The Urban Heat Island provides simple instructions for measurement and an analysis of the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, along with greater context as to what a UHI means and what impacts it can have. With this further understanding, research on urban heat islands can impact a wide range of climate mitigation and adaptation programs, including city greening, changing surface albedo and permeable paving. The book empowers readers to work within a set of guidelines that will enable direct comparisons of urban development across multiple environments. This type of systematic classification opens the door to true global comparisons of climate change. In addition, the impact of urban planning and design strategies in different environments can then be evaluated for their effectiveness at mitigating these changes. Covers both on-surface and near-surface, or canopy, measurements and impacts of Urban Heat Islands (UHI) Provides a set of best practices and guidelines for UHI observation and analysis Includes both conceptual overviews and practical instructions for a wide range of uses
|Author||: Francesco Musco|
|Release Date||: 2016-08-30|
|ISBN 10||: 331910425X|
|Pages||: 400 pages|
Urban heat islands are a new type of microclimatic phenomenon that causes a significant increase in the temperature of cities compared to surrounding areas. The phenomenon has been enforced by the current trend towards climate change. Although experts consider urban heat islands an urgent European Union public health concern, there are too few policies that address it. The EU carried out a project to learn more about this phenomenon through pilot initiatives. The pilots included feasibility studies and strategies for appropriately altering planning rules and governance to tackle the problem of urban heat islands. The pilots were carried out in eight metropolitan areas: Bologna/Modena, Budapest, Ljubljana, Lodz, Prague, Stuttgart, Venice/Padova, and Vienna. The feasibility studies carried out in these pilot areas focused on the specific morphology of EU urban areas, which are often characterised by the presence of historical old towns.
Conventional air conditioning is not a sustainable solution to the challenge of a hot or humid climate. The climate problem is compounded in so-called Urban Heat Islands, urban areas where the air can be 3–5°C hotter than its surrounding areas and where pollution levels are consequently raised. Including a colour section with thermal images and maps, this book explores the complex relationships between climate, buildings and plants, especially in urban heat islands. These relationships bear very critically on a range of environmental issues and point to some corresponding solutions. One chapter highlights some of the extensive research work carried out in Singapore, especially investigating the thermal benefits of greenery in buildings in the urban setting. Though several books have been written on urban heat islands, this work uniquely examines the linkages between climate, buildings and plants. It forms a reference for researchers and professionals such as architects, architectural science, landscape architects, building services engineers, urban planners and urban climatologists. It may also be useful for final year undergraduates or graduate students in these disciplines.
Adaptation Measures for Urban Heat Islands helps the reader understand the relative performance of these adaptation measures, methods and analysis relating to their creation and maintenance, evaluation methods, and the role of policy and governance in implementing them. A suite of case studies is included on these urban or metropolitan areas that are significantly warmer than their surrounding rural areas due to human activities. In recent years, a suite of adaptation measures have been developed to mitigate the urban heat island phenomena. Provides a range of concrete implementation methods Assesses relative performance of adaptation measures and countermeasure technologies Establishes methods for human thermal environmental interventions Reviews adaptation cities selected for excellent energy performance and thermal comfort indicators
Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates takes into account the different urban physics in tropical environments, presenting a way of UHI scaling for tropical cities. Topics include measuring, modeling and proper mitigation strategies, which account for the surface energy balance of tropics. Tropical cities are more susceptible to the effects of projected global warming because of conditions in tropical climates and the rapid growth of so many cities in this zone. The need for research on measuring, modeling and mitigation of UHI effects in tropical cities is of growing importance. This book walks through the basics of Urban Heat Islands, including causes, measurement and analysis then expands upon issues as well as the novel techniques that can be used to address issues specific to the region. Reviews topics related to understanding the fundamentals of modeling and impacts of urban heat islands Covers many techniques, from remote sensing, to numerical modeling and then applying them to urban climate studies in general, and in tropical cities Describes the scaling of urban heat islands based on long-term seasonal thermal parameters as feature-based classification systems using a probabilistic and fuzzy logic approach, unlike local climate zones (LCZs)
This book covers the latest developments in remote sensing theory and applications by numerous researchers, experts and collaborators of the Remote Sensing and Geo-Environment Lab of the Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics of the Cyprus University of Technology. The main highlight of this book is combination of several techniques such as satellite remote sensing, field spectroscopy, smart sensors, ground techniques for achieving an integrated method for the systematic monitoring of the environment.
Heat islands are urban and suburban areas that are significantly warmer than their surroundings. Traditional, highly absorptive construction materials and a lack of effective landscaping are their main causes. Heat island problems, in terms of increased energy consumption, reduced air quality and effects on human health and mortality, are becoming more pressing as cities continue to grow and sprawl. This comprehensive book brings together the latest information about heat islands and their mitigation. The book describes how heat islands are formed, what problems they cause, which technologies mitigate heat island effects and what policies and actions can be taken to cool communities. Internationally renowned expert Lisa Gartland offers a comprehensive source of information for turning heat islands into cool communities. The author includes sections on cool roofing and cool paving, explains their benefits in detail and provides practical guidelines for their selection and installation. The book also reviews how and why to incorporate trees and vegetation around buildings, in parking lots and on green roofs.
