tools techniques and protocols for monitoring environmental contaminants

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Tools, Techniques and Protocols for Monitoring Environmental Contaminants
Author : Satinder Kaur Brar,Krishnamoorthy Hegde,Vinayak Laxman Pachapur
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2019-06-04
ISBN 10 : 012814680X
Pages : 432 pages

Tools, Techniques and Protocols for Monitoring Environmental Contaminants describes information on the strategic integration of available monitoring methods with molecular techniques, with a focus on omics (DNA, RNA and protein based) and molecular imprinted polymer and nanomaterial based advanced biosensors for environmental applications. It discusses the most commonly practiced analytic techniques, such as HPLC, MS, GCMS and traditional biosensors, giving an overview of the benefits of advanced biosensors over commonly practiced methods in the rapid and reliable assessment of environmental contaminants. As environmental contaminants have become one of the serious concerns in terms of their rapid growth and monitoring in the environment, which is often limited due to costly and laborious methods, this book provides a comprehensive update on their removal, the challenges they create for environmental regulatory agencies, and their diverse effects on terrestrial and aquatic environments. Provides methods for assessing and monitoring environmental contaminants Includes recent advancement in molecular techniques Outlines rapid environmental monitoring methods Explains the use of biosensors for environmental monitoring Reviews monitoring methods beyond conventional analytic techniques

Nanosensor Technologies for Environmental Monitoring
Author : Inamuddin,Abdullah M. Asiri
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2020-07-15
ISBN 10 : 303045116X
Pages : 529 pages

Advanced materials and nanotechnology is a promising, emerging field involving the use of nanoparticles to facilitate the detection of various physical and chemical parameters, including temperature, humidity, pH, metal ion, anion, small organic or inorganic molecules, gases, and biomolecules responsible for environmental issues that can lead to diseases like cancer, diabetes, osteoarthritis, bacterial infections, and brain, retinal, and cardiovascular diseases. By monitoring environmental samples and detecting these environmental issues, advanced nanotechnology in this type of sensory technology is able to improve daily quality of life. Although these sensors are commercially available for the detection of monovalent cations, anions, gases, volatile organic molecules, heavy metal ions, and toxic metal ions, many existing models require significant power and lack advanced technology for more quality selectivity and sensitivity. There is room in these sensors to optimize their selectivity, reversibility, on/off ratio, response time, and their environmental stability in real-world operating conditions. This book explores the methods for the development and design of environmentally-friendly, simple, reliable, and cost effective electrochemical nanosensors using powerful nanostructured materials. More specifically, it highlights the use of various electrochemical-based biosensor sensors involved in the detection of monovalent cations, anions, gases, volatile organic molecules, heavy metal ions, and toxic metal ions, with the ultimate goal of seeing these technologies reach market.

Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management
Author : Katalin Gruiz,Tamás Meggyes,Éva Fenyvesi
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2019-01-08
ISBN 10 : 1317697421
Pages : 558 pages

The four volumes of the book series "Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management" deal with environmental management, assessment & monitoring tools, environmental toxicology and risk reduction technologies. This last volume focuses on engineering solutions usually needed for industrial contaminated sites, where nature’s self-remediation is inefficient or too slow. The success of remediation depends on the selection of an increasing number of conventional and innovative methods. This volume classifies the remedial technologies and describes the reactor approach to understand and manage in situ technologies similarly to reactor-based technologies. Technology types include physicochemical, biological or ecological solutions, where near-natural, sustainable remediation has priority. A special chapter is devoted to natural attenuation, where natural changes can help achieve clean-up objectives. Natural attenuation and biological and ecological remediation establish a serial range of technologies from monitoring only to fully controlled interventions, using ‘ just’ the natural ecosystem or sophisticated artificial living systems. Passive artificial ecosystems and biodegradation-based remediation – in addition to natural attenuation – demonstrate the use of these ‘green’ technologies and how engineering intervention should be kept at a minimum to limit damage to the environment and create a harmonious ecosystem. Remediation of sites contaminated with organic substances is analyzed in detail including biological and physicochemical methods. Comprehensive management of pollution by inorganic contaminants from the mining industry, leaching and bioleaching and acid mine drainage is studied in general and specifically in the case of an abandoned mine in Hungary where the innovative technology of combined chemical and phytostabilization has been applied. The series of technologies is completed by electrochemical remediation and nanotechnologies. Monitoring, verification and sustainability analysis of remediation provide a comprehensive overview of the management aspect of environmental risk reduction by remediation. This book series focuses on the state of knowledge about the environment and its conscious and structured application in environmental engineering, management and decision making.

