With vastly increased complexity and functionality in the "nanometer era" (i.e. hundreds of millions of transistors on one chip), increasing the performance of integrated circuits has become a challenging task. Connecting effectively (interconnect design) all of these chip elements has become the greatest determining factor in overall performance. 3-D integrated circuit design may offer the best solutions in the near future. This is the first book on 3-D integrated circuit design, covering all of the technological and design aspects of this emerging design paradigm, while proposing effective solutions to specific challenging problems concerning the design of 3-D integrated circuits. A handy, comprehensive reference or a practical design guide, this book provides a sound foundation for the design of 3-D integrated circuits. * Demonstrates how to overcome "interconnect bottleneck" with 3-D integrated circuit design...leading edge design techniques offer solutions to problems (performance/power consumption/price) faced by all circuit designers * The FIRST book on 3-D integrated circuit design...provides up-to-date information that is otherwise difficult to find * Focuses on design issues key to the product development cycle...good design plays a major role in exploiting the implementation flexibilities offered in the 3-D * Provides broad coverage of 3-D integrated circuit design, including interconnect prediction models, thermal management techniques, and timing optimization...offers practical view of designing 3-D circuits
We live in a time of great change. In the electronics world, the last several decades have seen unprecedented growth and advancement, described by Moore’s law. This observation stated that transistor density in integrated circuits doubles every 1. 5–2 years. This came with the simultaneous improvement of individual device perf- mance as well as the reduction of device power such that the total power of the resulting ICs remained under control. No trend remains constant forever, and this is unfortunately the case with Moore’s law. The trouble began a number of years ago when CMOS devices were no longer able to proceed along the classical scaling trends. Key device parameters such as gate oxide thickness were simply no longer able to scale. As a result, device o- state currents began to creep up at an alarming rate. These continuing problems with classical scaling have led to a leveling off of IC clock speeds to the range of several GHz. Of course, chips can be clocked higher but the thermal issues become unmanageable. This has led to the recent trend toward microprocessors with mul- ple cores, each running at a few GHz at the most. The goal is to continue improving performance via parallelism by adding more and more cores instead of increasing speed. The challenge here is to ensure that general purpose codes can be ef?ciently parallelized. There is another potential solution to the problem of how to improve CMOS technology performance: three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs).
Three-dimensional (3D) integration of microsystems and subsystems has become essential to the future of semiconductor technology development. 3D integration requires a greater understanding of several interconnected systems stacked over each other. While this vertical growth profoundly increases the system functionality, it also exponentially increases the design complexity. Design of 3D Integrated Circuits and Systems tackles all aspects of 3D integration, including 3D circuit and system design, new processes and simulation techniques, alternative communication schemes for 3D circuits and systems, application of novel materials for 3D systems, and the thermal challenges to restrict power dissipation and improve performance of 3D systems. Containing contributions from experts in industry as well as academia, this authoritative text: Illustrates different 3D integration approaches, such as die-to-die, die-to-wafer, and wafer-to-wafer Discusses the use of interposer technology and the role of Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) Presents the latest improvements in three major fields of thermal management for multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs) Explores ThruChip Interface (TCI), NAND flash memory stacking, and emerging applications Describes large-scale integration testing and state-of-the-art low-power testing solutions Complete with experimental results of chip-level 3D integration schemes tested at IBM and case studies on advanced complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) integration for 3D integrated circuits (ICs), Design of 3D Integrated Circuits and Systems is a practical reference that not only covers a wealth of design issues encountered in 3D integration but also demonstrates their impact on the efficiency of 3D systems.
First published in 1991, this thesis concentrates upon the design of three-dimensional, rather than the traditional two-dimensional, circuits. The theory behind such circuits is presented in detail, together with experimental results.
Physical Design for 3D Integrated Circuits reveals how to effectively and optimally design 3D integrated circuits (ICs). It also analyzes the design tools for 3D circuits while exploiting the benefits of 3D technology. The book begins by offering an overview of physical design challenges with respect to conventional 2D circuits, and then each chapter delivers an in-depth look at a specific physical design topic. This comprehensive reference: Contains extensive coverage of the physical design of 2.5D/3D ICs and monolithic 3D ICs Supplies state-of-the-art solutions for challenges unique to 3D circuit design Features contributions from renowned experts in their respective fields Physical Design for 3D Integrated Circuits provides a single, convenient source of cutting-edge information for those pursuing 2.5D/3D technology.
Presents the background on 3D integration technology, and shows the major benefits offered by 3D integration. EDA design tools and methodologies for 3D ICs are reviewed. The cost of 3D integration is also analyzed.
|Author||: Sung Kyu Lim|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2012-11-27|
|ISBN 10||: 1441995420|
|Pages||: 560 pages|
This book provides readers with a variety of algorithms and software tools, dedicated to the physical design of through-silicon-via (TSV) based, three-dimensional integrated circuits. It describes numerous “manufacturing-ready” GDSII-level layouts of TSV-based 3D ICs developed with the tools covered in the book. This book will also feature sign-off level analysis of timing, power, signal integrity, and thermal analysis for 3D IC designs. Full details of the related algorithms will be provided so that the readers will be able not only to grasp the core mechanics of the physical design tools, but also to be able to reproduce and improve upon the results themselves. This book will also offer various design-for-manufacturability (DFM), design-for-reliability (DFR), and design-for-testability (DFT) techniques that are considered critical to the physical design process.
