|Author||: Kilifarska N.A.,Bakmutov V.G.,Melnyk G.V.|
|Release Date||: 2020-06-19|
|ISBN 10||: 0128193476|
|Pages||: 228 pages|
The Missing Link Between Earth’s Magnetic Field and Climate offers a new framework of understanding and interpretation for both well-known and less known relations between different geophysical and meteorological variables which can improve the quality of climate modeling. The book reviews the most current research on both current and paleo data to introduce a causal chain of interactions between the geomagnetic field, energetic particles which bombard the Earth’s atmosphere, ozone and humidity near the tropopause, and surface temperature. The impacts of these complicated interactions is not uniformly distributed over the globe, thus contributing to our understanding of regional differences in climatic changes and the asymmetrical ozone distribution over the globe. Covers the newly discovered autocatalytic cycle for ozone production in the lower stratosphere, providing a better understanding of the heterogeneous distribution of ozone globally Outlines a mechanism for the lower stratospheric ozone influence on the temperature and humidity of the upper troposphere Provides a single resource on research in energetic particles’ modulation by heterogeneous geomagnetic fields, mechanisms of the influence of particles on the atmospheric ozone, and the influence of ozone on climate
An interdisciplinary review of research in geomagnetism, aeronomy and space weather, written by eminent researchers from these fields.
The human aura is a multi-layered energy field that surrounds the human body. Each layer is represented by different colors and contains important information about our physical, mental, emotional and spiritual health. Whatever we do to our body, whether good or bad, will manifest in our aura. Vastu Shastra is not a belief or a superstition. It is pure science of the Cosmos. There is nothing to be ‘believed’ or ‘worshiped’. Every principle and technique has a scientific explanation behind it; it can be observed regardless of religion or beliefs. Cosmic radiation from planets is a very interesting field of research. The harmful cosmic radiations from space are mostly filtered as they enter the earth’s atmosphere and pass through it. The hazardous unfiltered cosmic radiations interact with human beings. Dwelling places constructed according to Vastu principles will give maximum positive cosmic energy. Interaction with this positive cosmic energy improves the health of the occupants of the house and results in a better aura. By studying this modified aura, the health of a person can be better understood and also predicted.
For the general public, magnetism often seems more the province of new age quacks, movie mad scientists, and grade-school teachers than an area of actual, ongoing scientific inquiry. But as Ronald T. Merrill reveals in Our Magnetic Earth, geomagnetism really is an enduring, vibrant area of science, one that offers answers to some of the biggest questions about our planet’s past—and maybe even its future.
Andean Tectonics addresses the geologic evolution of the Andes Mountains, the prime global example of subduction-related mountain building. The Andes Mountains form one of the most extensive orogenic belts on Earth, spanning approximately an 8,000-km distance along the western edge of South America, from ~10°N to ~55°S. The tectonic history of the Andes involves a rich record of diverse geological processes, including crustal deformation, magmatism, sedimentary basin evolution, and climatic interactions. This book addresses the range of Andean tectonic processes and their temporal and spatial variations. An improved understanding of these processes is fundamental not only to the Andes but also to other major orogenic systems associated with subduction of the oceanic lithosphere. Andean Tectonics is a critical resource for researchers interested in the causes and consequences of Andean-type orogenesis and the long-term evolution of fold-thrust belts, magmatic arcs, and forearc and foreland basins. Evaluates the history of Andean mountain building over the past 300 million years Integrates recent studies and new perspectives on the complementary records of deformation, magmatism, and sedimentary basin evolution and their interactions in time and space Provides insight into the development of the northern, central, and southern Andes, which have typically been considered in isolation
Scientists agree that over the last century the earth has become warmer. But do we really know why this has happened? A deftly written and enjoyable read, "The Chilling Stars" outlines a brilliant, daring and undoubtedly controversial new theory that will provoke fresh thinking about global warming. As prize-winning science writer, Nigel Calder and climate physicist Henrik Svensmark explain, an interplay of the clouds, the Sun and cosmic rays - sub-atomic particles from exploded stars - seems to have more effect on the climate than manmade carbon dioxide. This conclusion stems from Svensmark's research at the Danish National Space Center which has recently shown that cosmic rays play an unsuspected role in making our everyday clouds. And during the last 100 years cosmic rays became scarcer because unusually vigorous action by the Sun batted many of them away. Fewer cosmic rays meant fewer clouds and a warmer world. The theory, simply put here but explained in fascinating detail in the book, emerges at a time of intense public and political concern about climate change. Motivated only by their concern that science must be trustworthy, Svensmark and Calder invite their readers to put aside their preconceptions about manmade global warming and look afresh at the role of Nature in this hottest of world issues.