Between 1930 and 2030, the world's population will have flipped from 70% rural to 70% urban. While much has been written about the impacts of climate change and mitigation of its effects on individual buildings or infrastructure, this book is one of the first to focus on the resilience of whole cities. It covers a broad range of area-wide disaster-level impacts, including drought, heatwaves, flooding, storms and air quality, which many of our cities are ill-adapted to cope with, and unless we can increase the resilience of our urban areas then much of our current building stock may become uninhabitable. Climate Change Resilience in the Urban Environment provides a detailed overview of the risks for urban areas, including those risks to human health as well as to building integrity, the physical processes involved, and presents key information in which way the risks can be reduced and urban areas made more resilient.
The urban heat island intensity (difference between a semi-rural and urban dry bulb air temperature, urban heat island intensity) has been analysed for Manchester using data from 1996 to 2011. The semi-rural sites were airfields and the urban site was 2 km from the centre of Manchester. Although the urban site was not as developed as the city centre it showed a significant urban heat island intensity. A stochastic model developed from the data showed that the maximum mean daily value would be about 6°C which compared well with more detailed measurements. However, there was a highly significant trend of increasing urban heat island intensity which by the end of the century could add 2.4 K to the predicted climate change increase. An analysis of the urban morphology showed that the urban site had indeed become more urban over 9 years of the study, losing green spaces which mitigate against the urban heat island intensity. Practical application : The results from this paper will allow building and HVAC designers to consider the increase in the urban heat island in their designs when using future weather data. Although the results are for Manchester, similar trends may well apply to other similar-sized cities. Designers should consider the future weather data available, as their buildings will last for a considerable time so they should be as future-proofed as possible.
If one surveys the development of wind engineering, one comes to the conclusion that the challenge of urban climatology is one of the most important remaining tasks for the wind engineers. But what distinguishes wind engineering in urban areas from conventional wind engineering? Principally, the fact that the effects studied are usually unique to a particular situation, requiring consideration of the surroundings of the buildings. In the past, modelling criteria have been developed that make it possible to solve environmental problems with great confidence, and studies validated the models: at least in a neutrally stratified atmosphere. The approach adopted in the book is that of applied fluid mechanics, since this forms the basis for the evaluation of the urban wind field. Variables for air quality or loads are problem specific, or even random, and methods for studying them are based on risk analysis, which is also presented. Criteria are developed for a systematic approach to urban wind engineering problems, including parameter studies. The five sections of the book are: Fundamentals of urban boundary layer and dispersion; Forces on complex structures in built-up areas; Air pollution in cities; Numerical solution techniques; and Posters. A subject index is included.
Urban Climates is the first full synthesis of modern scientific and applied research on urban climates. The book begins with an outline of what constitutes an urban ecosystem. It develops a comprehensive terminology for the subject using scale and surface classification as key constructs. It explains the physical principles governing the creation of distinct urban climates, such as airflow around buildings, the heat island, precipitation modification and air pollution, and it then illustrates how this knowledge can be applied to moderate the undesirable consequences of urban development and help create more sustainable and resilient cities. With urban climate science now a fully-fledged field, this timely book fulfills the need to bring together the disparate parts of climate research on cities into a coherent framework. It is an ideal resource for students and researchers in fields such as climatology, urban hydrology, air quality, environmental engineering and urban design.
The coastal environment is deteriorating at an alarming rate and is currently a great societal concern. This book provides a selected collection of papers on coastal environmental change, coastal disasters, and coastal infrastructure due to global warming, with a focus on the coasts of the rapidly developing country China. What makes the book distinctly different from others is its diversity, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of coastal problems. With contributions from over 30 authors, the book is a comprehensive account of diverse topics, such as coastal upwelling, estuarine processes, coastal pollution, sea level rise, meteorological and atmospheric problems, urbanization and the heat island effect, and coastal infrastructure, to name just a few, from theoretical study and phenomenological description, to methodological development. This book is expected to serve as a relatively comprehensive reference for coastal researchers, graduate students, as well as policymakers and coastal resource managers.
This book focuses on urban "green infrastructure" – the interconnected web of vegetated spaces like street trees, parks and peri-urban forests that provide essential ecosystem services in cities. The green infrastructure approach embodies the idea that these services, such as storm-water runoff control, pollutant filtration and amenities for outdoor recreation, are just as vital for a modern city as those provided by any other type of infrastructure. Ensuring that these ecosystem services are indeed delivered in an equitable and sustainable way requires knowledge of the physical attributes of trees and urban green spaces, tools for coping with the complex social and cultural dynamics, and an understanding of how these factors can be integrated in better governance practices. By conveying the findings and recommendations of COST Action FP1204 GreenInUrbs, this volume summarizes the collaborative efforts of researchers and practitioners from across Europe to address these challenges.
