The Impacts of Climate Change: A Comprehensive Study of Physical, Biophysical, Social and Political Issues presents the very real issues associated with climate change and global warming and how it affects the planet and everyone on it. From a physical perspective, the book covers such topics as population pressures, food issues, rising sea-levels and coastline degradation, and health. It then goes on to present social impacts, such as humanitarian issues, ethics, adaptation, urban issues, local action, and socio-economic issues. Finally, it addresses the political impacts, such as justice issues and politics of climate change in different locations. By offering this holistic review of the latest impacts of climate change, the book helps researchers to better understand what needs to be done in order to move toward renewable energy, change societal habits, and move toward sustainable development. Offers comprehensive coverage of the impacts of climate change from multiple perspectives (physical, social, and political) to develop synergy across disciplines Presents the latest research and developments on the understanding of climate change impacts on a variety of scales and disciplines Includes case studies and extensive references for further exploration
Since the hydrological cycle is so intricately linked to the climate system, any change in climate impacts the water cycle in terms of change in precipitation patterns, melting of snow and ice, increased evaporation, increased atmospheric water vapor and changes in soil moisture and run off. Consequently, climate change could result in floods in some areas and droughts in others resulting in varying availability and the quality of water affects the quality of life, food security and also health security. This book examines the impact of climate change on water as well as health.
Responding to a need for a deeper and more nuanced understanding of the consequences of climate change, this book brings experts in climate science, engineering, urban planning, and conservation biology into conversation with scholars in law, geography, anthropology and ethics. It provides insights into how climate change is conceptualized in different fields. The book also aims to contribute to developing successful and multifaceted strategies that promote global, intergenerational and environmental justice. Among the topics addressed are the effects of climate change on the likelihood and magnitude of natural hazards, an assessment of civil infrastructure vulnerabilities, resilience assessment for coastal communities, an ethical framework to evaluate behavior that contributes to climate change, as well as policies and cultural shifts that might help humanity to respond adequately to climate change.
Few issues have aroused so much public attention and controversy as recent developments in biotechnology. How can we make sound judgements of the cloning of Dolly the sheep, genetically altered foodstuffs, or the prospect of transplanting pigs' hearts into humans? Are we 'playing God' with nature? What is driving these developments, and how can they be made more accountable to the public? Engineering Genesis provides a uniquely informed, balanced and varied insight into these and many other key issues from a working group of distinguished experts - in genetics, agriculture, animal welfare, ethics, theology, sociology and risk - brought together by the Society, Religion and Technology Project of the Church of Scotland. A number of case studies present all the main innovations: animal cloning, pharmaceutical production from animals, cross-species transplants, and, genetically modified foods. From these the authors develop a careful analysis of the ethical and social implications - offering contrasting perspectives and insightful arguments which, above all, will enable readers to form their own judgements on these vital questions."
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,America's Climate Choices: Panel on Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2011-01-06|
|ISBN 10||: 0309145910|
|Pages||: 292 pages|
Across the United States, impacts of climate change are already evident. Heat waves have become more frequent and intense, cold extremes have become less frequent, and patterns of rainfall are likely changing. The proportion of precipitation that falls as rain rather than snow has increased across the western United States and Arctic sea ice has been reduced significantly. Sea level has been rising faster than at any time in recent history, threatening the natural and built environments on the coasts. Even if emissions of greenhouse gases were substantially reduced now, climate change and its resulting impacts would continue for some time to come. To date, decisions related to the management and protection of the nation's people, resources, and infrastructure have been based on records in the recent past, when climate was relatively stable. Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change, part of the congressionally requested America's Climate Choices suite of studies, calls for a new paradigm-one that considers a range of possible future climate conditions and impacts that may be well outside the realm of past experience. Adaptation requires actions from many decision makers in federal, state, tribal, and local governments; the private sector; non-governmental organizations; and community groups. However, current efforts are hampered by a lack of solid information about the benefits, costs, and effectiveness of various adaptation options; climate information on regional and local scales; and a lack of coordination. Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change calls for a national adaptation strategy that provides needed technical and scientific resources, incentives to begin adaptation planning, guidance across jurisdictions, shared lessons learned, and support of scientific research to expand knowledge of impacts and adaptation.
Between 1930 and 2030, the world's population will have flipped from 70% rural to 70% urban. While much has been written about the impacts of climate change and mitigation of its effects on individual buildings or infrastructure, this book is one of the first to focus on the resilience of whole cities. It covers a broad range of area-wide disaster-level impacts, including drought, heatwaves, flooding, storms and air quality, which many of our cities are ill-adapted to cope with, and unless we can increase the resilience of our urban areas then much of our current building stock may become uninhabitable.