Many times through deep history Earth’s magnetic poles have switched places, leaving our planet’s protective shield weaker and life vulnerable to devastating solar storms. The last time it happened was 780,000 years ago, long before humans emerged, but it won’t be long until it happens again. And when it does, will it send us back to the Stone Age? The Spinning Magnet is a fascinating insight into what may lie ahead. From the pivotal discoveries of Victorian scientists to the possibility of solar radiation wiping out power grids, and the secrets of electromagnetism, Alanna Mitchell reveals the truth behind one of the most powerful forces in the universe.
It is no secret that men are in trouble today. From war to ecological collapse, most of the world’s critical problems stem from a distorted masculinity out of control. Yet our culture rewards the very dysfunctions responsible for those problems. To Matthew Fox, our crucial task is to open our minds to a deeper understanding of the healthy masculine than we receive from our media, culture, and religions. Popular religion forces the punitive imagery of fundamentalism on us, pushing most men away from their natural yearning for spirituality and toward intolerance and domination. Meanwhile, many men, particularly young men, are looking for images of healthy masculinity to emulate and finding nothing. To awaken what Fox calls “the sacred masculine,” he unearths ten metaphors, or archetypes, ranging from the Green Man, an ancient pagan symbol of our fundamental relationship with nature, to the Grandfatherly Heart to the Spiritual Warrior. He explores archetypes of sacred marriage, showing how partnership becomes the ultimate expression of healthy masculinity. By stirring our natural yearning for healthy spirituality, Fox argues, these timeless archetypes can inspire men to pursue their higher calling to reinvent the world.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on Geoengineering Climate: Technical Evaluation and Discussion of Impacts|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2015-06-23|
|ISBN 10||: 0309314852|
|Pages||: 260 pages|
The growing problem of changing environmental conditions caused by climate destabilization is well recognized as one of the defining issues of our time. The root problem is greenhouse gas emissions, and the fundamental solution is curbing those emissions. Climate geoengineering has often been considered to be a "last-ditch" response to climate change, to be used only if climate change damage should produce extreme hardship. Although the likelihood of eventually needing to resort to these efforts grows with every year of inaction on emissions control, there is a lack of information on these ways of potentially intervening in the climate system. As one of a two-book report, this volume of Climate Intervention discusses albedo modification - changing the fraction of incoming solar radiation that reaches the surface. This approach would deliberately modify the energy budget of Earth to produce a cooling designed to compensate for some of the effects of warming associated with greenhouse gas increases. The prospect of large-scale albedo modification raises political and governance issues at national and global levels, as well as ethical concerns. Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth discusses some of the social, political, and legal issues surrounding these proposed techniques. It is far easier to modify Earth's albedo than to determine whether it should be done or what the consequences might be of such an action. One serious concern is that such an action could be unilaterally undertaken by a small nation or smaller entity for its own benefit without international sanction and regardless of international consequences. Transparency in discussing this subject is critical. In the spirit of that transparency, Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth was based on peer-reviewed literature and the judgments of the authoring committee; no new research was done as part of this study and all data and information used are from entirely open sources. By helping to bring light to this topic area, this book will help leaders to be far more knowledgeable about the consequences of albedo modification approaches before they face a decision whether or not to use them.
