The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life clarifies that the microbiome in the maternal fetal unit and immediate changes that occur as new microbes are acquired postnatally play major roles in subsequent health and disease. Rapidly developing technologies for multi-omic analyses and systems biology are shifting paradigms in both scientific knowledge and clinical care with regard to this topic. In essence, we are changing the idea that newborns emerge from sterile environments. As such, in-utero colonization may have impacts on the development of immunity and metabolism that, with epigenetic modifications, will lead to diseases in later life. In addition, the microbial profile that develops during and after birth depends on mode of delivery, type of feeding (human milk versus formula), and various other environmental factors to which the newborn is exposed. Discusses the critical nonredundant timeframe in a newborn's life during which many factors drive immune and tissue maturation and influence the susceptibility to immune-mediated and other diseases in adult life Proves that the fetus and uterine membranes are exposed to not only microbes in close proximity but also to microbial products from metabolism of microbes in the mother Shows that since early life periods are a critical window for development, epigenetic and/or immunologic alterations may occur that can affect not only the infant during his/her lifetime but also subsequent generations Gives insight into factors that may affect the newborn microbiome and subsequent development
The Human Microbiome in Early Life: Implications to Health and Disease presents recent research advances that have highlighted the significance of early life, possibly beginning before birth, in the establishment of both the microbiome and its role in health and disease. The book reviews current knowledge on the origins of the human microbiota in early life, presents exposures which may disturb normal microbial colonization, and covers their implications to the risk of disease. Finally, emerging means to modify the early human microbiome to improve health are discussed. Examines the timeline of the human microbiome, from before conception to infancy, with an emphasis on clinical implications Evaluates the effort to understand not only the composition but also the origin of the microbiome Proves the emerging means to modify the human microbiome and particularly ‘the first 1000 days of life’ improve human health and prevent disease Generates resources to facilitate characterization of the human microbiota to further our understanding of how the microbiome impacts human health and disease
|Author||: Pamela D. Browne,Eric Claassen,Michael D. Cabana|
|Publisher||: Wageningen Academic Publishers|
|Release Date||: 2017-07-20|
|ISBN 10||: 9086868398|
|Pages||: 344 pages|
This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of the vital relationship between human microbiota and infant and child health. Renowned clinical-experimental experts in this field discuss the development of microbiota during early life and review the environmental inputs that affect the developing infant’s gut microbiota, such as early diet and (postnatal) medical interventions. They further describe the interplay between gut microbiota and functional systems of the body, from the immune system to the central nervous system. The book discusses a range of infant and childhood diseases that are associated with microbial changes or dysbiosis, such as gastrointestinal disorders, allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and respiratory disorders. Additionally mechanisms by which microbial dysbiosis may influence behaviour in infants are discussed. Other topics include the use of current tools in molecular microbiology for microbiota-related research and clinical practice. In the management of particular paediatric disorders, the potential of microbial manipulation with pre- and probiotics during infancy and childhood is increasingly being investigated. This book presents the evidence supporting their use in practice and reviews safety aspects. Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood has the ambition to provide the reader with an overview of the most recent and stunning advances in the field of infant and child microbiota and their role in health, disease and prevention. As such, it is an excellent resource for health care professionals, students and researchers in the field of life sciences.
The Developing Microbiome: Lessons from Early Life focuses on the establishment of the microbiome in early life, exposing it as a key mediator of diseases and health throughout the lifecycle. The content presents a comprehensive view of the status of the field and draws real-world correlations to health and disease states. It collates the significant research being done in the pediatric microbiome research space and bridges the knowledge gap showing the factors that impact health and disease states throughout the lifecycle. Finally, it offers knowledge on how the microbiome is and can be manipulated to promote change. This is a perfect reference for both researchers and clinical scientists who are interested in the role of the infant microbiome in health and disease, as well as gastroenterologists and pediatricians looking to affect change in their patients. Provides comprehensive coverage of the factors that influence microbiome development Links research in pediatric patients to later life stages Examines increasing evidence on the impact of the microbiome beyond the gut
"This publication covers the 94th Nestle Nutritional Institute Workshop, which was designed to provide a comprehensive overview on the latest human milk research and its role in modulating mucosal immunity, the microbiome, and its impact on the neonate. This publication should provide scientific support to anyone seeking a deeper understanding of human milk and its immunological properties, and enlarge the knowledge of those who specialize in human milk research"--
Fetal & Neonatal Physiology provides neonatologist fellows and physicians with the essential information they need to effectively diagnose, treat, and manage sick and premature infants. Fully comprehensive, this resource continues to serve as an excellent reference tool, focusing on the basic science needed for exam preparation and the key information required for full-time practice. The 5th edition is the most substantially updated and revised edition ever. In the 5 years since the last edition published, there have been thousands of publications on various aspects of development of health and disease; Fetal and Neonatal Physiology synthesizes this knowledge into definitive guidance for today's busy practitioner. Offers definitive guidance on how to effectively manage the many health problems seen in newborn and premature infants. Chapters devoted to clinical correlation help explain the implications of fetal and neonatal physiology. Allows you to apply the latest insights on genetic therapy, intrauterine infections, brain protection and neuroimaging, and much more. Features a fantastic new 4-color design with 1,000 illustrations, 170+ chapters, and over 350 contributors. 16 new chapters cover such hot topics as Epigenetics; Placental Function in Intrauterine Growth Restriction; Regulation of Pulmonary Circulation; The Developing Microbiome of the Fetus and Newborn; Hereditary Contribution to Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Mechanistic Aspects of Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Cerebellar Development; Pathophysiology of Neonatal Sepsis; Pathophysiology of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn; Pathophysiology of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome; Pathophysiology of Ventilator Dependent Infants; Pathophysiology of Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury; Pathophysiology of Neonatal White Matter Injury; Pathophysiology of Meningitis; Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia; and Pathophysiology of Chorioamnionitis. New Pathophysiology of Neonatal Diseases section highlights every process associated with a disease or injury, all in one place. In-depth information, combined with end-of-chapter summaries, enables deep or quick use of the text.
