The Role of Animals in Emerging Viral Diseases presents what is currently known about the role of animals in the emergence or re-emergence of viruses including HIV-AIDS, SARS, Ebola, avian flu, swine flu, and rabies. It presents the structure, genome, and methods of transmission that influence emergence and considers non-viral factors that favor emergence, such as animal domestication, human demography, population growth, human behavior, and land-use changes. When viruses jump species, the result can be catastrophic, causing disease and death in humans and animals. These zoonotic outbreaks reflect several factors, including increased mobility of human populations, changes in demography and environmental changes due to globalization. The threat of new, emerging viruses and the fact that there are no vaccines for the most common zoonotic viruses drive research in the biology and ecology of zoonotic transmission. In this book, specialists in 11 emerging zoonotic viruses present detailed information on each virus's structure, molecular biology, current geographic distribution, and method of transmission. The book discusses the impact of virus emergence by considering the ratio of mortality, morbidity, and asymptomatic infection and assesses methods for predicting, monitoring, mitigating, and controlling viral disease emergence. Analyzes the structure, molecular biology, current geographic distribution and methods of transmission of 10 viruses Provides a clear perspective on how events in wildlife, livestock, and even companion animals have contributed to virus outbreaks and epidemics Exemplifies the "one world, one health, one medicine" approach to emerging disease by examining events in animal populations as precursors to what could affect humans
In the past half century, deadly disease outbreaks caused by novel viruses of animal origin - Nipah virus in Malaysia, Hendra virus in Australia, Hantavirus in the United States, Ebola virus in Africa, along with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), several influenza subtypes, and the SARS (sudden acute respiratory syndrome) and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) coronaviruses - have underscored the urgency of understanding factors influencing viral disease emergence and spread. Emerging Viral Diseases is the summary of a public workshop hosted in March 2014 to examine factors driving the appearance, establishment, and spread of emerging, re-emerging and novel viral diseases; the global health and economic impacts of recently emerging and novel viral diseases in humans; and the scientific and policy approaches to improving domestic and international capacity to detect and respond to global outbreaks of infectious disease. This report is a record of the presentations and discussion of the event.
Emerging and Reemerging Viral Pathogens: Applied Virology Approaches Related to Human, Animal and Environmental Pathogens, Volume Two presents new research information on viruses and their impact on the scientific community. It provides a reference book on certain viruses in humans, animals and vegetal, along with a comprehensive discussion on interspecies interactions. The book then looks at the drug, vaccine and bioinformatical strategies that can be used against these viruses, giving the reader a clear understanding of transmission. The book's end goal is to create awareness that the appearance of newly transmissible pathogens is a global risk that requires shared/adoptable policies for prevention and control. Covers most emerging viral disease in humans, animals and plants Provides the most advanced tools and techniques in molecular virology and the modeling of viruses Creates awareness that the appearance of new transmissible pathogens is a global risk Highlights the need to adopt shared policies for the prevention and control of infectious diseases
Approximately 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses. The rate of emergence of zoonotic viruses appears to be increasing and/or our ability to detect new viruses is improving. Bats are being increasingly recognised as an important reservoir of zoonotic viruses of different families, including SARS coronavirus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus and Ebola virus. Several recent studies hypothesized that bats, an ancient group of flying mammals, are the major reservoir of several important RNA virus families from which most (if not all) other known mammalian viruses of livestock animals and human were derived. As the only flying mammal on earh, bats have several unique biological features distinguishing them from all other mammals. Recent genomics studies revealed that the adaptation of flight is linked to bat's ability to live longer and harbouring a large number of viruses without suffering from diseases. There has been a very rapid increase in the number of publication in the 2000s. This was mainly due to the discovery of bats as reservoir of major zoonotic viruses such as Henipavirus, SARS virus and Ebola/Marburg viruses in the 1990s, which triggered a new wave of research interests into bats as a reservoir of viruses. In addition to the large number of bat viruses discovered in the last two decades, the research interest has also expanded to the host biology, especially in the area of immunology and genomics marked by the recent publication of the two bat genomes in Science (Zhang et al. 203 Science, 339: 456-460) as a cover story. It is unfortunate that for such an important and rapidly expanding area of research, there has been no publication of any dedicated book on this topic. The last book published in this area is a monogram titled "Virus Infections in Bats" in 1974 which is almost 4 decades ago. This is the time to produce a book dedicated to this important topic which has witnessed tremendous growth in the last four decades. The aim of this project is to provide a most updated review on our knowledge in the area of bat biology and bats as a host of major zoonotic viruses. The book will cover a wide range of topics from bat biology, bat immunology, bat genomics to pathogen discovery and specific chapters on each of the major bat-borne virus families. The book will also provide a chapter remarking on the future direction of research in this important and rapidly growing area.