Modern Environmental Analysis Techniques for Pollutants
Author : Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain,Rustem Kecili
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2019-08-20
ISBN 10 : 0128169354
Pages : 424 pages

Modern Environmental Analysis Techniques for Pollutants presents established environmental analysis methods, rapidly emerging technologies, and potential future research directions. As methods of environmental analysis move toward lower impact, lower cost, miniaturization, automation, and simplicity, new methods emerge and ultimately improve the accuracy of their analytical results. This book gives in-depth, step-by-step descriptions of a variety of techniques, including methods used in sampling, field sample handling, sample preparation, quantification, and statistical evaluation. Modern Environmental Analysis Techniques for Pollutants aims to deliver a comprehensive and easy-to-read text for students and researchers in the environmental analysis arena and to provide essential information to consultants and regulators about analytical and quality control procedures helpful in their evaluation and decision-making procedures. Bridges the gap in current literature on analytical chemistry techniques and their application to environmental analysis Covers the use of nanomaterials in environmental analysis, as well as the monitoring and analysis of nanomaterials in the environment Looks to the past, present and future of environmental analysis, with chapters on historical background, established and emerging techniques and instrumentation, and predictions

Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring
Author : Richard O. Gilbert
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 1987-02-15
ISBN 10 : 9780471288787
Pages : 336 pages

This book discusses a broad range of statistical design and analysis methods that are particularly well suited to pollution data. It explains key statistical techniques in easy-to-comprehend terms and uses practical examples, exercises, and case studies to illustrate procedures. Dr. Gilbert begins by discussing a space-time framework for sampling pollutants. He then shows how to use statistical sample survey methods to estimate average and total amounts of pollutants in the environment, and how to determine the number of field samples and measurements to collect for this purpose. Then a broad range of statistical analysis methods are described and illustrated. These include: * determining the number of samples needed to find hot spots * analyzing pollution data that are lognormally distributed * testing for trends over time or space * estimating the magnitude of trends * comparing pollution data from two or more populations New areas discussed in this sourcebook include statistical techniques for data that are correlated, reported as less than the measurement detection limit, or obtained from field-composited samples. Nonparametric statistical analysis methods are emphasized since parametric procedures are often not appropriate for pollution data. This book also provides an illustrated comprehensive computer code for nonparametric trend detection and estimation analyses as well as nineteen statistical tables to permit easy application of the discussed statistical techniques. In addition, many publications are cited that deal with the design of pollution studies and the statistical analysis of pollution data. This sourcebook will be a useful tool for applied statisticians, ecologists, radioecologists, hydrologists, biologists, environmental engineers, and other professionals who deal with the collection, analysis, and interpretation of pollution in air, water, and soil.

Water Quality Assessments
Author : Deborah V Chapman
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 1996-08-22
ISBN 10 : 0419215905
Pages : 648 pages

This guidebook, now thoroughly updated and revised in its second edition, gives comprehensive advice on the designing and setting up of monitoring programmes for the purpose of providing valid data for water quality assessments in all types of freshwater bodies. It is clearly and concisely written in order to provide the essential information for all agencies and individuals responsible for the water quality.

