The Value of BCG and TNF in Autoimmunity provides an overview of current research and thinking related to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) induction and the use of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine as potential treatment approaches to diverse forms of autoimmunity. BCG, commonly known as an anti-tuberculosis vaccine, is being explored in worldwide clinical trials as an approach to the treatment of certain forms of autoimmunity. The scope of research behind this therapeutic approach spans from the basic science of TNF signaling to research in diverse autoimmune disciplines, such as type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Overall, the book focuses on the lessons that can be learned from the researchers' individual experiences and data, and provides a rationale for bringing the inexpensive, generic BCG vaccine to the forefront of clinical trials in different forms of autoimmunity. Editor awarded 2005: Oprah Achievement Award," Top Health Breakthrough by a Female Scientist" Brings into one resource the international scientific literature on a unique way to treat autoimmunity Provides a different perspective on treatment approaches for certain autoimmune conditions Discusses TNF induction, rather than anti-TNF, as a therapeutic pathway for autoimmunity treatment
|Author||: R.C. Kennedy,S. Ferrone,Yehuda Shoenfeld|
|Release Date||: 1997-11-19|
|ISBN 10||: 9780080534435|
|Pages||: 540 pages|
This is the most comprehensive review of the idiotypic network available. All the current knowledge of idiotypes of the various antibodies is incorporated in this volume. The pathogenic role of idiotypes in autoimmunity and cancer is reviewed in depth. The therapeutic part focusses on harnessing anti-idiotypes for treating autoimmunological disorders, and on the employment of idiotypes for vaccines in cancer and infectious diseases, as well as explaining the manipulation of the idiotypic network in autoimmunity and cancer idiotypes and vaccines.
The protection mode of most available vaccines is based on antibody responses. Since efficient immune responses to many pathogens rely on activating all arms of the immune system, traditional vaccine development does not provide efficient protection against many diseases. Novel vaccination strategies need to allow presentation of antigens that activate the full array of the immune response in the right composition and should prevent pathogen entry by mobilizing the mucosal immune response. New technological advances optimize the immunogenicity of 'live' and sub-unit vaccines. This book offers an interdisciplinary overview on research and future strategies for rational vaccine design based on recent developments in molecular biology and immunology. It covers new aspects of the immunological interplay between prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems as well as achievements in the development of novel vaccine candidates. Chapters on edible vaccines, on vaccines against bioterror agents and on economical and safety aspects of novel vaccine development round off this title.
In light of the discovery of Autoimmune Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants, or ASIA, Vaccines and Autoimmunity explores the role of adjuvants – specifically aluminum in different vaccines – and how they can induce diverse autoimmune clinical manifestations in genetically prone individuals. Vaccines and Autoimmunity is divided into three sections; the first contextualizes the role of adjuvants in the framework of autoimmunity, covering the mechanism of action of adjuvants, experimental models of adjuvant induced autoimmune diseases, infections as adjuvants, the Gulf War Syndrome, sick-building syndrome (SBS), safe vaccines, toll-like receptors, TLRS in vaccines, pesticides as adjuvants, oil as adjuvant, mercury, aluminum and autoimmunity. The following section reviews literature on vaccines that have induced autoimmune conditions such as MMR and HBV, among others. The final section covers diseases in which vaccines were known to be the solicitor – for instance, systemic lupus erythematosus – and whether it can be induced by vaccines for MMR, HBV, HCV, and others. Edited by leaders in the field, Vaccines and Autoimmunity is an invaluable resource for advanced students and researchers working in pathogenic and epidemiological studies.