|Author||: Er-Ping Li|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2012-04-10|
|ISBN 10||: 0470623462|
|Pages||: 384 pages|
New advanced modeling methods for simulating the electromagnetic properties of complex three-dimensional electronic systems Based on the author's extensive research, this book sets forth tested and proven electromagnetic modeling and simulation methods for analyzing signal and power integrity as well as electromagnetic interference in large complex electronic interconnects, multilayered package structures, integrated circuits, and printed circuit boards. Readers will discover the state of the technology in electronic package integration and printed circuit board simulation and modeling. In addition to popular full-wave electromagnetic computational methods, the book presents new, more sophisticated modeling methods, offering readers the most advanced tools for analyzing and designing large complex electronic structures. Electrical Modeling and Design for 3D System Integration begins with a comprehensive review of current modeling and simulation methods for signal integrity, power integrity, and electromagnetic compatibility. Next, the book guides readers through: The macromodeling technique used in the electrical and electromagnetic modeling and simulation of complex interconnects in three-dimensional integrated systems The semi-analytical scattering matrix method based on the N-body scattering theory for modeling of three-dimensional electronic package and multilayered printed circuit boards with multiple vias Two- and three-dimensional integral equation methods for the analysis of power distribution networks in three-dimensional package integrations The physics-based algorithm for extracting the equivalent circuit of a complex power distribution network in three-dimensional integrated systems and printed circuit boards An equivalent circuit model of through-silicon vias Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitance effects of through-silicon vias Engineers, researchers, and students can turn to this book for the latest techniques and methods for the electrical modeling and design of electronic packaging, three-dimensional electronic integration, integrated circuits, and printed circuit boards.
This book explores the challenges and presents best strategies for designing Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) for 3D integrated circuits. It describes a novel technique to mitigate TSV-induced noise, the GND Plug, which is superior to others adapted from 2-D planar technologies, such as a backside ground plane and traditional substrate contacts. The book also investigates, in the form of a comparative study, the impact of TSV size and granularity, spacing of C4 connectors, off-chip power delivery network, shared and dedicated TSVs, and coaxial TSVs on the quality of power delivery in 3-D ICs. The authors provide detailed best design practices for designing 3-D power delivery networks. Since TSVs occupy silicon real-estate and impact device density, this book provides four iterative algorithms to minimize the number of TSVs in a power delivery network. Unlike other existing methods, these algorithms can be applied in early design stages when only functional block- level behaviors and a floorplan are available. Finally, the authors explore the use of Carbon Nanotubes for power grid design as a futuristic alternative to Copper.
Three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuit (IC) stacking is the next big step in electronic system integration. It enables packing more functionality, as well as integration of heterogeneous materials, devices, and signals, in the same space (volume). This results in consumer electronics (e.g., mobile, handheld devices) which can run more powerful applications, such as full-length movies and 3D games, with longer battery life. This technology is so promising that it is expected to be a mainstream technology a few years from now, less than 10-15 years from its original conception. To achieve this type of end product, changes in the entire manufacturing and design process of electronic systems are taking place. This book provides readers with an accessible tutorial on a broad range of topics essential to the non-expert in 3D System Integration. It is an invaluable resource for anybody in need of an overview of the 3D manufacturing and design chain.
Currently, the term 3D integration includes a wide variety of different integration methods, such as 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) interposer-based integration, 3D integrated circuits (3D ICs), 3D systems-in-package (SiP), 3D heterogeneous integration, and monolithic 3D ICs. The goal of this book is to provide readers with an understanding of the latest challenges and issues in 3D integration. TSVs are not the only technology element needed for 3D integration. There are numerous other key enabling technologies required for 3D integration, and the speed of the development in this emerging field is very rapid. To provide readers with state-of-the-art information on 3D integration research and technology developments, each chapter has been contributed by some of the world’s leading scientists and experts from academia, research institutes, and industry from around the globe. Covers chip/wafer level 3D integration technology, memory stacking, reconfigurable 3D, and monolithic 3D IC. Discusses the use of silicon interposer and organic interposer. Presents architecture, design, and technology implementations for 3D FPGA integration. Describes oxide bonding, Cu/SiO2 hybrid bonding, adhesive bonding, and solder bonding. Addresses the issue of thermal dissipation in 3D integration.
This fourth volume of the landmark handbook focuses on the design, testing, and thermal management of 3D-integrated circuits, both from a technological and materials science perspective. Edited and authored by key contributors from top research institutions and high-tech companies, the first part of the book provides an overview of the latest developments in 3D chip design, including challenges and opportunities. The second part focuses on the test methods used to assess the quality and reliability of the 3D-integrated circuits, while the third and final part deals with thermal management and advanced cooling technologies and their integration. This fourth volume of the landmark handbook focuses on the design, testing, and thermal management of 3D-integrated circuits, both from a technological and materials science perspective. Edited and authored by key contributors from top research institutions and high-tech companies, the first part of the book provides an overview of the latest developments in 3D chip design, including challenges and opportunities. The second part focuses on the test methods used to assess the quality and reliability of the 3D-integrated circuits, while the third and final part deals with thermal management and advanced cooling technologies and their integration.