|Author||: Hellen Rose Anyango Awino|
|Release Date||: 2019|
|Pages||: 118 pages|
The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect is a well-studied phenomenon broadly attributed to human activities that transform open terrain into cityscapes. Among global 21st-century concerns, projected trends in population growth, urbanization, and regional climate change could exacerbate the warming in cities and intensify the UHI effect. Yet, microclimate analysis essential to assessing UHI intensity is often neglected, resulting in poor planning practices with adverse effects on health, comfort and energy use within cities. With buildings responsible for substantial quantities of global energy consumption and carbon emissions, this context demands climate-responsive design to achieve better-performing cities. The UHI effect presents an urban design challenge, but only recently has there been a platform for design workflow integration. Despite existing engines that accurately evaluate UHI intensity in urban environments, architects, designers, and urban planners have often not incorporated such simulation into microclimate studies due to prohibitively expensive computational costs, disconnected workflows within unintuitive or unfamiliar platforms, and uncertainty about difficult-to-obtain urban climatology parameters. These hindrances cause impactful delay within the design feedback loop and often generate a lack of confidence in the simulation process and output. This thesis proposes a Computer-Aided-Design integrated graphical user interface for the Urban Weather Generator (UWG), an urban-scale climate prediction tool developed by Bruno Bueno to simulate microclimatic conditions of urban sites using operational weather station data. The goal is to make the powerful and computationally cheap engine accessible to design workflows by incorporating it as a plugin within the conventional design software Rhinoceros-3D, and by coupling it with the Local Climate Zone classification scheme developed by urban climate experts lain Stewart and Timothy Oke to standardize quantitative physical descriptions of cities. The proposed update automates geometric parameter extraction and implements a reliable means of urban morphological parameter estimation. As a case study, an iterative urban-scale design exploration is analyzed for selected climates.
Cities are one of the most significant contributors to global climate change. The rapid speed at which urban centers use large amounts of resources adds to the global crisis and can lead to extreme local heat. The Urban Fix addresses how urban design, planning and policies can counter the threats of climate change, urban heat islands and overpopulation, helping cities take full advantage of their inherent advantages and new technologies to catalyze social, cultural and physical solutions to combat the epic, unprecedented challenges humanity faces. The book fills a conspicuous void in the international dialogue on climate change and heat islands by examining both the environmental benefits in developed countries and the population benefit in developing countries. Urban heat islands can be addressed in incremental, manageable steps, such as planting trees and painting roofs white, which provide a more concrete and proactive sense of progress for policymakers and practitioners. This book is invaluable to anyone searching for a better understanding of the impact of resilient cities in the monumental and urgent fight against climate change, and provides the tools to do so.
This book describes the observation of urban climates in Latin-American and their relationships with urban sprawl, the economic emergence of Latin American countries, social segregation, urban ecology, disasters and resilience. The chapters include contributions dealing with urban heat islands, local climate zones, thermal comfort, air pollution, extreme climate index, green infrastructure, health issues and adaptions based on the socio-economic background of urban areas. This book revises the role of urban planning and environmental governance, highlighting the singularities in climate adaptation policies in developing countries.
|Author||: Siqiang Wang|
|Release Date||: 2018|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
In this chapter, we present the analysis of urban heat island (UHI) effects on coastal urban areas using satellite images as a case study in Hangzhou, China. With the sustainable development of coastal areas, land use and land cover have been dramatically changed. Such changes make the phenomenon of urban heat island (UHI) becoming serious, which has brought some negative influences on human activities or public health issues in coastal regions. This study takes Hangzhou as an example of coastal cities and uses the Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI images to retrieve the urban land surface temperature (LST). We also mapped and compared the intensity of UHI effects in different years of 2003, 2008 and 2013. The result shows that the intensity of UHI effect in 2013 was more serious than previous years, which is increasing year by year. The study also analyzed the relationship between UHI, NDVI, and NDBI and provided some useful suggestions to mitigate the UHI effects on coastal cities such as Hangzhou in China.
Interdisciplinary in content as well as approach, this collection of original essays takes a fresh look at the ecology of urban communities. Written by experts from a variety of professions―academic researchers, private and public program managers, and citizen activists―the book explores issues of geography, ecology, landscape architecture, urban forestry, law, and environmental education. Contributions include broad overviews of common problems a well as detailed case studies of specific programs.
The urban climate is continuously deteriorating. Urban heat lowers the quality of urban life, increases energy needs, and affects the urban socio-economy. Urban Climate Mitigation Techniques presents steps that can be taken to mitigate this situation through a series of innovative technologies and examples of best practices for the improvement of the urban climate. Including tools for evaluation and a comparative analysis, this book addresses anthropogenic heat, green areas, cool materials and pavements, outdoor shading structures, evaporative cooling and earth cooling. Case studies demonstrate the success and applicability of these measures in various cities throughout the world. Useful for urban designers, architects and planners, Urban Climate Mitigation Techniques is a step by step tour of the innovative technologies improving our urban climate, providing a holistic approach supported by well-established quantitative examples.