Molecular Nutrition: Mother and Infant presents the impact of diet in early life stages, from pre-conception, throughout pregnancy, and to the infant. The book covers the molecular biology of the cell, genetic machinery and its function, general coverage on diet and nutrition, pregnancy, placenta, weight gain, breast milk, feeding practices, gestational disease, glucose metabolism, immunity, vitamins and minerals. Other topics discusses include fetal programming, bioactive compounds, amino acids, intrauterine growth, one carbon metabolism, overnutrition, genetic risk factors, polymorphisms, folic acid genes, DNA methylation, genes involved in lipid metabolism, microRNAs, epigenetics, transcriptomics and micro RNA. This book will be a welcomed reference for research scientists and practitioners, including nutritionists and dieticians. Addresses mother and infant nutrition and its critical impact on the well-being of humankind Contains coverage from pre-conception to young offspring Includes pedagogical features (e.g. a list of key facts, mini-dictionaries of terms and definitions, and summary points) to assist in its use as a reference Contains coverage of emerging fields of molecular biology and important discoveries related to diet and nutritional health
This authoritative volume describes the role of free radicals and antioxidants in prenatal and perinatal disorders currently explored in clinical and pre-clinical trials. In twenty-two inclusive chapters, the book covers the gamut of oxidative stress and its relation to a variety of factors, including fertility, metabolism, redox biomarkers, antioxidant defense and protection, gene polymorphisms, angiogenesis, cell signaling, mutations and oxidative damage involving lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, membrane trafficking, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in immunological function, hypoxia, and post-natal stressors. This comprehensive source will keep clinicians and research scientists up-to-date on translational research into medical applications. Perinatal and Prenatal Disorders is a significant addition to the well-known Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice series.
From the Directors of the Award-Winning Documentary Microbirth At least two amazing events happen during childbirth. There's the obvious main event, which is the emergence of a new human into the world. But there's another event taking place simultaneously, a crucial event that is not visible to the naked eye, an event that could determine the lifelong health of the baby. This is the seeding of the baby's microbiome, the community of "good" bacteria that we carry with us throughout our lives. The seeding of the microbiome, along with breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact, kick-starts the baby's immune system and helps protect the infant from disease across a lifetime. Researchers are discovering, however, that interventions such as the use of synthetic oxytocin, antibiotics, C-sections, and formula feeding interfere with, or bypass completely, the microbial transfer from mother to baby. These bacteria are vital for human health, and science has linked an imbalance in the human microbiome with multiple chronic diseases. Drawing on the extensive research they carried out for their documentary film Microbirth, authors Toni Harman and Alex Wakeford reveal a fascinating new view of birth and how microscopic happenings can have lifelong consequences, for ourselves, our children--and our species as a whole.
Stress and Brain Health: Across the Life Course, Volume 150, examines up-to-date knowledge on how stress effects brain health. The book's wide-ranging topics include the effects of pre-natal and childhood stress on neurodevelopment and aging. Chapters cover What is stress, how to measure it and effects on brain function, Pre-natal effects of stress on brain development and vulnerability, Stress in childhood, sensitive periods and regulatory mechanisms, The impact of childhood poverty on brain health, Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) on the brain, Stress, aging and epigenetics, The effects of chronic stress on the prefrontal cortex, Neurobiology of resilience to stress, and more.
The Microbiome Effect explores the way the microbiome, or good bacteria, is transferred from mother to baby during childbirth, how modern medical practices interfere with this process, and the consequences for a baby s future health and perhaps for the future of humanity itself."
You are not what you think you are. New research is transforming how we understand ourselvesfrom a singular 'self' to a vast cooperative, co-dependent and collaborative network of cellular environments and ecologiesa microcosm within. From this unique perspective, a startling revision of evolutionary theory unfurls. Sharply reasoned and certain to be controversial, The Microcosm Within takes its readers on a sweeping scientific journey that reorganizes our thinking about our biological selves, evolution, and extinction. Darwin has dominated evolution for over a century. But many issues remain puzzlingWhat is the origin of self-sacrifice? Does natural selection really account for evolution? Why is homosexuality commonplace in the animal kingdom? Why were the arms of Tyrannosaurus Rex so small? Why do some species go extinct yet others endure? The Microcosm Within offers intriguing and profound answers by exploring our extraordinary world of cellular consciousness, connections, and collaboration. Current research has unexpectedly revealed that all cells and microbes have elemental cognition and a previously unappreciated capacity for discrimination and awareness. From these faculties, cooperative natural genetic engineering is enabled; and it is from this starting point that biological complexity evolves. The Microcosm Within illuminates how immunological factors dominate evolution and extinction. Biology and evolutionary theory will never be the same.