The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life clarifies that the microbiome in the maternal fetal unit and immediate changes that occur as new microbes are acquired postnatally play major roles in subsequent health and disease. Rapidly developing technologies for multi-omic analyses and systems biology are shifting paradigms in both scientific knowledge and clinical care with regard to this topic. In essence, we are changing the idea that newborns emerge from sterile environments. As such, in-utero colonization may have impacts on the development of immunity and metabolism that, with epigenetic modifications, will lead to diseases in later life. In addition, the microbial profile that develops during and after birth depends on mode of delivery, type of feeding (human milk versus formula), and various other environmental factors to which the newborn is exposed. Discusses the critical nonredundant timeframe in a newborn's life during which many factors drive immune and tissue maturation and influence the susceptibility to immune-mediated and other diseases in adult life Proves that the fetus and uterine membranes are exposed to not only microbes in close proximity but also to microbial products from metabolism of microbes in the mother Shows that since early life periods are a critical window for development, epigenetic and/or immunologic alterations may occur that can affect not only the infant during his/her lifetime but also subsequent generations Gives insight into factors that may affect the newborn microbiome and subsequent development
Fetal & Neonatal Physiology provides neonatologist fellows and physicians with the essential information they need to effectively diagnose, treat, and manage sick and premature infants. Fully comprehensive, this resource continues to serve as an excellent reference tool, focusing on the basic science needed for exam preparation and the key information required for full-time practice. The 5th edition is the most substantially updated and revised edition ever. In the 5 years since the last edition published, there have been thousands of publications on various aspects of development of health and disease; Fetal and Neonatal Physiology synthesizes this knowledge into definitive guidance for today's busy practitioner. Offers definitive guidance on how to effectively manage the many health problems seen in newborn and premature infants. Chapters devoted to clinical correlation help explain the implications of fetal and neonatal physiology. Allows you to apply the latest insights on genetic therapy, intrauterine infections, brain protection and neuroimaging, and much more. Features a fantastic new 4-color design with 1,000 illustrations, 170+ chapters, and over 350 contributors. 16 new chapters cover such hot topics as Epigenetics; Placental Function in Intrauterine Growth Restriction; Regulation of Pulmonary Circulation; The Developing Microbiome of the Fetus and Newborn; Hereditary Contribution to Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Mechanistic Aspects of Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Cerebellar Development; Pathophysiology of Neonatal Sepsis; Pathophysiology of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn; Pathophysiology of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome; Pathophysiology of Ventilator Dependent Infants; Pathophysiology of Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury; Pathophysiology of Neonatal White Matter Injury; Pathophysiology of Meningitis; Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia; and Pathophysiology of Chorioamnionitis. New Pathophysiology of Neonatal Diseases section highlights every process associated with a disease or injury, all in one place. In-depth information, combined with end-of-chapter summaries, enables deep or quick use of the text.
The Human Microbiome in Early Life: Implications to Health and Disease presents recent research advances that have highlighted the significance of early life, possibly beginning before birth, in the establishment of both the microbiome and its role in health and disease. The book reviews current knowledge on the origins of the human microbiota in early life, presents exposures which may disturb normal microbial colonization, and covers their implications to the risk of disease. Finally, emerging means to modify the early human microbiome to improve health are discussed. Examines the timeline of the human microbiome, from before conception to infancy, with an emphasis on clinical implications Evaluates the effort to understand not only the composition but also the origin of the microbiome Proves the emerging means to modify the human microbiome and particularly ‘the first 1000 days of life’ improve human health and prevent disease Generates resources to facilitate characterization of the human microbiota to further our understanding of how the microbiome impacts human health and disease
The Fourth Edition of Knobil & Neill continues to serve as a reference aid for research, to provide the historical context to current research, and most importantly as an aid for graduate teaching on a broad range of topics in human and comparative reproduction. In the decade since the publication of the last edition, the study of reproductive physiology has undergone monumental changes. Chief among these advances are in the areas of stem cell development, signaling pathways, the role of inflammation in the regulatory processes in the various tissues, and the integration of new animal models which have led to a greater understanding of human disease. The new edition synthesizes all of this new information at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels of organization and present modern physiology a more understandable and comparative context. The Fourth Edition has been extensively revised, reflecting new fundamental advancements in this rapidly advancing field. Provides a common language for researchers across the fields of physiology, endocrinology, and biology to discuss their understanding of reproduction. Saves academic researchers time in quickly accessing the very latest details on reproductive physiology, as opposed to searching through thousands of journal articles.
