engineer for more than 15 years. and an author of Fortran Programs for Chemical Process Design, Analysis and Simulation, Gulf Publishing Co., and Modeling of Chemical Kinetics and Reactor Design, Butterworth-Heinemann. Provides improved design manuals for methods and proven fundamentals of process design with related data and charts Covers a complete range of basic day-to-day petrochemical operation topics with new material on significant industry changes since 1995.

Process Engineering for a Small Planet
Author : Norman P. Lieberman
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2011-02-25
ISBN 10 : 9781118060254
Pages : 296 pages
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Methods for more planet-friendly process engineering Our earth is just one big, complex Process Facility with limited air, water, and mineral resources. It responds to a number of process variables—among them, humanity and the environmental effects of our carbon consumption. What can professionals in the Hydrocarbon Process Industry do to retard environmental degradation? Rather than looking to exotic technology for solutions, Process Engineering for a Small Planet details ready-at-hand methods that the process engineer can employ to help combat the environmental crisis. Drawing from the author's professional experience working with petroleum refineries petroleum refineries, petrochemical plants, and natural gas wells, this handbook explains how to operate and retrofit process facilities to: Reuse existing process equipment Save energy Reduce greenhouse gas emissions Expand plant capacity without installing new equipment Reduce corrosion and equipment failures Covering topics from expanding fractionator and compressor capacity and vacuum tower heater expansion to minimizing process water consumption and increasing centrifugal pump capacity, Process Engineering for a Small Planet offers big ideas for saving our small planet.

Operator's Guide to Process Compressors
Author : Robert X. Perez
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2019-04-08
ISBN 10 : 1119581346
Pages : 300 pages
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Gas compressors tend to be the largest, most costly, and most critical machines employed in chemical and gas transfer processes. Since they tend to have the greatest effect on the reliability of processes they power, compressors typically receive the most scrutiny of all the machinery among the general population of processing equipment. To prevent unwanted compressor failures from occurring, operators must be taught how their equipment should operate and how each installation is different from one another. The ultimate purpose of this book is to teach those who work in process settings more about gas compressors, so they can start up and operate them correctly and monitor their condition with more confidence. Some may regard compressor technology as too broad and complex a topic for operating personnel to fully understand, but the author has distilled this vast body of knowledge into some key, easy to understand lessons for the reader to study at his or her own pace. The main goals of this book are to: Explain important theories and concepts about gases and compression processes with a minimum of mathematics Identify key compressor components and explain how they affect reliability Explain how centrifugal compressors, reciprocating compressors, and screw compressors function. Explain key operating factors that affect reliability Introduce the reader to basic troubleshooting methodologies Introduce operators to proven field inspection techniques

Analysis, Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes
Author : Richard Turton,Richard C. Bailie,Wallace B. Whiting,Joseph A. Shaeiwitz
Publisher : Pearson Education
Release Date : 2008-12-24
ISBN 10 : 0132459183
Pages : 1088 pages
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The Leading Integrated Chemical Process Design Guide: Now with New Problems, New Projects, and More More than ever, effective design is the focal point of sound chemical engineering. Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Third Edition, presents design as a creative process that integrates both the big picture and the small details–and knows which to stress when, and why. Realistic from start to finish, this book moves readers beyond classroom exercises into open-ended, real-world process problem solving. The authors introduce integrated techniques for every facet of the discipline, from finance to operations, new plant design to existing process optimization. This fully updated Third Edition presents entirely new problems at the end of every chapter. It also adds extensive coverage of batch process design, including realistic examples of equipment sizing for batch sequencing; batch scheduling for multi-product plants; improving production via intermediate storage and parallel equipment; and new optimization techniques specifically for batch processes. Coverage includes Conceptualizing and analyzing chemical processes: flow diagrams, tracing, process conditions, and more Chemical process economics: analyzing capital and manufacturing costs, and predicting or assessing profitability Synthesizing and optimizing chemical processing: experience-based principles, BFD/PFD, simulations, and more Analyzing process performance via I/O models, performance curves, and other tools Process troubleshooting and “debottlenecking” Chemical engineering design and society: ethics, professionalism, health, safety, and new “green engineering” techniques Participating successfully in chemical engineering design teams Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Third Edition, draws on nearly 35 years of innovative chemical engineering instruction at West Virginia University. It includes suggested curricula for both single-semester and year-long design courses; case studies and design projects with practical applications; and appendixes with current equipment cost data and preliminary design information for eleven chemical processes–including seven brand new to this edition.

