Toxicological Aspects of Drug-Facilitated Crimes provides readers with an overview of the field of DFC: its history, toxicological effects, analysis, interpretation of results, the roles that age, gender and race may play, and clinical presentations of these drugs. The most commonly used drugs in DFC are addressed (alcohol, cannabis, MDMA, and cocaine), as well as an emerging range of pharmaceuticals (benzodiazepines, hypnotics, sedatives, neuroleptics, histamine H1-antagonists, or anesthetics), which are becoming more widely used, but are more difficult to detect. Edited by a world-renowned expert in the field of Forensic and Analytical Toxicology, Pascal Kintz, this book investigates toxicants of emerging concern and brings together a number of experts in the field to address the most recent discoveries on DFC toxicology. Brings together the latest research on the toxicological analysis of drug-facilitated crimes (DFC), with real-life case studies Provides up-to-date analytical techniques for determining toxicity levels in blood, urine, and hair Covers all types of toxicants involved in DFC, including alcohol, cannabis, MDMA, and a wide variety of pharmaceuticals
This unique handbook educates readers in how drugs are used as weapons in committing sexual assaults. It is designed for everyone involved in the investigation of these crimes including forensic scientists, law enforcement officers, lawyers, toxicologists, and medical professionals. Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault looks at the history of these crimes over the years and includes an in-depth discussion of the drugs and drug classes in use today. It describes the effects of these drugs on the victims, the type of person who uses drugs to sexually assault an individual, and obstacles to investigating the suspect. The authors show how to properly collect and analyze evidence, overcome some of the unique difficulties encountered in these types of investigations, and work with other professionals to prosecute these cases successfully. * Ideal for everyone involved in the investigation of these crimes, including forensic scientists, police officers, lawyers, toxicologists and medical professionals
Hair Analysis in Clinical and Forensic Toxicology is an essential reference for toxicologists working with, and researching, hair analysis. The text presents a review of the most up-to-date analytical methods in toxicological hair analysis, along with state-of-the-art developments in the areas of hair physiology, sampling, and pre-treatments, as well as discussions of fundamental issues, applications, and results interpretation. Topics addressed include the diagnosis of chronic excessive alcohol drinking by means of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), the early detection of new psychoactive substances, including designer drugs, the development of novel approaches to screening tests based on mass spectrometry, and the detection of prenatal exposure to psychoactive substances from the analysis of newborn hair. Unites an international team of leading experts to provide an update on the cutting-edge advances in the toxicological analysis of hair Demonstrates toxicological techniques relating to a variety of scenarios and exposure types Ideal resource for the further study of the psychoactive substances, drug-facilitated crimes, ecotoxicology, analytical toxicology, occupational toxicology, toxicity testing, and forensic toxicology Includes detailed instructions for the collection, preparation, and handling of hair, and how to best interpret results
Hair in Toxicology: An Important Biomonitor is the first book of its kind devoted exclusively to in-depth analysis of the hair shaft as an important tool for a diverse range of scientific investigations. This authoritative book combines contributions from experts in academic, governmental and industrial environments, to provide a unique, comprehensive look at: - Why hair can serve as an invaluable bio-resource in toxicology, with up-to-date reviews on hair growth, hair fibre formation and hair pigmentation - Information (including regulatory details) on the exposure of hair (and by extension the body) to drug and non-drug chemicals and pollutants - Toxicological issues relevant to the use of hair products (including colourants, shampoos and depilatories) - The ability of hair to capture information on personal identity, chemical exposure, and environmental interactions - How hair can provide an understanding of human life from archaeological and historical perspectives - Future direction in the use of hair in toxicology Hair in Toxicology: An Important Biomonitor is ideal as a reference and guide to investigations in the biomedical, biochemical and pharmaceutical sciences at the graduate and post graduate level.
Drug misuse and dependence is an ever evolving field of study, which has exploded over recent years owing to the advent of the internet. Due to the ever-growing number of young people using drugs recreationally and the privatisation of drug screening and detection services, there is the need to disseminate evidence-based information concerning the technology and methods available for studying this expanding field. Detection of Drug Misuse describes the current state-of-the-art techniques used for identifying and confirming drug misuse as well as recent advances in biomarkers, instrumentation and analysis methodology. The title discusses both recreational and designer drugs, including non-addictive and addictive drugs. This book is a useful and fascinating resource for healthcare professionals working in the field of drug misuse as well as academics and postgraduates researching within analytical, chromatography, medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry; drug metabolism; addiction science; and forensic toxicology, science and medicine.