|Author||: Prashant Kesharwani|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2020-06-10|
|ISBN 10||: 0128226110|
|Pages||: 284 pages|
Nanotechnology Based Approaches for Tuberculosis Treatment discusses multiple nanotechnology-based approaches that may help overcome persisting limitations of conventional and traditional treatments. The book summarizes the types of nano drugs, their synthesis, formulation, characterization and applications, along with the most important administration routes. It also explores recent advances and achievements regarding therapeutic efficacy and provides possible future applications in this field. It will be a useful resource for investigators, pharmaceutical researchers, innovators and scientists working on technology advancements in the areas of targeted therapies, nano scale imaging systems, and diagnostic modalities in tuberculosis. Addresses the gap between nanomedicine late discovery and early development of tuberculosis therapeutics Explores tuberculosis nanomedicine standardization and characterization with newly developed treatment, diagnostic and treatment monitoring modalities Covers the field thoroughly, from the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and multi-drug resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis, to treatment approaches using nanotechnology and different nanocarriers
|Author||: WHO,World Health Organization|
|Publisher||: World Health Organization|
|Release Date||: 2015-01-15|
|ISBN 10||: 9241548908|
|Pages||: 34 pages|
BACKGROUND: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), defined as a state of persistent immune response to prior-acquired Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens without evidence of clinically manifested active TB, affects about one-third of the world's population. Approximately 10% of people with LTBI will develop active TB disease in their lifetime, with the majority developing it within the first five years after initial infection. Currently available treatments have an efficacy ranging from 60% to 90%. Systematic testing and treatment of LTBI in at-risk populations is a critical component of WHO's eight-point framework adapted from the End TB Strategy to target pre-elimination and, ultimately, elimination in low incidence countries. OVERVIEW: Recognizing the importance of expanding the response to LTBI, in 2014 WHO developed Guidelines on the Management of Latent Tuberculosis Infection. The guidelines are primarily targeted at high-income or upper middle-income countries with an estimated TB incidence rate of less than 100 per 100 000 population, because they are most likely to benefit from it due to their current TB epidemiology and resource availability. The overall objective of the guidelines is to provide public health approach guidance on evidence-based practices for testing, treating and managing LTBI in individuals with the highest risk of progression to active disease. Specific objectives include identifying and prioritizing at-risk population groups for targeted intervention of LTBI testing and treatment, including defining an algorithm, and recommending specific treatment options. The guidelines are expected to provide the basis and rationale for the development of national guidelines for LTBI management based on available resources, epidemiology of TB including intensity of transmission, the health-care delivery system of the country, and other national and local determinants.
By two years of age, healthy infants in the United States can receive up to 20 vaccinations to protect against 11 diseases. Although most people know that vaccines effectively protect against serious infectious diseases, approximately one-quarter of parents in a recent survey believe that infants get more vaccines than are good for them, and that too many immunizations could overwhelm an infant's immune system. The Immunization Safety Review Committee reviewed the evidence regarding the hypothesis that multiple immunizations increase the risk for immune dysfunction. Specifically, the committee looked at evidence of potential biological mechanisms and at epidemiological evidence for or against causality related to risk for infections, the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes, and allergic disorders.
Can today's innovative practices and molecular tools tame this ancient disease? One third of the world's population is infected with tuberculosis (TB), with about 10 million new cases annually. To combat TB and its agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the World Health Organization launched The End TB Strategy, which aims to slash the suffering and cost of TB by 2035. This makes the second edition of Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, edited by Jacobs, McShane, Mizrahi, and Orme, an extremely valuable resource for scientists and clinicians. The editors have gathered their colleagues from around the world to present the latest on the molecular biology of M. tuberculosis and related species, the host-pathogen interactions that enable invasion, and the host's immune response to M. tuberculosis infection. The basic, clinical, and translational research presented in this book supports the goals of WHO's End TB Strategy by driving toward the development of effective vaccines, rapid molecular diagnostics, and anti-TB drugs. Creating an effective tuberculosis vaccine. Understand the innate and adaptive immune response to M. tuberculosis infection, its study in established animal models, and how this information is being used to develop new vaccines against TB. Formulating new antituberculosis drugs. Learn the challenges and methods for evaluating new drugs in preclinical trials with a focus on drugs that work against "persisters" and those that act on the electron transport complex and ATP synthase of M. tuberculosis. Overcoming the challenges of diagnosing tuberculosis. Review new diagnostic tools that are simple, rapid, affordable, specific, sensitive, and safe, including molecular-based diagnostic methods such as GeneXpert MTB/RIF. Using molecular, genomic, and bioinformatics tools to understand the biology and evolution of Mycobacterium. Explore current research on the molecular mechanisms that M. tuberculosis uses to evade the immune system, enter a state of nonreplicating persistence, and become reactivated. The second edition of Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus presents the latest research on a microorganism that is exquisitely well adapted to its human host. This pathogen continues to confound scientists, clinicians, and public health specialists, who will all find much valuable information in this comprehensive set of reviews.