Extrusion
Author : Harold F. Giles Jr,John R. Wagner, Jr.,Eldridge M. Mount
Publisher : William Andrew
Release Date : 2013-09-21
ISBN 10 : 1437734820
Pages : 636 pages
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The second edition of Extrusion is designed to aid operators, engineers, and managers in extrusion processing in quickly answering practical day-to-day questions. The first part of the book provides the fundamental principles, for operators and engineers, of polymeric materials extrusion processing in single and twin screw extruders. The next section covers advanced topics including troubleshooting, auxiliary equipment, and coextrusion for operators, engineers, and managers. The final part provides applications case studies in key areas for engineers such as compounding, blown film, extrusion blow molding, coating, foam, and reprocessing. This practical guide to extrusion brings together both equipment and materials processing aspects. It covers basic and advanced topics, for reference and training, in thermoplastics processing in the extruder. Detailed reference data are provided on such important operating conditions as temperatures, start-up procedures, shear rates, pressure drops, and safety. A practical guide to the selection, design and optimization of extrusion processes and equipment Designed to improve production efficiency and product quality Focuses on practical fault analysis and troubleshooting techniques

Heat Exchanger Equipment Field Manual
Author : Maurice Stewart,Oran T. Lewis
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release Date : 2012
ISBN 10 : 0123970164
Pages : 461 pages
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From upstream to downstream, Heat Exchangers are utilized in every stage of the petroleum value stream. An integral piece of equipment, heat exchangers are among the most confusing and problematic pieces of equipment in the petroleum processing operations. This is especially true for engineers just entering the field or seasoned engineers that must keep up with the latest methods for in-shop and in-service inspection, repair, alteration and re-rating of equipment. Heat Exchanger Equipment Field Manual provides engineers and operators with an easy to understand working manual to the recent developments in heat exchanger technology and in the diagnosis and correction of operating problems. The objective of this book is to provide the reader with sufficient information to make better logical choices in designing and operating the system. Heat Exchanger Equipment Field Manual provides an indispensable means for the determination of possible failures and for the recognition of the optimization potential of the respective heat exchanger. Step-by-step procedure on how to design, perform in-shop and in-field inspections and repairs, perform alterations and re-rate equipment Select the correct heat transfer equipment for a particular application Apply heat transfer principles to design, select and specify heat transfer equipment Evaluate the performance of heat transfer equipment and recommend solutions to problems Control schemes for typical heat transfer equipment application

Handbook of Farm, Dairy and Food Machinery Engineering
Author : Myer Kutz
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-06-15
ISBN 10 : 0128148047
Pages : 806 pages
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Handbook of Agricultural and Farm Machinery, Third Edition, is the essential reference for understanding the food industry, from farm machinery, to dairy processing, food storage facilities and the machinery that processes and packages foods. Effective and efficient food delivery systems are built around processes that maximize efforts while minimizing cost and time. This comprehensive reference is for engineers who design and build machinery and processing equipment, shipping containers, and packaging and storage equipment. It includes coverage of microwave vacuum applications in grain processing, cacao processing, fruit and vegetable processing, ohmic heating of meat, facility design, closures for glass containers, double seaming, and more. The book's chapters include an excellent overview of food engineering, but also regulation and safety information, machinery design for the various stages of food production, from tillage, to processing and packaging. Each chapter includes the state-of-the art in technology for each subject and numerous illustrations, tables and references to guide the reader through key concepts. Describes the latest breakthroughs in food production machinery Features new chapters on engineering properties of food materials, UAS applications, and microwave processing of foods Provides efficient access to fundamental information and presents real-world applications Includes design of machinery and facilities as well as theoretical bases for determining and predicting behavior of foods as they are handled and processed

Emulsions and Oil Treating Equipment
Author : Maurice Stewart,Ken Arnold
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2008-12-30
ISBN 10 : 9780080559025
Pages : 304 pages
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The problem of removing water which is emulsified with produced oil has grown more widespread and often times more difficult as producers attempt to access more difficult reserves. This practical guide is designed to help engineers and operators develop a "feel" for selection, sizing, and troubleshooting emulsion equipment. These skills are of vital importance to ensure low operating costs and to meet crude export quality specifications. The book is written for engineers and operators, who need advanced knowledge of the numerous techniques and the equipment used to destabilize and resolve petroleum emulsions problems. In Emulsions and Oil Treating Equipment: Selection, Sizing and Troubleshooting the author provides engineers and operators with a guide to understanding emulsion theory, methods and equipment, and practical design of a treating system. Comprehensive in its scope, the author explains methods such as: demulsifiers, temperature, electrostatics and non-traditional methods of modulated or pulsed voltage control, as well as equipment such as: electrostatic treater (dehydrator), separator, gunbarr heater-treater and free water knockout. Written in a "how to" format, it brings together hundreds of methods, handy formulas, diagrams and tables in one convenient book. Detailed coverage emulsion equipment and removal methods Tips for selecting, sizing, and operating emulsion equipment Overview of emulsion theory and factors affecting treatment methods Packed with equipment diagrams, worked out calculations covers equipment and removal methods