Conservation agriculture is a sustainable production model that not only optimizes crop yields, but also reaps economic and environmental benefits as well. The adoption of successful conservation agriculture methods has resulted in energy savings, higher organic matter content and biotic activity in soil, increased crop-water availability and thus resilience to drought, improved recharge of aquifers, less erosion, and reduced impacts from the weather associated with climate change in general. Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change examines several important aspects of crop production, such as climate change, soil management, farm machinery, and different methods for sustainable conservation agriculture. It presents spatial distribution of a daily, monthly and annual precipitation concentration indices, Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for analyzing the organic matter in soil, and adaptation strategies for climate-related plant disease scenarios. It also discusses solar energy-based greenhouse modeling, precision farming using remote sensing and GIS, and various types of machinery used for conservation agriculture. Features: Examines the effects of climate change on agriculture and the related strategies for mitigation through practical, real-world examples Explores innovative on-farm technology options to increase system efficiency resulting in improved water usage Presents examples of precision farming using climate-resilient technologies
Evaluating Climate Change Impacts discusses assessing and quantifying climate change and its impacts from a multi-faceted perspective of ecosystem, social, and infrastructure resilience, given through a lens of statistics and data science. It provides a multi-disciplinary view on the implications of climate variability and shows how the new data science paradigm can help us to mitigate climate-induced risk and to enhance climate adaptation strategies. This book consists of chapters solicited from leading topical experts and presents their perspectives on climate change effects in two general areas: natural ecosystems and socio-economic impacts. The chapters unveil topics of atmospheric circulation, climate modeling, and long-term prediction; approach the problems of increasing frequency of extreme events, sea level rise, and forest fires, as well as economic losses, analysis of climate impacts for insurance, agriculture, fisheries, and electric and transport infrastructures. The reader will be exposed to the current research using a variety of methods from physical modeling, statistics, and machine learning, including the global circulation models (GCM) and ocean models, statistical generalized additive models (GAM) and generalized linear models (GLM), state space and graphical models, causality networks, Bayesian ensembles, a variety of index methods and statistical tests, and machine learning methods. The reader will learn about data from various sources, including GCM and ocean model outputs, satellite observations, and data collected by different agencies and research units. Many of the chapters provide references to open source software R and Python code that are available for implementing the methods.
Climate change presents perhaps the most profound challenge ever confronted by human society. This volume is a definitive analysis drawing on the best thinking on questions of how climate change affects human systems, and how societies can, do, and should respond. Key topics covered include the history of the issues, social and political reception of climate science, the denial of that science by individuals and organized interests, the nature of the social disruptions caused by climate change, the economics of those disruptions and possible responses to them, questions of human security and social justice, obligations to future generations, policy instruments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and governance at local, regional, national, international, and global levels.
|Author||: C. Fai Fung,Ana Lopez,Mark New|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2011-07-05|
|ISBN 10||: 1444348175|
|Pages||: 200 pages|
The quantitative assessment of the impact of climate change on water availability and water resources management requires knowledge of climate, hydro(geo)logical and water resources models, and particularly the relationships between each of them. This book brings together world experts on each of these aspects, distilling each complex topic into concise and easy to understand chapters, in which both the uses and limitations of modelling are explored. The book concludes with a set of case studies using real-life examples to illustrate the steps required and the problems that can be faced in assessing the potential impacts of climate change on water resource systems. For students, scientists, engineers and decision-makers alike, this book provides an invaluable and critical look at the information that is provided by climate models, and the ways it is used in modelling water systems. A key focus is the exploration of how uncertainties may accrue at each stage of an impacts assessment, and the reliability of the resulting information. The book is a practical guide to understanding the opportunities and pitfalls in the quantitative assessment of climate change impacts and adaptation in the water resource sector.
Climate change is occurring. It is very likely caused by the emission of greenhouse gases from human activities, and poses significant risks for a range of human and natural systems. And these emissions continue to increase, which will result in further change and greater risks. America's Climate Choices makes the case that the environmental, economic, and humanitarian risks posed by climate change indicate a pressing need for substantial action now to limit the magnitude of climate change and to prepare for adapting to its impacts. Although there is some uncertainty about future risk, acting now will reduce the risks posed by climate change and the pressure to make larger, more rapid, and potentially more expensive reductions later. Most actions taken to reduce vulnerability to climate change impacts are common sense investments that will offer protection against natural climate variations and extreme events. In addition, crucial investment decisions made now about equipment and infrastructure can "lock in" commitments to greenhouse gas emissions for decades to come. Finally, while it may be possible to scale back or reverse many responses to climate change, it is difficult or impossible to "undo" climate change, once manifested. Current efforts of local, state, and private-sector actors are important, but not likely to yield progress comparable to what could be achieved with the addition of strong federal policies that establish coherent national goals and incentives, and that promote strong U.S. engagement in international-level response efforts. The inherent complexities and uncertainties of climate change are best met by applying an iterative risk management framework and making efforts to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions; prepare for adapting to impacts; invest in scientific research, technology development, and information systems; and facilitate engagement between scientific and technical experts and the many types of stakeholders making America's climate choices.
It is widely accepted in the scientific community that climate change is a reality, and that changes are happening with increasing rapidity. In this second edition, leading climate researcher Barrie Pittock revisits the effects that global warming is having on our planet, in light of ever-evolving scientific research. Presenting all sides of the arguments about the science and possible remedies, Pittock examines the latest analyses of climate change, such as new and alarming observations regarding Arctic sea ice, the recently published IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, and the policies of the new Australian Government and how they affect the implementation of climate change initiatives. New material focuses on massive investments in large-scale renewables, such as the kind being taken up in California, as well as many smaller-scale activities in individual homes and businesses which are being driven by both regulatory and market mechanisms. The book includes extensive endnotes with links to ongoing and updated information, as well as some new illustrations. While the message is clear that climate change is here (and in some areas, might already be having disastrous effects), there is still hope for the future, and the ideas presented here will inspire people to take action. Climate Change: The Science, Impacts and Solutions is an important reference for students in environmental or social sciences, policy makers, and people who are genuinely concerned about the future of our environment.