|Author||: V. Parmon|
|Release Date||: 2009-09-26|
|ISBN 10||: 9780080931968|
|Pages||: 340 pages|
Thermodynamics of Non-Equilibrium Processes for Chemists with a Particular Application to Catalysis consists of materials adapted from lectures on the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes that have been taught at the Department of Natural Sciences of Novosibirsk State University since 1995. The thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes traditionally required students to have a strong background in physics. However, the materials featured in this volume allow anyone with knowledge in classical thermodynamics of equilibrium processes and traditional chemical kinetics to understand the subject. Topics discussed include systems in the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; thermodynamics of systems that are close to and far from equilibrium; thermodynamics of catalysts; the application of nonequilibrium thermodynamics to material science; and the relationship between entropy and information. This book will be helpful for research into complex chemical transformations, particularly catalytic transformations. Applies simple approaches of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to analyzing properties of chemically reactive systems Covers systems far from equilibrium, allowing the consideration of most chemically reactive systems of a chemical or biological nature This approach resolves many complicated problems in the teaching of chemical kinetics
|Author||: Jose M. Ortiz de Zarate,Jan V. Sengers|
|Release Date||: 2006-04-19|
|ISBN 10||: 9780080459431|
|Pages||: 320 pages|
This book deals with density, temperature, velocity and concentration fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures. The book first reviews thermal fluctuations in equilibrium fluids on the basis of fluctuating hydrodynamics. It then shows how the method of fluctuating hydrodynamics can be extended to deal with hydrodynamic fluctuations when the system is in a stationary nonequilibrium state. In contrast to equilibrium fluids where the fluctuations are generally short ranged unless the system is close to a critical point, fluctuations in nonequilibrium fluids are always long-ranged encompassing the entire system. The book provides the first comprehensive treatment of fluctuations in fluids and fluid mixtures brought out of equilibrium by the imposition of a temperature and concentration gradient but that are still in a macroscopically quiescent state. By incorporating appropriate boundary conditions in the case of fluid layers, it is shown how fluctuating hydrodynamics affects the fluctuations close to the onset of convection. Experimental techniques of light scattering and shadowgraphy for measuring nonequilibrium fluctuations are elucidated and the experimental results thus far reported in the literature are reviewed. · Systematic exposition of fluctuating hydrodynamics and its applications · First book on nonequilibrium fluctuations in fluids · Fluctuating Boussinesq equations and nonequilibrium fluids · Fluid layers and onset of convection · Rayleigh scattering and Brillouin scattering in fluids · Shadowgraph technique for measuring fluctuations · Fluctuations near hydrodynamic instabilities
Reaction Rate Theory and Rare Events bridges the historical gap between these subjects because the increasingly multidisciplinary nature of scientific research often requires an understanding of both reaction rate theory and the theory of other rare events. The book discusses collision theory, transition state theory, RRKM theory, catalysis, diffusion limited kinetics, mean first passage times, Kramers theory, Grote-Hynes theory, transition path theory, non-adiabatic reactions, electron transfer, and topics from reaction network analysis. It is an essential reference for students, professors and scientists who use reaction rate theory or the theory of rare events. In addition, the book discusses transition state search algorithms, tunneling corrections, transmission coefficients, microkinetic models, kinetic Monte Carlo, transition path sampling, and importance sampling methods. The unified treatment in this book explains why chemical reactions and other rare events, while having many common theoretical foundations, often require very different computational modeling strategies. Offers an integrated approach to all simulation theories and reaction network analysis, a unique approach not found elsewhere Gives algorithms in pseudocode for using molecular simulation and computational chemistry methods in studies of rare events Uses graphics and explicit examples to explain concepts Includes problem sets developed and tested in a course range from pen-and-paper theoretical problems, to computational exercises
Chemistry at Extreme Conditions covers those chemical processes that occur in the pressure regime of 0.5–200 GPa and temperature range of 500–5000 K and includes such varied phenomena as comet collisions, synthesis of super-hard materials, detonation and combustion of energetic materials, and organic conversions in the interior of planets. The book provides an insight into this active and exciting field of research. Written by top researchers in the field, the book covers state of the art experimental advances in high-pressure technology, from shock physics to laser-heating techniques to study the nature of the chemical bond in transient processes. The chapters have been conventionally organised into four broad themes of applications: biological and bioinorganic systems; Experimental works on the transformations in small molecular systems; Theoretical methods and computational modeling of shock-compressed materials; and experimental and computational approaches in energetic materials research. * Extremely practical book containing up-to-date research in high-pressure science * Includes chapters on recent advances in computer modelling * Review articles can be used as reference guide
Transport Mediated by Electrified Interfaces provides an overview of the innovative use of electro-kinetic phenomena in experimentally exploring non-equilibrium regions of chemically non-reacting systems. Transport phenomena mediated by charged liquid-liquid interfaces and solid-liquid interfaces are also covered. Transport phenomena mediated by electrified interfaces are discussed in the context of a number of important areas, including, soil/water systems, phase transfer catalysis, animal/plant physiology and mimicking taste/smell sensing mechanisms. Provides an overview of the innovative use of electro-kinetic phenomena Discusses conventional electro-kinetics and other transport phenomena mediated by charged interfaces Of special interest to those working in the area of interface science
This book discusses mathematical models that are based on the concepts of classical equilibrium thermodynamics. They are intended for the analysis of possible results of diverse natural and production processes. Unlike the traditional models, these allow one to view the achievable set of partial equilibria with regards to constraints on kinetics, energy and mass exchange and to determine states of the studied systems of interest for the researcher. Application of the suggested models in chemical technology, energy and ecology is illustrated in the examples.
Low-temperature non-equilibrium gaseous discharges represent nearly ideal media for boosting plasma-based chemical reactions. In these discharges the energy of plasma electrons, after being received from the electromagnetic field, is transferred to the other degrees of freedom differently, ideally with only a small part going to the translational motion of heavy gas particles. This unique property enables the important application of non-equilibrium plasmas for greenhouse gas conversion. While the degree of discharge non-equilibrium often defines the energetic efficiency of conversion, other factors are also of a great importance, such as type of discharge, presence of plasma catalysis, etc. This book is focused on the recent achievements in optimization and understanding of non-equilibrium plasma for gas conversion via plasma modeling and experimental work.
Physics of Cryogenics: An Ultralow Temperature Phenomenon discusses the significant number of advances that have been made during the last few years in a variety of cryocoolers, such as Brayton, Joule-Thomson, Stirling, pulse tube, Gifford-McMahon and magnetic refrigerators. The book reviews various approaches taken to improve reliability, a major driving force for new research areas. The advantages and disadvantages of different cycles are compared, and the latest improvements in each of these cryocoolers is discussed. The book starts with the thermodynamic fundamentals, followed by the definition of cryogenic and the associated science behind low temperature phenomena and properties. This book is an ideal resource for scientists, engineers and graduate and senior undergraduate students who need a better understanding of the science of cryogenics and related thermodynamics. Defines the fundamentals of thermodynamics that are associated with cryogenic processes Provides an overview of the history of the development of cryogenic technology Includes new, low temperature tables written by the author Deals with the application of cryogenics to preserve objects at very low temperature Explains how cryogenic phenomena work for human cell and human body preservations and new medical approaches