Understanding Geology through Maps guides young professional geologists and students alike in understanding and interpreting the world’s dynamic and varying geological landscapes through the liberal use of visual aids including figures, maps, and diagrams. This highly visual reference introduces the skills of interpreting a geological map and relating it to the morphology of the most important types of geological structure. Thoroughly revised, and with more international examples, it is ideal for use by students with a minimum of tutorial supervision. Maps of geological structures provide all of the realism of a survey map without the huge amount of data often present, so readers can develop or hone their skills without becoming overwhelmed or confused. In particular, emphasis is placed throughout on developing the skill of three-dimensional visualization so important to geologists. Authored by a master geologist with more than 40 years of experience in research and instruction Features more than 130 figures, diagrams, and illustrations—many in full color—to highlight major themes and aid in the retention of key concepts Leads to a broad understanding of Earth’s geology through the use of real and theoretical map Exercises conclude each chapter, making it an ideal tool for self-guided and quick study
Introduction to Geological Maps and Structures describes the basic methods to interpret and attain a better understanding of geological maps. The book describes the nature and preparation of geological maps, and then covers topics such as solid and drift maps, geological boundaries, sections, and the use of symbols. The book explains sedimentary rocks, outcrop patterns, and the topographic representation of geological structures. The text also addresses the geometry of folds and folding when pre-existing surfaces are distorted into zigzag patterns. The author explains in detail the morphology of folded layers and the mechanism involved in folding. He goes on to interpret the formation of outcrop patterns, as well as the structure of a cylindrical and cylindroidal fold patterns. The author also describes the different structures that result from the brittle fractures present in rocks that undergo massive stress. Of interest is the presentation of how fissures and mineral veins are formed and deposited. The author then discusses earth movements resulting in angular unconformities known as stratigraphic break. These breaks in the stratigraphic record, such as diastems, non-sequences, paraconformities, or disconformities, can be interpreted as the intervals of geological time. The book then explains the nature of tectonic maps, which involves features arising from the continental crust, and how these maps are different from geological maps that show the outcrop of lithostratigraphic units. Geologists, cartographers, meteorologists, seismologists, land use developers, and students of the earth sciences will find this book valuable.
This textbook is designed to aid the student in geological map interpretation. The book starts with basic concepts such as dip and strike, and progresses through a variety of exercises based on folds, faults and unconformities, up to and including the interpretation of Geological Survey Maps. In order to give a sense of reality to the text, frequent reference is made to actual examples on which many of the problem maps are based. Also included in the text are exercises concerned with bore-hole interpretation and correlation. The book, which is in two sections, is unique in that the second section contains worked solutions to the questions set in the first half.
Designed to be carried in the field, this pocket-sized how-to book is a practical guide to basic techniques in mapping geological structures. In addition to including the latest computerised developments, the author provides succinct information on drawing cross-sections and preparing and presenting 'fair copy' maps and geological diagrams. Contains a brief chapter on the essentials of report writing and discusses how to keep adequate field notebooks. A checklist of equipment needed in the field can be found in the appendices. Quote from 3rd edition "provides a wealth of good advice on how to measure, record and write reports of geological field observations" The Naturalist
Geologic maps supply a wealth of information about the surface and shallow subsurface of the earth. The types of materials that are present in a location and the three-dimensional structure of the bedrock both can be gleaned from a clearly prepared geologic map. Geologists, civil and environmental engineers, land-use planners, soil scientists, and geographers commonly use geologic maps as a source of information to facilitate problem solving and identify the qualities of a region. Maps reveal the position of many types of natural hazards, indicate the suitability of the land surface for various uses, reveal problems that may be encountered in excavation, provide clues to the natural processes that shape an area, and help locate important natural resources. Suitable for lab courses in structural geology as well as field geology work, Spencer describes representative examples of features found on geologic maps and outlines procedures for interpretation and projection. Geometric techniques are explained using a step-by-step approach. Coverage of mapping methods includes tools that provide necessary data, such as Google Earth, GPS, GIS, LiDAR maps, drones, and aerial photographs. Challenging and engaging exercises throughout the text involve students in the mapping process and stimulate an appreciation of the extent and precision of information presented in geologic maps. Regional geology is an important component of lab and field mapping projects. As such, the Third Edition includes new maps of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, Rocky Mountain Front Range, Yellowstone region, Moab, Utah, Shenandoah National Park, and Hawai’i. A new chapter devoted to tectonic maps also broadens students’ exposure. Ed Spencer brings over 45 years of teaching experience to the text along with valuable insight and clarity into the interpretation and preparation of geologic maps.
Planetary scientist and educator Ken Coles has teamed up with Ken Tanaka from the United States Geological Survey's Astrogeology team, and Phil Christensen, Principal Investigator of the Mars Odyssey orbiter's THEMIS science team, to produce this all-purpose reference atlas, The Atlas of Mars. Each of the thirty standard charts includes: a full-page color topographic map at 1:10,000,000 scale, a THEMIS daytime infrared map at the same scale with features labeled, a simplified geologic map of the corresponding area, and a section describing prominent features of interest. The Atlas is rounded out with extensive material on Mars' global characteristics, regional geography and geology, a glossary of terms, and an indexed gazetteer of up-to-date Martian feature names and nomenclature. This is an essential guide for a broad readership of academics, students, amateur astronomers, and space enthusiasts, replacing the NASA atlas from the 1970s.
The book includes new material, in particular examples of 3-D models and techniques for using kinematic models to predict fault and ramp-anticline geometry. The book is geared toward the professional user concerned about the accuracy of an interpretation and the speed with which it can be obtained from incomplete data. Numerous analytical solutions are given that can be easily implemented with a pocket calculator or a spreadsheet.
This practical guidebook provides a basic grounding in the principles of geology and explains how to apply them. Using this book, readers will be able to figure out whether they are standing on an ancient seafloor, coal swamp, or sand dune. They will be able to determine the geologic hazards in their neighborhood, where to look for fossils and minerals, or where best to drill a water well. In plain English, The Geology Companion sheds light on the processes that shape the earth and how geology affects people in their daily lives.