Understanding the thermal degradation of polymers is of paramount importance for developing a rational technology of polymer processing and higher-temperature applications. Controlling degradation requires understanding of many different phenomena, including chemical mechanisms, the influence of polymer morphology, the complexities of oxidation chemistry, and the effects of stabilisers, fillers and other additives. This book offers a wealth of information for polymer researchers and processors requiring an understanding of the implications of thermal degradation on material and product performance.
|Author||: Myer Kutz|
|Publisher||: William Andrew|
|Release Date||: 2012-10-08|
|ISBN 10||: 1437734553|
|Pages||: 936 pages|
Nothing stays the same for ever. The environmental degradation and corrosion of materials is inevitable and affects most aspects of life. In industrial settings, this inescapable fact has very significant financial, safety and environmental implications. The Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials explains how to measure, analyse, and control environmental degradation for a wide range of industrial materials including metals, polymers, ceramics, concrete, wood and textiles exposed to environmental factors such as weather, seawater, and fire. Divided into sections which deal with analysis, types of degradation, protection and surface engineering respectively, the reader is introduced to the wide variety of environmental effects and what can be done to control them. The expert contributors to this book provide a wealth of insider knowledge and engineering knowhow, complementing their explanations and advice with Case Studies from areas such as pipelines, tankers, packaging and chemical processing equipment ensures that the reader understands the practical measures that can be put in place to save money, lives and the environment. The Handbook's broad scope introduces the reader to the effects of environmental degradation on a wide range of materials, including metals, plastics, concrete,wood and textiles For each type of material, the book describes the kind of degradation that effects it and how best to protect it Case Studies show how organizations from small consulting firms to corporate giants design and manufacture products that are more resistant to environmental effects
|Author||: Charles A. Wilkie,Alexander B. Morgan|
|Publisher||: CRC Press|
|Release Date||: 2009-12-10|
|ISBN 10||: 9781420084009|
|Pages||: 853 pages|
When dealing with challenges such as providing fire protection while considering cost, mechanical and thermal performance and simultaneously addressing increasing regulations that deal with composition of matter and life cycle issues, there are no quick, one-size-fits-all answers. Packed with comprehensive coverage, scientific approach, step-by-step directions, and a distillation of technical knowledge, the first edition of Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials broke new ground. It supplied a one-stop resource for the development of new fire safe materials. The editors have expanded the second edition to echo the multidisciplinary approach inherent in current flame retardancy technology and put it in a revised, more user-friendly format. More than just an update of previously covered topics, this edition discusses: additional fire retardant chemistry developments in regulations and standards new flame retardant approaches fire safety engineering modeling and fire growth phenomena The book introduces flame retardants polymer-by-polymer, supplemented by a brief overview of mode of action and interaction, and all the other ancillary issues involved in this applied field of materials science. The book delineates what, why, and how to do it, covering the fundamentals of polymer burning/combustion and how to apply these systems and chemistries to specific materials classes. It also provides suggested formulations, discusses why certain materials are preferred for particular uses or applications, and offers a starting point from which to develop fire-safe materials.
Compostable Polymer Materials, Second Edition, deals with the environmentally important family of polymers designed to be disposed of in industrial and municipal compost facilities after their useful life. These compostable plastics undergo degradation and leave no visible, distinguishable, or toxic residue. Environmental concerns and legislative measures taken in different regions of the world make composting an increasingly attractive route for the disposal of redundant polymers. This book covers the entire spectrum of preparation, degradation, and evironmental issues related to compostable polymers. It emphasizes recent studies concerning compostability and ecotoxilogical assessment of polymer materials. It descibes the thermal behavior, including flammability properties, of compostable polymers. It also explores possible routes of compostable polymers waste disposal through an ecological lens. Finally, the book examines the economic factors at work, including price evolution over the past decade, the current market, and future perspectives. Compostable Polymer Materials is an essential resource for graduate students and scientists working in chemistry, materials science, ecology, and environmental science. Provides a comprehensive study of the composting process Details methods of compostable polymers preparation, including properties, processing and applications Presents the state-of-the-art knowledge on ecotoxicity testing and biodegradation under real composting conditions of compostable polymers, as well as biodegradation in various environments, such as marine environments and anaerobic conditions Discusses the evolution of waste management in Europe and the United States, as well as the status of MSW disposal and treatment methods in countries such as China and Brazil Overviews biodegradation studies under real composting conditions of products made of compostable polymers, e.g. bags, bottles, cutletry Analyzes evolution of market development, including price of compostable polymers during the last decade
"Covers recent advances in polymer degradation and stabilization. Focuses on the basics of photo- and bio-degradability. Delineates special and general environmental parameters such as solar irradiation, temperature, and agrochemical exposure. Surveys plastic waste disposal strategies such as recycling, incineration, chemical recovery by pyrolysis,