In 2014, psoriasis was recognized as a serious noncommunicable disease in the World Health Assembly Resolution WHA67.9, with a great negative impact on patients' quality of life. Psoriasis is a worldwide chronic disease, affecting all ages and all races, and a serious global health problem. Psoriasis is a complex disease with still unknown etiology and no specific curative treatment. The chapters provide comprehensive and new description of some issues related to psoriasis research and for understanding of clinical correlations, genetic aspects, experimental research, and potential therapeutic interventions. The book could be a source of information for clinicians and researchers from different fields in raising awareness of the disease.
Diagnose, treat, and manage equine skin disorders with the most comprehensive reference available! With 900 full-color photos, Equine Dermatology covers skin diseases ranging from those that merely annoy the horse to others that interfere with the horse's ability to function in riding, working, or show. Thorough coverage includes essential basics and practical diagnostic methods, therapies, and specific abnormalities and defects. The book describes the structure and function of the skin, and discusses disorders including bacterial, fungal, parasitic, viral, protozoal, allergic, immune-mediated, endocrine, metabolic, and nutritional diseases. It also covers congenital and hereditary defects, pigmentation abnormalities, keratinization defects, environmental skin diseases, and skin tumors. Written by renowned equine dermatologists Danny Scott and Bill Miller, this all-inclusive resource covers the latest dermatologic topics and the newest therapies. Current, comprehensive coverage includes every known equine dermatosis. An emphasis on differential diagnosis includes key differentials and breed predilections for each disease, especially helpful when you have only a specimen and an incomplete history to work with. A consistent format makes it easy to locate information on each skin disorder, including a clinical description, its cause and pathogenesis, clinical features, clinical management, diagnosis, treatment, and any zoonotic aspects. Expert authors Danny W. Scott, DVM, and William H. Miller, Jr., VMD, offer years of knowledge, experience, and their vast image collections. Diagnostic tables in each chapter provide a quick reference for identifying lesions and disorders. An extensive list of references at the end of each chapter includes recommendations for further reading. New coverage of dermatologic conditions includes the latest topics and emerging disorders such as chronic progressive lymphedema, herpesvirus-2-associated dermatitis, salmonella-associated dermatoses, and nodular auricular chondropathy. Updated Diagnostic Methods chapter covers multiple methods of developing a differential diagnosis list based on breed, lesion type, patterns, and location. A focus on common clinical problems highlights the conditions most likely to be seen in practice. Almost 1,000 full-color photos of skin disorders make it easy to distinguish clinical characteristics and variations of normal and abnormal for accurate diagnosis and therapy.
100 Cases in Clinical Medicine is an indispensable revision tool for medical students preparing for clinical examinations or OSCEs. Using scenarios which mimic daily life, the cases will interest students in clinical problems and help them develop their clinical reasoning skills, with each case presenting details of a patient's medical history and the key findings of a clinical examination, together with initial investigation results for evaluation. Key questions then prompt the student to evaluate the patient, and reach a decision regarding their condition and the possible management plan, while the answer pages will help the student to understand the processes that a clinician goes through in dealing with the problems presented. Contents are organised to provide a quick review of each body system, with a selection of cases relevant to that specific system, then the majority are presented randomly to mimic real life in a GP surgery or emergency department. New to this edition: a review of each body system as well as random cases; new page design with a second colour used throughout; and brought up-to-date with 25% new cases.
This timely book, published just as cancer immunotherapy comes of age, summarizes the rationale, present status, and future perspective for cancer immunotherapy. Included are explanations of the constitution of the immune system and immunocheckpoints, the mechanism of antigen presentation and recognition, valuable modalities, clinical trials and guidance, personalization, and biomarkers, all of which are essential for understanding the success of cancer immunotherapy. This innovative therapy has been investigated worldwide as the fourth line of cancer treatment after the standard treatments of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The progress in fundamental understanding of tumor immunology and the recent advances in clinical trials have opened new avenues with a cancer vaccine in 2010 and immunocheckpoint modulation in 2011, with their approval already granted in the United States. Today, there are no doubts, even among experts in cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy, that the immune system plays a vital role in tumor eradication. Following American approval, many clinical trials of cancer immunotherapy are being conducted. With this book the reader will readily understand the paradigm shift in cancer treatment and will realize the importance of cancer immunotherapy. The great value of immunotherapy will be obvious, not only for tumor shrinkage but for prolonging patient survival.