|Author||: Pascal Kintz|
|Publisher||: CRC Press|
|Release Date||: 2006-08-30|
|ISBN 10||: 9781420006193|
|Pages||: 382 pages|
Many advances have been made since the publication of Drug Testing in Hair. The mid-1990s witnessed the progress in cannabis detection while the late 1990s focused on benzodiazepines detection and the applications in doping control. In more recent years, toxicologists centered on the detection in hair of a single exposure and the related applicatio
One of the most difficult parts in forensic toxicology is to interpret obtained drug concentrations. Was it therapeutic, toxic or even lethal to the particular individual that the blood sample was drawn from? Concentrations of opioid drugs are especially difficult to interpret, because of large interindividual differences in innate and acquired tolerance. Tramadol is a complex drug. Not only is it an opioid, it is also a racemic drug with the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of the parent compound and metabolites showing different pharmacological effects. Further, it is metabolized by polymorphic enzymes, which may affect the amounts of metabolites formed and possibly the enantiomer ratios of the parent compound and its metabolites. It has been speculated that particularly the (+)/(-)-enantiomer ratio of O-desmethyltramadol is related to the risk of adverse effects, and it has been shown that the ratio is affected by CYP2D6 genotype. The overall aim of the thesis was to evaluate if forensic interpretations of tramadol, regarding toxicity and time since drug administration, may be improved by the use of genotyping and enantioselective concentration determination of tramadol and its three main metabolites. To simultaneously quantify the enantiomer concentrations of tramadol, Odesmethyltramadol, N-desmethyltramadol and N,O-didesmethyltramadol in whole blood, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) method was developed and validated. Genetic variation in CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP3A4 (encoding the tramadol metabolizing enzymes), ABCB1 (encoding a transport protein) and OPRM1 (encoding the ?-opioid receptor) was investigated, using pyrosequencing, xTAG, and TaqMan analysis. The methods were applied to the blood samples of two study populations; 19 healthy volunteers administered a therapeutic, single tramadol dose, and 159 tramadol positive autopsy cases. The most important finding was the positive correlations between all four enantiomer ratios and time since tramadol administration in the healthy volunteers. All enantiomer ratios except the one of tramadol was also affected by the CYP2D6 genotype, which was apparent among the autopsy cases as well. Genetic variation in CYP2D6 and possibly CYP2B6 was shown to have an impact on tramadol pharmacokinetics, although no association to neither drug related symptoms nor tramadol related causes of death was found. Tramadol intoxications were predominantly characterized by low age (median 26 years) and male sex, often with a history of substance abuse and with other drugs (at fairly low concentrations) detected in blood. In conclusion, enantiomer concentration determination combined with genotyping seems promising regarding estimations of time since drug administration, although is of low value concerning interpretations of toxicity in autopsy cases.
Forensic Toxicology, the latest release in the Advanced Forensic Science Series that grew out of recommendations from the 2009 NAS Report, Strengthening Forensic Science: A Path Forward will serve as a graduate level text for those studying and teaching forensic toxicology. It is also an excellent reference for the forensic practitioner’s library or for use in their casework. Coverage includes a wide variety of methods used, along with pharmacology and drugs and professional issues they may encounter. Edited by a world-renowned, leading forensic expert, this updated edition is a long overdue solution for the forensic science community. Provides basic principles of forensic science and an overview of forensic toxicology Contains information on a wide variety of methods Covers pharmacology and drugs, matrices and interpretation Includes a section on professional issues, such as crime scene to court, lab reports, health and safety, post-mortem and drug facilitated crimes Incorporates effective pedagogy, key terms, review questions, discussion questions and additional reading suggestions
Alcohol, Drugs, and Impaired Driving addresses many theoretical and practical issues related to the role played by alcohol and other psychoactive drugs on driving performance, road-traffic safety, and public health. Several key forensic issues are involved in the enforcement of laws regulating driving under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs, including analytical toxicology, pharmacology of drug action, as well as the relationships between dose taken, concentration levels in the body, and impairment of performance and behavior. Our knowledge of drunken driving is much more comprehensive than drugged driving, so a large part of this book is devoted to alcohol impairment, as well as impairment caused by use of drugs other than alcohol. For convenience, the book is divided into four main sections. The first section gives some historical background about measuring alcohol in blood and breath as evidence for the prosecution of traffic offenders. The important role of the Breathalyzer instrument in traffic-law enforcement, especially in Australia, Canada, and the USA is presented along with a biographical sketch of its inventor (Professor Robert F. Borkenstein of Indiana University) with focus on the man, his work and his impact. The second section discusses several issues related to forensic blood and breath-alcohol alcohol analysis as evidence for prosecution of traffic offenders. This includes how the results should be interpreted in relation to impairment and an evaluation of common defense challenges. Because most countries have adopted concentration per se laws, the main thrust of the prosecution case is the suspect’s measured blood- or breath-alcohol concentration. This legal framework necessitates that the analytical methods used are "fit for purpose" and are subjected to rigorous quality assurance procedures. The third section gives a broad overview of the current state of knowledge about driving under the influence of non-alcohol drugs in various countries. This includes adoption of zero-tolerance laws, concentration per se statutes, and clinical evidence of driver impairment based on field sobriety tests and drug recognition expert evidence. The fourth section deals with epidemiology, enforcement, and countermeasures aimed at reducing the threat of drunken and drugged driving. All articles have appeared previously in the international journal Forensic Science Review, but all are completely updated with current data, references, and the latest research on developments since the articles were published. This book contains a convenient collection of the best articles covering recommendations for blood and breath testing methods, public policy relating to such methods, and forensic and legal implications of the enforcement of measures to counter driving under the influence.
Life-Threatening Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs describes in detail more than 20 life-threatening effects associated with antipsychotics, presents the best available data on their incidence and case fatality, and gives comprehensive advice on diagnosis, management and preventive strategies. In addition, the book discusses the benefit of antipsychotic medication in a range of therapeutic indications, and demonstrates the gain in life-expectancy associated with clozapine use in severe mental illness despite its serious, potentially life-threatening adverse effects. Covers cardiovascular, neurological, muscular, hematological, gastrointestinal, autonomic and metabolic effects Gives advice on risk factors, confounding diagnoses and measures to minimise seriousness Discusses clozapine rechallenge after each of its serious adverse reactions Makes suggestions for optimum management of somatic disease in those with severe mental illness, to improve life-expectancy Includes data on post-mortem considerations