|Author||: Joseph M. Bliss,James L. Wynn|
|Publisher||: Frontiers Media SA|
|Release Date||: 2018-01-25|
|ISBN 10||: 2889454037|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Emerging from the protective environment of the uterus, the newborn is exposed to a myriad of microbes, and quickly establishes a complex microbiome that shapes the infant’s biology in ways that are only now beginning to come to light. Among these exposures are a number of potential pathogens. The host responses to these pathogens in the neonatal period are unique, reflecting a developing immune system even with delivery at term. Preterm infants are delivered at a time when host defense mechanisms are even less developed and therefore face additional risk. As such, the organisms that cause disease in this period are different from the pathogens that are common in other age groups, or the disease they cause manifests in more severe fashion. Developmental alterations in both innate and adaptive immune responses in neonates have been documented among many cell types and pathways over the last several decades. Contemporary insights into the human immune system and methodologies that allow an “omics” approach to these questions have continued to provide new information regarding the mechanisms that underlie the human neonate as an “immunocompromised host.” This Research Topic highlights studies related to this unique host-pathogen interface. Contributions include those related to the innate or adaptive immune system of neonates, their response to microbial colonization or infection, and/or the pathogenesis of microbes causing disease in neonates.
|Author||: Kerri Durnell Schuiling,Frances E. Likis|
|Publisher||: Jones & Bartlett Learning|
|Release Date||: 2020-09-01|
|ISBN 10||: 1284182347|
|Pages||: 500 pages|
Gynecologic Health Care: With an Introduction to Prenatal and Postpartum Care continues to set the standard for evidence-based gynecologic health care and well-being in an extensively updated fourth edition. As in prior editions, the text presents gynecologic health care using a holistic and person-centered approach. Encompassing both health promotion and management of gynecologic conditions, it provides clinicians and students with a strong foundation in gynecologic care and the knowledge necessary to apply it in clinical practice. With an emphasis on the importance of respecting the normalcy of physiology, it is an essential reference for all midwives, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and other clinicians who provide gynecologic health care.
The Developing Microbiome: Lessons from Early Life focuses on the establishment of the microbiome in early life, exposing it as a key mediator of diseases and health throughout the lifecycle. The content presents a comprehensive view of the status of the field and draws real-world correlations to health and disease states. It collates the significant research being done in the pediatric microbiome research space and bridges the knowledge gap showing the factors that impact health and disease states throughout the lifecycle. Finally, it offers knowledge on how the microbiome is and can be manipulated to promote change. This is a perfect reference for both researchers and clinical scientists who are interested in the role of the infant microbiome in health and disease, as well as gastroenterologists and pediatricians looking to affect change in their patients. Provides comprehensive coverage of the factors that influence microbiome development Links research in pediatric patients to later life stages Examines increasing evidence on the impact of the microbiome beyond the gut
The exploding field of epigenetics is challenging the dogma of traditional Mendelian inheritance. Epigenetics plays an important role in shaping who we are and contributes to our prospects of health and disease. While early epigenetic research focused on plant and animal models and in vitro experiments, population-based epidemiologic studies increasingly incorporate epigenetic components. The relevance of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, genomic imprinting, and histone modification for disease causation has yet to be fully explored. This book covers the basic concepts of epigenetic epidemiology, discusses challenges in study design, analysis, and interpretation, epigenetic laboratory techniques, the influence of of age and environmental factors on shaping the epigenome, the role of epigenetics in the developmental origins hypothesis, and provides the state of the art on the epigenetic epidemiology of various health conditions including childhood syndromes, cancer, infectious diseases, inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders, psychiatric disorders, diabetes, obesity and metabolic disorders, and atherosclerosis. With contributions from: Peter Jones, Jean-Pierre Issa, Gavin Kelsey, Robert Waterland, and many other experts in epigenetics!