Trace Elements
Author : Hosam El-Din M. Saleh,Eithar El-Adham
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2018-09-05
ISBN 10 : 1789236703
Pages : 186 pages

Over the last few years, we have witnessed increasing efforts dedicated to the scientific investigation and characteristics of trace elements. Especially in the field of human and animal nutrition, trace elements display a considerably attractive issue for research because they play an essential role in the nutrition of both animals and humans. Aquatic environments contaminated with trace elements are an emerging research area due to the toxicity, abundance, and environmental persistence of trace elements. Accumulation of heavy metals as a class of trace elements in various environments, and the subsequent transition of these elements into the food and feed chain, severely affects human health. The determination of type and concentration of trace elements is regarded as the first and most important step to follow the mechanisms controlling the dispersal and accumulation of trace elements. Element speciation in different media (water, soil, food, plants, coal, biological matter, food, and fodder) is pivotal to assess an element's toxicity, bioavailability, environmental mobility, and biogeochemical performance. Recently, new analytical techniques have been developed, which greatly simplified the quantitation of many trace elements and considerably extended their detection range. In this context, the development of reproducible and accurate techniques for trace element analysis in different media using spectroscopic instrumentation is continuously updated.

Sensor Technologies
Author : Michael J. McGrath,Cliodhna Ni Scanaill,Dawn Nafus
Publisher : Apress
Release Date : 2014-01-23
ISBN 10 : 1430260149
Pages : 336 pages

Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications explores the key aspects of sensor technologies, covering wired, wireless, and discrete sensors for the specific application domains of healthcare, wellness and environmental sensing. It discusses the social, regulatory, and design considerations specific to these domains. The book provides an application-based approach using real-world examples to illustrate the application of sensor technologies in a practical and experiential manner. The book guides the reader from the formulation of the research question, through the design and validation process, to the deployment and management phase of sensor applications. The processes and examples used in the book are primarily based on research carried out by Intel or joint academic research programs. “Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications provides an extensive overview of sensing technologies and their applications in healthcare, wellness, and environmental monitoring. From sensor hardware to system applications and case studies, this book gives readers an in-depth understanding of the technologies and how they can be applied. I would highly recommend it to students or researchers who are interested in wireless sensing technologies and the associated applications.” Dr. Benny Lo Lecturer, The Hamlyn Centre, Imperial College of London “This timely addition to the literature on sensors covers the broad complexity of sensing, sensor types, and the vast range of existing and emerging applications in a very clearly written and accessible manner. It is particularly good at capturing the exciting possibilities that will occur as sensor networks merge with cloud-based ‘big data’ analytics to provide a host of new applications that will impact directly on the individual in ways we cannot fully predict at present. It really brings this home through the use of carefully chosen case studies that bring the overwhelming concept of 'big data' down to the personal level of individual life and health.” Dermot Diamond Director, National Centre for Sensor Research, Principal Investigator, CLARITY Centre for Sensor Web Technologies, Dublin City University "Sensor Technologies: Healthcare, Wellness and Environmental Applications takes the reader on an end-to-end journey of sensor technologies, covering the fundamentals from an engineering perspective, introducing how the data gleaned can be both processed and visualized, in addition to offering exemplar case studies in a number of application domains. It is a must-read for those studying any undergraduate course that involves sensor technologies. It also provides a thorough foundation for those involved in the research and development of applied sensor systems. I highly recommend it to any engineer who wishes to broaden their knowledge in this area!" Chris Nugent Professor of Biomedical Engineering, University of Ulster

Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Water Science and Technology Board,Committee on Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2003-05-03
ISBN 10 : 0309086256
Pages : 432 pages

Bioavailability refers to the extent to which humans and ecological receptors are exposed to contaminants in soil or sediment. The concept of bioavailability has recently piqued the interest of the hazardous waste industry as an important consideration in deciding how much waste to clean up. The rationale is that if contaminants in soil and sediment are not bioavailable, then more contaminant mass can be left in place without creating additional risk. A new NRC report notes that the potential for the consideration of bioavailability to influence decision-making is greatest where certain chemical, environmental, and regulatory factors align. The current use of bioavailability in risk assessment and hazardous waste cleanup regulations is demystified, and acceptable tools and models for bioavailability assessment are discussed and ranked according to seven criteria. Finally, the intimate link between bioavailability and bioremediation is explored. The report concludes with suggestions for moving bioavailability forward in the regulatory arena for both soil and sediment cleanup.