This book, which is the first volume of the book series-Livestock Diseases and Management, summarizes the prominence and implications of the emerging and transboundary animal viruses. Although the livestock plays an important role in the economy of many countries, the emerging and transboundary animal viral diseases possess a serious risk to the animal-agriculture sector and food security globally. The book describes the precise and up-to-date information on animal viral diseases which have emerged in the recent past or are re-emerging due to various environmental factors and those which are not bounded in restricted national boundaries and attained the transboundary status. The chapters summarize the recent advancements in the molecular state-of-art tools towards the development of diagnostics, prophylactics, and therapeutics of these viruses. It also explicitly describes the challenges imposed by the emerging and transboundary viral infections and our preparedness to counter them.
|Author||: James E. Childs,John S. Mackenzie,Jürgen A.. Richt|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2007-07-23|
|ISBN 10||: 3540709622|
|Pages||: 524 pages|
This volume offers an overview of the processes of zoonotic viral emergence, the intricacies of host/virus interactions, and the role of biological transitions and modifying factors. The themes introduced here are amplified and explored in detail by the contributing authors, who explore the mechanisms and unique circumstances by which evolution, biology, history, and current context have contrived to drive the emergence of different zoonotic agents by a series of related events.
Foodborne illnesses caused by zoonotic pathogens associated with wildlife hosts are an emerging microbial food safety concern. Transmission of foodborne pathogens can occur through ingestion, or improper handling, of contaminated game meat. Wild and feral animals have also been investigated as potential sources of Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other enteric pathogens following foodborne disease outbreaks linked to fresh fruits and vegetables (e.g., baby spinach in California, shelled-peas in Alaska, strawberries in Oregon). This book explores the range of bacterial, parasitic, and viral pathogens that have been described in wildlife populations in the United States, Europe and other parts of the world. It also addresses important challenges and solutions to balance agriculture, conservation, and public health goals. The book provides unique information on approaches in risk communication, co-management, and One Health in a wildlife-food safety context. The first five chapters review research on the detection, epidemiology and ecology of foodborne pathogens in wildlife populations including the influence of wildlife-livestock-human interactions. The second half of the book addresses current guidelines to mitigate microbial food safety risks from wildlife hosts and new regulations proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in the Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule. Chapters are written by an array of internationally reco gnized authors, and will be of interest to agriculture safety experts, ecologists, environmental health specialists, food safety professionals, microbiologists, public health practitioners, veterinarians, wildlife biologists, and others in academia, government, industry, and students in these disciplines.
Zoonotic diseases represent one of the leading causes of illness and death from infectious disease. Defined by the World Health Organization, zoonoses are â€œthose diseases and infections that are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and man with or without an arthropod intermediate.â€ Worldwide, zoonotic diseases have a negative impact on commerce, travel, and economies. In most developing countries, zoonotic diseases are among those diseases that contribute significantly to an already overly burdened public health system. In industrialized nations, zoonotic diseases are of particular concern for at-risk groups such as the elderly, children, childbearing women, and immunocompromised individuals. The Emergence of Zoonotic Diseases: Understanding the Impact on Animal and Human Health, covers a range of topics, which include: an evaluation of the relative importance of zoonotic diseases against the overall backdrop of emerging infections; research findings related to the current state of our understanding of zoonotic diseases; surveillance and response strategies to detect, prevent, and mitigate the impact of zoonotic diseases on human health; and information about ongoing programs and actions being taken to identify the most important needs in this vital area.
|Author||: Jagadeesh Bayry|
|Release Date||: 2017-02-07|
|ISBN 10||: 331947426X|
|Pages||: 449 pages|
This book provides comprehensive knowledge on diseases in livestock that are caused by viruses, parasites and bacteria. Emerging and re-emerging pathogens are presented in detail for various animal groups and in-depth insights into pathogenesis and epidemiology will be provided for each of them. In addition, state-of-the-art treatment possibilities, control measures as well as vaccination strategies are discussed. The recent years have witnessed a sharp increase in the number of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases of livestock and many of these, including Influenza, Corona and Hanta are of public health importance. The reasons for this development are manifold:changes in the climate, life cycle of vectors and increased global travel. Also, due to extensive deforestation, livestock are increasingly coming in direct contact with wild animals that are reservoirs of many emerging pathogens. Recent progress in diagnosis and management of emerging infectious diseases are also topic of this book.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Committee on Achieving Sustainable Global Capacity for Surveillance and Response to Emerging Diseases of Zoonotic Origin|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2010-01-24|
|ISBN 10||: 0309137349|
|Pages||: 338 pages|
H1N1 ("swine flu"), SARS, mad cow disease, and HIV/AIDS are a few examples of zoonotic diseases-diseases transmitted between humans and animals. Zoonotic diseases are a growing concern given multiple factors: their often novel and unpredictable nature, their ability to emerge anywhere and spread rapidly around the globe, and their major economic toll on several disparate industries. Infectious disease surveillance systems are used to detect this threat to human and animal health. By systematically collecting data on the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals, investigators can track the spread of disease and provide an early warning to human and animal health officials, nationally and internationally, for follow-up and response. Unfortunately, and for many reasons, current disease surveillance has been ineffective or untimely in alerting officials to emerging zoonotic diseases. Sustaining Global Surveillance and Response to Emerging Zoonotic Diseases assesses some of the disease surveillance systems around the world, and recommends ways to improve early detection and response. The book presents solutions for improved coordination between human and animal health sectors, and among governments and international organizations. Parties seeking to improve the detection and response to zoonotic diseases--including U.S. government and international health policy makers, researchers, epidemiologists, human health clinicians, and veterinarians--can use this book to help curtail the threat zoonotic diseases pose to economies, societies, and health.
Zoonoses are a persistent threat to the global human health Today, more than 200 diseases occurring in humans and animals are known to be mutually transmitted. Classical infectious diseases, such as rabies, plague, and yellow fever, have not been eradicated despite major efforts. New zoonotic diseases are on the increase due global conditions such as overpopulation, wars, and food scarcity, which facilitate human contact with rodents, stray animals, and their parasites. In addition, humans are unwittingly becoming accidental hosts and new links in an infectious chain by engaging in activities such as survival training, which involves camping in open areas and consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked food. Zoonotic infections cause a variety of symptoms that often do not provide clear evidence of a known disease. Zoonoses, Fourth Edition, describes most occurring worldwide zoonosis and facilitates the identification, diagnosis and treatment of zoonotic infections. Written by a team of doctors, medical microbiologists and veterinarians, this completely, revised edition covers all aspects of the epidemiology and prevention of zoonotic diseases through clear descriptions of various illnesses. Specifically, this fourth edition covers zoonosis caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites infections caused by animal bites infections and intoxications by animal foods Iatrogenic transmission of zoonotic pathogens Zoonoses is an indispensable reference for clinicians and laboratorians.
|Author||: Bouzid, Maha|
|Publisher||: IGI Global|
|Release Date||: 2016-08-04|
|ISBN 10||: 1522505547|
|Pages||: 327 pages|
Climate change is one of the most widely debated and worrisome topics of our time. As environmental changes become more prevalent, there has been evidence to suggest that there is a correlation between the environment and a substantial increase of infectious diseases and viruses around the globe. Examining the Role of Environmental Change on Emerging Infectious Diseases and Pandemics investigates the impact of climate change in relation to the emergence and spread of global diseases. Highlighting epidemiological factors and policies to govern epidemics and pandemics, this publication is a critical reference source for medical professionals, students, environmental scientists, advocates, policy makers, academics, and researchers.
Modern transportation allows people, animals, and plants--and the pathogens they carry--to travel more easily than ever before. The ease and speed of travel, tourism, and international trade connect once-remote areas with one another, eliminating many of the geographic and cultural barriers that once limited the spread of disease. Because of our global interconnectedness through transportation, tourism and trade, infectious diseases emerge more frequently; spread greater distances; pass more easily between humans and animals; and evolve into new and more virulent strains. The IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats hosted the workshop "Globalization, Movement of Pathogens (and Their Hosts) and the Revised International Health Regulations" December 16-17, 2008 in order to explore issues related to infectious disease spread in a "borderless" world. Participants discussed the global emergence, establishment, and surveillance of infectious diseases; the complex relationship between travel, trade, tourism, and the spread of infectious diseases; national and international policies for mitigating disease movement locally and globally; and obstacles and opportunities for detecting and containing these potentially wide-reaching and devastating diseases. This document summarizes the workshop.
|Author||: Rubén Bueno-Marí,A. Paulo Gouveia Almeida,Juan Carlos Navarro|
|Publisher||: Frontiers Media SA|
|Release Date||: 2015-07-06|
|ISBN 10||: 2889196186|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Zoonoses are currently considered as one of the most important threats for public health worldwide. Zoonoses can be defined as any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate or invertebrate animals to humans and vice-versa. Approximately 75% of recently emerging infectious diseases affecting humans are diseases of animal origin; approximately 60% of all human pathogens are zoonotic. All types of potential pathogenic agents, including viruses, parasites, bacteria and fungi, can cause these zoonotic infections. From the wide range of potential vectors of zoonoses, insects are probably those of major significance due to their abundance, high plasticity and adaptability to different kinds of pathogens, high degrees of synanthropism in several groups and difficulties to apply effective programs of population control. Although ticks, flies, cockroaches, bugs and fleas are excellent insects capable to transmit viruses, parasites and bacteria, undoubtedly mosquitoes are the most important disease vectors. Mosquito borne diseases like malaria, dengue, equine encephalitis, West Nile, Mayaro or Chikungunya are zoonoses with increasing incidence in last years in tropical and temperate countries. Vertebrates can also transmit serious zoonoses, highlighting the role of some carnivorous animals in rabies dissemination or the spread of rodent borne diseases in several rural and urban areas. Moreover, the significance of other food borne zoonoses such as taeniasis, trichinellosis or toxoplasmosis may not been underestimated. According to WHO, FAO and OIE guidelines an emerging zoonotic disease can be defined as a zoonosis that is newly recognized or newly evolved, or that has occurred previously but shows an increase of incidence or expansion in geographical, host or vector range. There are many factors that can provoke or accelerate the emergence of zoonoses, such as environmental changes, habitat modifications, variations of human and animal demography, pathogens and vectors anomalous mobilization related with human practices and globalization, deterioration of the strategies of vector control or changes in pathogen genetics. To reduce public health risks from zoonoses is absolutely necessary to acquire an integrative perspective that includes the study of the complexity of interactions among humans, animals and environment in order to be able to fight against these issues of primary interest for human health. In any case, although zoonoses represent significant public health threats, many of them still remain as neglected diseases and consequently are not prioritized by some health international organisms.
This book discusses the prominence and implication of the viral diseases that are a major threat to animals around the globe. A number of these diseases have also shown links with human populations, which has implications for public health. This book offers detailed and up-to-date information on viral diseases in livestock and poultry that were and/or are still a problem. Including cutting-edge developments, it also highlights several landmark contributions in the field of virology from India. Additionally, the book features tables and figures showing important clinical data and recommendations, with references for further information. It also explores the economic impact of viral diseases for farmers and the livestock industry, providing several examples. Further, it presents the latest information on viral diseases in global context, with a focus on state-of-art, molecular tools for the development of diagnostics, prophylactics and therapeutics. Lastly, the book also describes the challenges posed by the emerging and transboundary viral infections and our preparedness to counter them.
Infectious diseases are a global hazard that puts every nation and every person at risk. The recent SARS outbreak is a prime example. Knowing neither geographic nor political borders, often arriving silently and lethally, microbial pathogens constitute a grave threat to the health of humans. Indeed, a majority of countries recently identified the spread of infectious disease as the greatest global problem they confront. Throughout history, humans have struggled to control both the causes and consequences of infectious diseases and we will continue to do so into the foreseeable future. Following up on a high-profile 1992 report from the Institute of Medicine, Microbial Threats to Health examines the current state of knowledge and policy pertaining to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases from around the globe. It examines the spectrum of microbial threats, factors in disease emergence, and the ultimate capacity of the United States to meet the challenges posed by microbial threats to human health. From the impact of war or technology on disease emergence to the development of enhanced disease surveillance and vaccine strategies, Microbial Threats to Health contains valuable information for researchers, students, health care providers, policymakers, public health officials. and the interested public.