This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This handbook synthesizes and analyzes the growing knowledge base on life course health development (LCHD) from the prenatal period through emerging adulthood, with implications for clinical practice and public health. It presents LCHD as an innovative field with a sound theoretical framework for understanding wellness and disease from a lifespan perspective, replacing previous medical, biopsychosocial, and early genomic models of health. Interdisciplinary chapters discuss major health concerns (diabetes, obesity), important less-studied conditions (hearing, kidney health), and large-scale issues (nutrition, adversity) from a lifespan viewpoint. In addition, chapters address methodological approaches and challenges by analyzing existing measures, studies, and surveys. The book concludes with the editors’ research agenda that proposes priorities for future LCHD research and its application to health care practice and health policy. Topics featured in the Handbook include: The prenatal period and its effect on child obesity and metabolic outcomes. Pregnancy complications and their effect on women’s cardiovascular health. A multi-level approach for obesity prevention in children. Application of the LCHD framework to autism spectrum disorder. Socioeconomic disadvantage and its influence on health development across the lifespan. The importance of nutrition to optimal health development across the lifespan. The Handbook of Life Course Health Development is a must-have resource for researchers, clinicians/professionals, and graduate students in developmental psychology/science; maternal and child health; social work; health economics; educational policy and politics; and medical law as well as many interrelated subdisciplines in psychology, medicine, public health, mental health, education, social welfare, economics, sociology, and law.
|Author||: Mark Lyte,John F. Cryan|
|Release Date||: 2014-07-05|
|ISBN 10||: 1493908979|
|Pages||: 436 pages|
The field of microbial endocrinology is expressly devoted to understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiota (bacteria within the microbiome) interact with the host (“us”). This interaction is a two-way street and the driving force that governs these interactions are the neuroendocrine products of both the host and the microbiota. Chapters include neuroendocrine hormone-induced changes in gene expression and microbial endocrinology and probiotics. This is the first in a series of books dedicated to understanding how bi-directional communication between host and bacteria represents the cutting edge of translational medical research, and hopefully identifies new ways to understand the mechanisms that determine health and disease.
Updates on Neonatal Chronic Lung Disease E-Book
Dr. Richard Polin’s Neonatology Questions and Controversies series highlights the most challenging aspects of neonatal care, offering trustworthy guidance on up-to-date diagnostic and treatment options in the field. In each volume, renowned experts address the clinical problems of greatest concern to today’s practitioners, helping you handle difficult practice issues and provide optimal, evidence-based care to every patient. Stay fully up to date in this fast-changing field with The Newborn Lung, 3rd Edition. The most current clinical information throughout, including key management strategies that may reduce some of the chronic sequelae of neonatal respiratory failure. New content on the role of microbiome in lung injury and lung development. Current coverage of non-invasive respiratory support, perinatal events and their influence on lung development and injury, cell-based lung therapy, automation of respiratory support, and oxygenation targeting in preterm infants. Consistent chapter organization to help you find information quickly and easily. The most authoritative advice available from world-class neonatologists who share their knowledge of new trends and developments in neonatal care. Purchase each volume individually, or get the entire 7-volume set! Gastroenterology and Nutrition Hematology, Immunology and Genetics Hemodynamics and Cardiology Infectious Disease and Pharmacology New Volume! Nephrology and Fluid/Electrolyte Physiology Neurology The Newborn Lung
Health at a Glance provides the latest comparable data and trends on different aspects of the performance of health systems in OECD countries.
This authoritative volume describes the role of free radicals and antioxidants in prenatal and perinatal disorders currently explored in clinical and pre-clinical trials. In twenty-two inclusive chapters, the book covers the gamut of oxidative stress and its relation to a variety of factors, including fertility, metabolism, redox biomarkers, antioxidant defense and protection, gene polymorphisms, angiogenesis, cell signaling, mutations and oxidative damage involving lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, membrane trafficking, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in immunological function, hypoxia, and post-natal stressors. This comprehensive source will keep clinicians and research scientists up-to-date on translational research into medical applications. Perinatal and Prenatal Disorders is a significant addition to the well-known Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice series.
The potential impact of work being conducted in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics upon clinical practice for gynecologists is immense but not yet completely appreciated. This groundbreaking text from international experts examines the newest topics on the perinatal agenda and gives clinicians a real look into the future via the newest methodologies.