Aquatic Ecotoxicology
Author : Claude Amiard-Triquet,Jean-Claude Amiard,Catherine Mouneyrac
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-06-11
ISBN 10 : 0128011769
Pages : 518 pages

Aquatic Ecotoxicology: Advancing Tools for Dealing with Emerging Risks presents a thorough look at recent advances in aquatic ecotoxicology and their application in assessing the risk of well-known and emerging environmental contaminants. This essential reference, brought together by leading experts in the field, guides users through existing and novel approaches to environmental risk assessment, then presenting recent advances in the field of ecotoxicology, including omics-based technologies, biomarkers, and reference species. The book then demonstrates how these advances can be used to design and perform assays to discover the toxicological endpoints of emerging risks within the aquatic environment, such as nanomaterials, personal care products, PFOS and chemical mixtures. The text is an invaluable reference for any scientist who studies the effects of contaminants on organisms that live within aquatic environments. Provides the latest perspectives on emerging toxic risks to aquatic environments, such as nanomaterials, pharmaceuticals, chemical mixtures, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) Offers practical guidance on recent advances to help in choosing the most appropriate toxicological assay Presents case studies and information on a variety of reference species to help put the ecotoxicological theory into practical risk assess

Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Committee on Geological and Geotechnical Engineering,Committee on Subsurface Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2021-01-29
ISBN 10 : 0309373727
Pages : 176 pages

Fractured rock is the host or foundation for innumerable engineered structures related to energy, water, waste, and transportation. Characterizing, modeling, and monitoring fractured rock sites is critical to the functioning of those infrastructure, as well as to optimizing resource recovery and contaminant management. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock examines the state of practice and state of art in the characterization of fractured rock and the chemical and biological processes related to subsurface contaminant fate and transport. This report examines new developments, knowledge, and approaches to engineering at fractured rock sites since the publication of the 1996 National Research Council report Rock Fractures and Fluid Flow: Contemporary Understanding and Fluid Flow. Fundamental understanding of the physical nature of fractured rock has changed little since 1996, but many new characterization tools have been developed, and there is now greater appreciation for the importance of chemical and biological processes that can occur in the fractured rock environment. The findings of Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring, and Remediation of Fractured Rock can be applied to all types of engineered infrastructure, but especially to engineered repositories for buried or stored waste and to fractured rock sites that have been contaminated as a result of past disposal or other practices. The recommendations of this report are intended to help the practitioner, researcher, and decision maker take a more interdisciplinary approach to engineering in the fractured rock environment. This report describes how existing tools-some only recently developed-can be used to increase the accuracy and reliability of engineering design and management given the interacting forces of nature. With an interdisciplinary approach, it is possible to conceptualize and model the fractured rock environment with acceptable levels of uncertainty and reliability, and to design systems that maximize remediation and long-term performance. Better scientific understanding could inform regulations, policies, and implementation guidelines related to infrastructure development and operations. The recommendations for research and applications to enhance practice of this book make it a valuable resource for students and practitioners in this field.

Identifying Future Drinking Water Contaminants
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,1998 Workshop on Emerging Drinking Water Contaminants
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 1999-09-30
ISBN 10 : 0309064325
Pages : 276 pages

With an increasing population, use of new and diverse chemicals that can enter the water supply, and emergence of new microbial pathogens, the U.S. federal government is faced with a regulatory dilemma: Where should it focus its attention and limited resources to ensure safe drinking water supplies for the future? Identifying Future Drinking Water Contaminants is based on a 1998 workshop on emerging drinking water contaminants. It includes a dozen papers that were presented on new and emerging microbiological and chemical drinking water contaminants, associated analytical and water treatment methods for their detection and removal, and existing and proposed environmental databases to assist in their proactive identification and regulation. The papers are preceded by a conceptual approach and related recommendations to EPA for the periodic creation of future Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate Lists (CCLs--produced every five years--include currently unregulated chemical and microbiological substances that are known or anticipated to occur in public water systems and that may pose health risks).

Agricultural and Synthetic Polymers
Author : J. Edward Glass,American Chemical Society,Graham Swift,American Chemical Society. Meeting
Publisher : Amer Chemical Society
Release Date : 1990
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 323 pages

This timely book presents an unbiased review of biodegradable synthetic polymers and polymers from renewable resources. It examines the state-of-the-art in commodity plastics degradation and disposal, and the greater utilization of agricultural polymers in industrial applications. Biodegradation, photodegradation, and chemical degradation are addressed and various uses for agricultural polymers are explored, including synthesis of rubber from guayule rubber; modification of lignocellulosic fibers to produce high performance composites; modification of cellulose as liquid crystals; and specialty starches for use in the paper industry.