|Author||: Edward T Ryan,David R Hill,Tom Solomon,Timothy P Endy,Naomi Aronson|
|Publisher||: Elsevier Health Sciences|
|Release Date||: 2019-03-25|
|ISBN 10||: 0323625509|
|Pages||: 1264 pages|
New emerging diseases, new diagnostic modalities for resource-poor settings, new vaccine schedules ... all significant, recent developments in the fast-changing field of tropical medicine. Hunter’s Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10th Edition, keeps you up to date with everything from infectious diseases and environmental issues through poisoning and toxicology, animal injuries, and nutritional and micronutrient deficiencies that result from traveling to tropical or subtropical regions. This comprehensive resource provides authoritative clinical guidance, useful statistics, and chapters covering organs, skills, and services, as well as traditional pathogen-based content. You’ll get a full understanding of how to recognize and treat these unique health issues, no matter how widespread or difficult to control. Includes important updates on malaria, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis and HIV, as well as coverage of Ebola, Zika virus, Chikungunya, and other emerging pathogens. Provides new vaccine schedules and information on implementation. Features five all-new chapters: Neglected Tropical Diseases: Public Health Control Programs and Mass Drug Administration; Health System and Health Care Delivery; Zika; Medical Entomology; and Vector Control – as well as 250 new images throughout. Presents the common characteristics and methods of transmission for each tropical disease, as well as the applicable diagnosis, treatment, control, and disease prevention techniques. Contains skills-based chapters such as dentistry, neonatal pediatrics and ICMI, and surgery in the tropics, and service-based chapters such as transfusion in resource-poor settings, microbiology, and imaging. Discusses maladies such as delusional parasitosis that are often seen in returning travelers, including those making international adoptions, transplant patients, medical tourists, and more.
|Author||: David Quammen|
|Publisher||: W. W. Norton & Company|
|Release Date||: 2012-10-01|
|ISBN 10||: 0393239225|
|Pages||: 592 pages|
"[Mr. Quammen] is not just among our best science writers but among our best writers, period." —Dwight Garner, New York Times The next big human pandemic—the next disease cataclysm, perhaps on the scale of AIDS or the 1918 influenza—is likely to be caused by a new virus coming to humans from wildlife. Experts call such an event “spillover” and they warn us to brace ourselves. David Quammen has tracked this subject from the jungles of Central Africa, the rooftops of Bangladesh, and the caves of southern China to the laboratories where researchers work in space suits to study lethal viruses. He illuminates the dynamics of Ebola, SARS, bird flu, Lyme disease, and other emerging threats and tells the story of AIDS and its origins as it has never before been told. Spillover reads like a mystery tale, full of mayhem and clues and questions. When the Next Big One arrives, what will it look like? From which innocent host animal will it emerge? Will we be ready?
|Author||: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2016-09-21|
|ISBN 10||: 0309377625|
|Pages||: 396 pages|
Pathogens transmitted among humans, animals, or plants by insects and arthropod vectors have been responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout recorded history. Such vector-borne diseases â€" including malaria, dengue, yellow fever, and plague â€" together accounted for more human disease and death in the 17th through early 20th centuries than all other causes combined. Over the past three decades, previously controlled vector-borne diseases have resurged or reemerged in new geographic locations, and several newly identified pathogens and vectors have triggered disease outbreaks in plants and animals, including humans. Domestic and international capabilities to detect, identify, and effectively respond to vector-borne diseases are limited. Few vaccines have been developed against vector-borne pathogens. At the same time, drug resistance has developed in vector-borne pathogens while their vectors are increasingly resistant to insecticide controls. Furthermore, the ranks of scientists trained to conduct research in key fields including medical entomology, vector ecology, and tropical medicine have dwindled, threatening prospects for addressing vector-borne diseases now and in the future. In June 2007, as these circumstances became alarmingly apparent, the Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a workshop to explore the dynamic relationships among host, pathogen(s), vector(s), and ecosystems that characterize vector-borne diseases. Revisiting this topic in September 2014, the Forum organized a workshop to examine trends and patterns in the incidence and prevalence of vector-borne diseases in an increasingly interconnected and ecologically disturbed world, as well as recent developments to meet these dynamic threats. Participants examined the emergence and global movement of vector-borne diseases, research priorities for understanding their biology and ecology, and global preparedness for and progress toward their prevention, control, and mitigation. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.