This book is the second in a series of two, featuring the Adiposity - Omics and Molecular Understanding, serving as an introduction to modern views on how the adipocytes are reciprocally interacting with organ systems in order to explain the biology of the body's fat cells and how they are integrated with other organ systems, like muscle cells and the liver, in order to control the lipid metabolism in our bodies, to finally preserve a positive balance between white and brown/beige adipocyte tissues (WAT and BAT). The understanding of the "omics" of obesity will therefore enable clinicians and researchers to better pursue the untoward incidents of metabolic deviations from a defined and health-bringing homeostasis, with fully responding WAT and BAT, being able to preserve a healthy balance between fat-producing and fat-metabolizing tissues for the benefit of the host, and thus longevity (optimal health with healthy, well-functioning organ systems) throughout a lifetime.
|Author||: Jun Sun,Pradeep K. Dudeja|
|Release Date||: 2018-01-26|
|ISBN 10||: 149397534X|
|Pages||: 381 pages|
Only recently have we begun to appreciate the role of microbiome in health and disease. Environmental factors and change of life style including diet significantly shape human microbiome that in turn appears to modify gut barrier function affecting nutrient & electrolyte absorption and inflammation. Approaches that can reverse the gut dysbiosis represent as reasonable and novel strategies for restoring the balance between host and microbes. In the book, we offer summary and discussion on the advances in understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of microbial host interactions in human diseases. We will not only discuss intestinal bacterial community, but also viruses, fungi and oral microbiome. Microbiome studies will facilitate diagnosis, functional studies, drug development and personalized medicine. Thus, this book will further highlight the microbiome in the context of health and disease, focusing on mechanistic concepts that underlie the complex relationships between host and microbes.
Dr. Richard Polin’s Neonatology Questions and Controversies series highlights the most challenging aspects of neonatal care, offering trustworthy guidance on up-to-date diagnostic and treatment options in the field. In each volume, renowned experts address the clinical problems of greatest concern to today’s practitioners, helping you handle difficult practice issues and provide optimal, evidence-based care to every patient. Stay fully up to date in this fast-changing field with Neurology, 3rd Edition. The most current clinical information, including new coverage of genetics and pharmacology, early diagnosis and targeted treatment of neonatal-onset epilepsies, and the impact of congenital heart diseases on brain development. Considerations of ongoing research regarding the basic mechanisms contributing to perinatal brain injury, which has in turn facilitated the introduction of targeted strategies in many areas. Consistent chapter organization to help you find information quickly and easily. The most authoritative advice available from world-class neonatologists who share their knowledge of new trends and developments in neonatal care. Purchase each volume individually, or get the entire 7-volume set! Gastroenterology and Nutrition Hematology, Immunology and Genetics Hemodynamics and Cardiology Infectious Disease and Pharmacology New Volume! Nephrology and Fluid/Electrolyte Physiology Neurology The Newborn Lung
From the Directors of the Award-Winning Documentary Microbirth At least two amazing events happen during childbirth. There's the obvious main event, which is the emergence of a new human into the world. But there's another event taking place simultaneously, a crucial event that is not visible to the naked eye, an event that could determine the lifelong health of the baby. This is the seeding of the baby's microbiome, the community of "good" bacteria that we carry with us throughout our lives. The seeding of the microbiome, along with breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact, kick-starts the baby's immune system and helps protect the infant from disease across a lifetime. Researchers are discovering, however, that interventions such as the use of synthetic oxytocin, antibiotics, C-sections, and formula feeding interfere with, or bypass completely, the microbial transfer from mother to baby. These bacteria are vital for human health, and science has linked an imbalance in the human microbiome with multiple chronic diseases. Drawing on the extensive research they carried out for their documentary film Microbirth, authors Toni Harman and Alex Wakeford reveal a fascinating new view of birth and how microscopic happenings can have lifelong consequences, for ourselves, our children--and our species as a whole.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound for hardening and clearing polycarbonate plastics. BPA is mainly classified as an estrogen-like endocrine-disrupting chemical. In the last decade, attention has arisen in scientific communities that it is not safe to use this chemical in mainly polycarbonate plastics. Exposure to BPA starts in prenatal period, which is the critical period for its toxic effects on different organs. Throughout this book, the readers will obtain information on the effects of BPA on different systems. They will also get information on the prenatal and postnatal effects of BPA. We believe that readers will get qualified scientific knowledge and a general overview of the toxic effects of BPA exposure and its consequences from this book.