Monitoring Environmental Contaminants
Author : Steven Johnson
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2020-12-10
ISBN 10 : 0444643362
Pages : 150 pages

While existing approaches to monitoring environmental contaminants tend to focus on a small suite of contaminant types and often involve monitoring at fixed points and at fixed times, Monitoring Environmental Contaminants focuses on a wide range of new technologies and approaches available for monitoring chemical and biological contaminants in air, water, soil and food. These new methods allow the ability to monitor a wider range of contaminants at much greater and temporal resolutions. Adoption of these methods could result in a change in our understanding of how humans and ecosystems are exposed to contaminants in different environmental media. This volume in the Environmental Contaminants Series provides an overview of a wide range of monitoring approaches ranging from citizen science networks to the use of robotics and sensor networks. Monitoring Environmental Contaminants describes challenges in the adoption of some of these new approaches and methods for dealing with these challenges such as the use of mining techniques for large data. The case studies within will provide a thorough illustration for researchers, academics, and scientists involved in ecology and environmental sciences. Brings together chapters from a wide range of research in ecology and the environmental sciences Utilizes an easily understandable style that can be absorbed by a wide audience Uses case studies to illuminate the application of selected novel contamination monitoring approaches

ICES Cooperative Research Report
Author : N.A
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 1995
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products: Waste Management and Treatment Technology
Author : Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad,Meththika Vithanage,Atya Kapley
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release Date : 2019-04-04
ISBN 10 : 0128165901
Pages : 506 pages

Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products Waste Management and Treatment Technology: Emerging Contaminants and Micro Pollutants provides the tools and techniques for identifying these contaminates and applying the most effective technology for their remediation, recovery and treatment. The consumption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has grown significantly over the last 35 years, thus increasing their potential risk to the environment. As PPCPs are very difficult to detect and remove using conventional wastewater treatment methods, this book provides solutions to a growing problem. Includes sampling, analytical and characterization methods and technology for detecting PPCPs in the environment Provides advanced treatment and disposal technologies for the removal of PPCPs from wastewater, surface water, landfills and septic systems Examines the pathways of PPCPs into the environment

ISO 14031--environmental Performance Evaluation (EPE)
Author : W. Lee Kuhre
Publisher : Prentice Hall
Release Date : 1998
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 462 pages

Computational methods for studies in Geophysics and Geodynamics are becoming increasingly more sophisticated. This insightful book presents the latest developments in computational environments, grid computing technologies and data management.

Department of the Interior and related agencies appropriations for ...
Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2007-01-01
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages

Nanoscale Sensors
Author : Shibin Li,Jiang Wu,Zhiming M. Wang,Yadong Jiang
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2014-01-07
ISBN 10 : 3319027727
Pages : 281 pages

This book is a comprehensive introduction to nanoscale materials for sensor applications, with a focus on connecting the fundamental laws of physics and the chemistry of materials with device design. Nanoscale sensors can be used for a wide variety of applications, including the detection of gases, optical signals, and mechanical strain, and can meet the need to detect and quantify the presence of gaseous pollutants or other dangerous substances in the environment. Gas sensors have found various applications in our daily lives and in industry. Semiconductive oxides, including SnO2, ZnO, Fe2O3, and In2O3, are promising candidates for gas sensor applications. Carbon nanomaterials are becoming increasingly available as “off-the-shelf” components, and this makes nanotechnology more exciting and approachable than ever before. Nano-wire based field- effect transistor biosensors have also received much attention in recent years as a way to achieve ultra-sensitive and label-free sensing of molecules of biological interest. A diverse array of semiconductor-based nanostructures has been synthesized for use as a photoelectrochemical sensor or biosensor in the detection of low concentrations of analytes. A novel acoustic sensor for structural health monitoring (SHM) that utilizes lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nano- active fiber composites (NAFCs) is described as well.

Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment
Author : ICES Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2004
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages