|Author||: Bert Rudels|
|Release Date||: 2020-11-15|
|ISBN 10||: 9780128169308|
|Pages||: 500 pages|
The Physical Oceanography of the Arctic Mediterranean Sea: Exploration, Observations, Interpretations describes circulation and processes in the Arctic Mediterranean Sea (AMS), how our present knowledge has come about, likely changes in the AMS, and its role in a future, possibly warmer global climate. Authored by a world-renowned leader in the field, this book explores these questions with a look to the future for this globally important sea. It is a must-read for researchers and students in the fields of oceanography and climate science. Relates observed features to active processes and provides sufficient background information to understand theoretical explanations Presents the Arctic Mediterranean Sea in the context of global ocean circulation and climate Provides a modern, comprehensive and coherent treatment of Arctic (and subarctic) physical oceanography
The hydrological cycle of the Arctic Ocean has intimate and complex linkages to global climate: changes in one affect the other, usually with a feedback. The combined effects of large river runoff, advection of meteoric water, low evaporation rates and distillation by freezing contribute to the formation of a strong halocline in the upper Arctic ocean, which limits thermal communication between the sea ice and the warmer waters of Atlantic origin below. Sea ice and freshened surface waters are transported from the marginal seas by winds and currents, ultimately exiting the Arctic Ocean through Fram and Davis Straits. Variations in the freshwater outflow from these regions affect the density structure of the Arctic Ocean itself and so the surface heat balance. Another feedback is the effect these variations have on the density profile of the water column in the Greenland and Labrador seas where, at present, convection takes place mixing surface waters downwards with those at greater depth. This downward convective motion produces dense deep waters that flow outwards from these two centres and affect the entire North Atlantic.
|Author||: Y. Herman|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2012-12-06|
|ISBN 10||: 3642874118|
|Pages||: 398 pages|
Lorsqu'il n'est pas en notre pouvoir de discerner les plus vraies opinions, nous devons suivre les plus pro babies.-Rene Descartes When, in the early 1960's I undertook to covered, due to limitations imposed by a single study Arctic Ocean deep-sea cores, I did not volume. anticipate that 10 years later the climatic history Although not comprehensive, it is hoped that of the north polar basin would be still a matter of this book will provide an insight into the current debate. Although much new data have accumu status of Arctic research and will also serve as a lated in various fields of Arct.
With the advent of computers, novel instruments, satellite technology, and increasingly powerful modeling tools, we know more about the ocean than ever before. Yet we also have a new generation of oceanographers who have become increasingly distanced from the object of their study. Ever fewer scientists collect the observational data on which they base their research. Instead, many download information without always fully understanding how far removed it is from the original data, with opportunity for great misinterpretation. This textbook introduces modern physical oceanography to beginning graduate students in marine sciences and experienced practitioners in allied fields. Real observations are strongly emphasized, as are their implications for understanding the behavior of the global ocean. Written by a leading physical oceanographer, Modern Observational Physical Oceanography explains what the observational revolution of the past twenty-five years has taught us about the real, changing fluid ocean. Unlike any other book, it provides a broad and accessible treatment of the subject, covering everything from modern methods of observation and data analysis to the fluid dynamics and modeling of ocean processes and variability. Fully illustrated in color throughout, the book describes the fundamental concepts that are needed before delving into more advanced topics, including internal-inertial waves, tides, balanced motions, and large-scale circulation physics. Provides an accessible introduction to modern physical oceanography Written by a leading physical oceanographer Emphasizes real observations of the fluid ocean Features hundreds of color illustrations An online illustration package is available to professors
For decades, previous editions of John Knauss’s seminal work have struck a balance between purely descriptive texts and mathematically rigorous ones, giving a wide range of marine scientists access to the fundamental principles of physical oceanography. Newell Garfield continues this tradition, delivering valuable updates that highlight the book’s resourceful presentation and concise effectiveness. The authors include historical and current research, along with a 12-page color insert, to illuminate their perspective that the world ocean is tumultuous and continually helps to shape global environmental processes. The Third Edition builds a solid foundation that readers will find straightforward and lucid. It presents valuable insight into our understanding of the world ocean by: • Encompassing essential oceanic processes such as the transfer of heat across the ocean surface, the distribution of temperature and salinity, and the effect of the earth’s rotation on the ocean. • Providing sensible and well-defined explanations of the roles played by a stratified ocean, global balances, and equations of motion. • Discussing cogent topics such as major currents, tides, waves, coastal oceans, semienclosed seas, and sound and optics.
We are only now beginning to understand the climatic impact of the remarkable events that are now occurring in subarctic waters. Researchers, however, have yet to agree upon a predictive model that links change in our northern seas to climate. This volume brings together the body of evidence needed to develop climate models that quantify the ocean exchanges through subarctic seas, measure their variability, and gauge their impact on climate.
The oceans cover 70% of the Earth’s surface, and are critical components of Earth’s climate system. This new edition of Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences summarizes the breadth of knowledge about them, providing revised, up to date entries as well coverage of new topics in the field. New and expanded sections include microbial ecology, high latitude systems and the cryosphere, climate and climate change, hydrothermal and cold seep systems. The structure of the work provides a modern presentation of the field, reflecting the input and different perspective of chemical, physical and biological oceanography, the specialized area of expertise of each of the three Editors-in-Chief. In this framework maximum attention has been devoted to making this an organic and unified reference. Represents a one-stop. organic information resource on the breadth of ocean science research Reflects the input and different perspective of chemical, physical and biological oceanography, the specialized area of expertise of each of the three Editors-in-Chief New and expanded sections include microbial ecology, high latitude systems and climate change Provides scientifically reliable information at a foundational level, making this work a resource for students as well as active researches
The Arctic region has long held a fascination for explorers and scientists of many countries. Despite the numerous voyages of exploration, the na ture of the central Arctic was unknown only 90 years ago; it was believed to be a shallow sea dotted with islands. During Nansen's historic voyage on the polarship Fram, which commenced in 1893, the great depth of the central basin was discovered. In the Soviet Union, investigation of the Arctic Ocean became national policy after 1917. Today research at several scientific institutions there is devoted primarily to the study of the North Polar Ocean and seas. The systematic exploration of the Arctic by the United States com menced in 1951. Research has been conducted year-round from drifting ice islands, which are tabular fragments of glacier ice that break away from ice shelves. Most frequently, ice islands originate off the northern coast of Ellesmere Island. These research platforms are occupied as weather sta tions, as well as for oceanographic and geophysical studies. Several inter national projects, conducted by Canadian, European, and U. S. groups, have been underway during the last three decades. Although much new data have accumulated since the publication of the Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Arctic Seas volume in 1974 (Yvonne Herman, ed. ), in various fields of polar research-including present-day ice cover, hydrogra phy, fauna, flora, and geology-many questions remain to be answered.
|Author||: Lisa E. Osterman,Richard Z. Poore,Kevin M. Foley,Geological Survey (U.S.)|
|Release Date||: 1999|
|Pages||: 28 pages|