Contrary to a generally held view that pearls are found by chance in oysters, almost all are now produced from farms. This book is a comprehensive treatment of all aspects of the biology of pearl oysters, their anatomy, reproduction, genetics, diseases, etc. It considers how they are farmed from spawning and culturing larvae in hatcheries to adults in the ocean; how various environmental factors, including pollution affect them; and how modern techniques are successfully producing large numbers of cultured pearls. This is the ultimate reference source on pearl oysters and the culture of pearls, written and edited by a number of scientists who are world experts in their fields. •Comprehensive treatment of pearl oyster biology and pearl culture •Written by the top world authorities •Highly illustrated and figured •Of practical relevance to a broad readership, from professional biologists to those involved in the practicalities and practice of pearl production
|Author||: Rongqing Zhang,Liping Xie,Zhenguang Yan|
|Release Date||: 2018-09-19|
|ISBN 10||: 9811314594|
|Pages||: 737 pages|
This book presents an overview of our current understanding of the biomineralization mechanisms for shell formation in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, based on molecular biology, biochemistry, cell biology, structural biology and environmental biology. Pinctada fucata is the major pearl-producing shellfish in the South China Sea and is also an established model system for the research on the nacre biomineralization mechanism. Extensive studies on nacre biomineralization have provided valuable information for novel bionic material design. Discussing the isolation and gene cloning of the matrix proteins involved in the shell formation, as well as the cell signaling pathways, shell microstructures, and the environmental impacts on shell biomineralization, it is a valuable reference resource for researchers working in the field of nacre biomineralization and biomaterials.
|Release Date||: 1906|
|Pages||: 448 pages|
|Author||: M. H. Gervis,Neil Anthony Sims|
|Release Date||: 1992|
|ISBN 10||: 9718709274|
|Pages||: 49 pages|
Explains why oysters make pearls and dangerous snakes have diamond-shaped heads.
The pearl oyster industry is a growing multibillion dollar sector of mollusk aquaculture. Pearl farming occurs throughout Australasia, the Middle East and South America. Few species of mollusks possess the ability to produce pearls of gem quality. The South Sea pearl oyster is one of them. Pearl production in the wild is an unpredictable and uncontrolled event which human intervention, through pearl culture, has progressively overcome by improving culture practices. Farming mother-of-pearls shares commonalties with edible mollusk aquaculture. However, the endproduct, pearl production, is unique to this sector. In aquatic production, heal issues are of utmost importance; pearl production is based entirely upon health. The pearl itself is a product of the oyster's immune defenses as a response to soft-tissue irritation. Exploited stocks receive frequent handling stresses which often predispose farmed animals to infection and diseases. Therefore, the importance of health management for pearl oysters is paramount. Today, most disease problems are caused by opportunistic pathogens taking advantage of oysters weakened by the stress of handling, including pearl surgery and sub-optimal growing conditions. Except for the mass mortalities experienced in Japan, the pearl oyster industry have not yet faced the types of epizootics which has impacted mollusk culture elsewhere in the world. Development of the industry will, inevitably, lead to increased risk of disease introduction, spread or emergence. Against such an unwanted future, health management is the critical defense line. The objectives of this technical paper are to: (i) review pearl oyster mortalities and disease problems in order to help design programs aimed at reducing the risks from diseases; and (ii) provide technical guidance to pearl oyster farmers and the industry on management of pearl oyster health so that sector development will be sustainable not only in providing huge employment to communities where pearl farms are located but also contributing to maintain environmental integrity. Pearl oyster farming can serve as environmental sentinels recognizing the fact that pearl oysters thrive only in pristine environment. This publication contains three parts. Part 1 consists of pearl oyster health -- the current interest in it and an overview of the cultured marine pearl industry. Pan 2 on pearl oyster health management consists of seven sections, namely: (a) introduction; (b) general information on husbandry and handling, hatchery production, introductions and transfers; (c) disease diagnostic protocols dealing with field collections of samples, gross external examination, gross internal examination and laboratory protocols; (d) health zonation; (e) disease outbreak protocols; (f) national strategies on aquatic animal health; and (g) references. Certain countries in the pearl oyster producing regions have acquired a great deal of experience in health management of cultured species. Experiences from Australia, the Cook Islands, Japan, the French Polynesia, the Philippines, China, the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea are included in Part 3 which also contains a general review of pearl oyster mortalities and disease problems.--Publisher's description.
|Author||: S. A. A. Khamdan|
|Release Date||: 1994|
|Pages||: 220 pages|
|Author||: Sir William Abbott Herdman,Ceylon,Royal Society (Great Britain)|
|Publisher||: Franklin Classics Trade Press|
|Release Date||: 2018-11-13|
|ISBN 10||: 9780353612204|
|Pages||: 390 pages|
This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. To ensure a quality reading experience, this work has been proofread and republished using a format that seamlessly blends the original graphical elements with text in an easy-to-read typeface. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.
Pearl's Oyster, A Memoir tells the story of a woman's triumph in clarifying and coming to terms with family dynamics and their wider implications across other landscapes of her life. Born prematurely and sickly, a scrawny Clarissa Anderson was the second daughter in an already broken family that would grow into even more disjointed parts. Having inherited more than a fair share of her mother's traits - a blessing to some and a curse to others-the solitary, ambitious, and self-determined Clarissa fell in and out of relationships with schools, jobs, and well-meaning, but sometimes opportunistic characters along the way. An eventual measure of success would be compromised by rigid, misguided social rules. Simultaneously cast in the role of family outcast and problem-solver, Clarissa became a convenient scapegoat for her family, inevitably at the worst possible time. Nicknamed Pearl for reasons unlike any Clarissa understood about so precious a gem, she grew and assigned her own meaning to the nickname, despite the intention of those who coined it. Emerging daily from a home where dysfunction developed into quagmires too complicated for easy explanations, Clarissa strove to build a life necessarily propped against the strength of a carefully crafted personality, one which she would refine along the way as needed for her survival. Adulthood propelled a bewildered Clarissa on a quest to resolve the myriad contradictions occurring in and around her as she traversed the complex terrains of religion, education, work, and relationships. From a distance much looked normal; but up close the trained eye could discern that something was amiss. What had almost worked for years was becoming untucked. At the dawning of midlife, Clarissa began re-evaluating her roles, and a well-disguised reality unveiled itself, beginning with Clarissa's mother, the "virtuous" matriarch whose uncharacteristic self-undoing and sudden death led to an exhausting aftermath. Daring to investigate the meaning of so much chaos, Clarissa's inquisitiveness opened a plethora of intrigues. To avert further injury, an exhausted and dejected Clarissa closed out one life to begin a new one in another city. Her shell had begun cracking under the strain of an unclaimed identity. Life came full circle when the ultimate intrigue was laid bare, demystifying a lifetime of paradox. Clarissa discovered unspoken causes and a misdirected target of family scorn. Pearl's Oyster is that rare memoir that reads like fiction - sometimes truth is stranger than fiction. This fast moving, multigenerational saga is sure to pull you in its grip, holding you fast until the last page is turned.