Approaching the material from a chemistry and engineering perspective, High Performance Polymers presents the most reliable and current data available about state-of-the-art polymerization, fabrication, and application methods of high performance industrial polymers. Chapters are arranged according to the chemical constitution of the individual classes, beginning with main chain carbon-carbon polymers and leading to ether-containing, sulfur-containing, and so on. Each chapter follows an easily readable template, provides a brief overview and history of the polymer, and continues on to such sub-topics as monomers; polymerization and fabrication; properties; fabrication methods; special additives; applications; suppliers and commercial grades; safety; and environmental impact and recycling. High Performance Polymers brings a wealth of up-to-date, high performance polymer data to you library, in a format that allows for either a fast fact-check or more detailed study. In this new edition the data has been fully updated to reflect all developments since 2008, particularly in the topics of monomers, synthesis of polymers, special polymer types, and fields of application. Presents the state-of-the-art polymerization, fabrication and application methods of high performance industrial polymers Provides fundamental information for practicing engineers working in industries that develop advanced applications (including electronics, automotive and medical) Discusses environmental impact and recycling of polymers
This book, the second edition of the first monograph fully devoted to UV degradation and stabilization ever published in English, has 12 chapters discussing different aspects of UV related phenomena occurring when polymeric materials are exposed to UV radiation. In the introduction the existing literature has been reviewed to find out how plants, animals and humans protect themselves against UV radiation. This review permits evaluation of mechanisms of protection against UV used by living things and potential application of these mechanisms in protection of natural and synthetic polymeric materials. This is followed by chapters with a more detailed look at more specific aspects of UV degradation and stabilization. A practical and up-to-date reference guide for engineers and scientists designing with plastics, and formulating plastics materials Explains the effects of UV light on plastics, and how to mitigate its effects through the use of UV stabilizers Surveys the range of UV stabilizers on the market, and provides advice on their selection and use
Discerning the properties of polymers and polymer-based materials requires a good understanding of characterization. This revised and updated text provides a comprehensive survey of characterization methods within its simple, concise chapters. Polymer Characterization: Physical Techniques, provides an overview of a wide variety of characterization methods, which makes it an excellent textbook and reference. It starts with a description of basic polymer science, providing a solid foundation from which to understand the key physical characterization techniques. The authors explain physical principles without heavy theory and give special emphasis to the application of the techniques to polymers, with plenty of illustrations. Topics covered include molecular weight determination, molecular and structural characterization by spectroscopic techniques, morphology and structural characterization by microscopy and diffraction, and thermal analysis. This edition contains a new chapter on surface analysis as well as some revised problems and solutions. The concise treatment of each topic offers even those with little prior knowledge of the subject an accessible source to relevant, simple descriptions in a well-organized format.
Forensic science includes all aspects of investigating a crime, including: chemistry, biology and physics, and also incorporates countless other specialties. Today, the service offered under the guise of "forensic science’ includes specialties from virtually all aspects of modern science, medicine, engineering, mathematics and technology. The Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition is a reference source that will inform both the crime scene worker and the laboratory worker of each other’s protocols, procedures and limitations. Written by leading scientists in each area, every article is peer reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. As reflected in the specialties of its Editorial Board, the contents covers the core theories, methods and techniques employed by forensic scientists – and applications of these that are used in forensic analysis. This 4-volume set represents a 30% growth in articles from the first edition, with a particular increase in coverage of DNA and digital forensics Includes an international collection of contributors The second edition features a new 21-member editorial board, half of which are internationally based Includes over 300 articles, approximately 10pp on average Each article features a) suggested readings which point readers to additional sources for more information, b) a list of related Web sites, c) a 5-10 word glossary and definition paragraph, and d) cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedia Available online via SciVerse ScienceDirect. Please visit www.info.sciencedirect.com for more information This new edition continues the reputation of the first edition, which was awarded an Honorable Mention in the prestigious Dartmouth Medal competition for 2001. This award honors the creation of reference works of outstanding quality and significance, and is sponsored by the RUSA Committee of the American Library Association
Includes all works deriving from DOE, other related government-sponsored information and foreign nonnuclear information.
|Author||: Li Jianjun,Ou Yuxiang|
|Publisher||: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG|
|Release Date||: 2019-08-19|
|ISBN 10||: 3110386488|
|Pages||: 288 pages|
Flame retardant materials are of vital importance in guaranteeing personal security. Especially the demand for non-toxic, low smoking, polymerized flame retardants increases and new materials enter the market. The authors present the fundamental theory of polymer combustion, compare different flame retardants, describe smoke suppression mechanisms, and explain analyzing techniques for new materials.