Topics involved in studies of the Earth's magnetic field and its secular variation range from the intricate observations of geomagnetism, to worldwide studies of archeomagnetism and paleomagnetism, through to the complex mathematics of dynamo theory. Traditionally these different aspects of geomagnetism have been studied and presented in isolation from each other. The Magnetic Field of the Earth draws together these major lines of inquiry into an integrated framework to highlight the interrelationships and thus to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the geomagnetic field.The text is organized so that paleomagnetists and dynamo theoreticians may both benefit from the results and arguments presented by the other. A particular example is the presentation of paleomagnetic results to illuminate the observational constraints on geodynamo theory. Conversely, dynamo theory is explained in such a way that paleomagnetists may utilize it to present their data more effectively. Other important features of the book include a discussion of planetary magnetic fields and their implications for dynamo theory and the most recent set of magnetic charts. This unique integrated approach to the subject will make The Magnetic Field of the Earth an invaluable reference book for all geophysicists, particularly those wishing to gain insight into alternative branches of research.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on Seafloor Observatories: Challenges and Opportunities|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2000-09-11|
|ISBN 10||: 0309171695|
|Pages||: 160 pages|
Despite our reliance on the ocean and its resources, it remains a frontier for scientific exploration and discovery. Seafloor observatories - unmanned systems of instruments, sensors, and command modules - will have power and communication capabilities to provide support for spatially distributed sensing systems and mobile platforms. Illuminating the Hidden Planet is a voyage to the bottom of the sea, advancing oceanographic science further through long time-series measurements, to discover the mysteries of the deep that have, until now, avoided scientific opportunity.
Authoritative reviews on the wide-ranging ramifications of climate change, from an international team of eminent researchers.
" ... Concise explanations and descriptions - easily read and readily understood - of what we know of the chain of events and processes that connect the Sun to the Earth, with special emphasis on space weather and Sun-Climate."--Dear Reader.
The magnetic poles are tilting & ice caps are melting. There are cycles of Earth changes that occurred before & will arrive again. History, geology and science tell us about the reason & the consequen
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on the Review of the Scientific Accomplishments and Assessment of the Potential for Future Transformative Discoveries with U.S.-Supported Scientific Ocean Drilling|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2012-01-22|
|ISBN 10||: 0309219019|
|Pages||: 158 pages|
Through direct exploration of the subseafloor, U.S.-supported scientific ocean drilling programs have significantly contributed to a broad range of scientific accomplishments in Earth science disciplines, shaping understanding of Earth systems and enabling new fields of inquiry. Scientific Ocean Drilling: Accomplishments and Challenges reviews the scientific accomplishments of U.S.-supported scientific ocean drilling over the past four decades. The book evaluates how the programs (Deep Sea Drilling Project [DSDP], 1968-1983, Ocean Drilling Program [ODP], 1984-2003, and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP], 2003-2013) have shaped understanding of Earth systems and Earth history and assessed the role of scientific ocean drilling in enabling new fields of inquiry. This book also assesses the potential for transformative discoveries for the next proposed phase of scientific ocean drilling, which is scheduled to run from 2013 to 2023. The programs' technological innovations have played a strong role in these accomplishments. The science plan for the proposed 2013-2023 program presents a strong case for the continuation of scientific ocean drilling. Each of the plan's four themes identifies compelling challenges with potential for transformative science that could only be addressed through scientific ocean drilling, although some challenges appear to have greater potential than others. Prioritizing science plan challenges and integrating multiple objectives into single expeditions would help use resources more effectively, while encouraging technological innovations would continue to increase the potential for groundbreaking science.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Climate Research Committee|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 1996-08-30|
|ISBN 10||: 0309054494|
|Pages||: 644 pages|
This volume reflects the current state of scientific knowledge about natural climate variability on decade-to-century time scales. It covers a wide range of relevant subjects, including the characteristics of the atmosphere and ocean environments as well as the methods used to describe and analyze them, such as proxy data and numerical models. They clearly demonstrate the range, persistence, and magnitude of climate variability as represented by many different indicators. Not only do natural climate variations have important socioeconomic effects, but they must be better understood before possible anthropogenic effects (from greenhouse gas emissions, for instance) can be evaluated. A topical essay introduces each of the disciplines represented, providing the nonscientist with a perspective on the field and linking the papers to the larger issues in climate research. In its conclusions section, the book evaluates progress in the different areas and makes recommendations for the direction and conduct of future climate research. This book, while consisting of technical papers, is also accessible to the interested layperson.
Mass extinction and cataclysmic volcanic activity: will fascinate everyone interested in the history of life and death on our planet.
Machine Learning Techniques for Space Weather provides a thorough and accessible presentation of machine learning techniques that can be employed by space weather professionals. Additionally, it presents an overview of real-world applications in space science to the machine learning community, offering a bridge between the fields. As this volume demonstrates, real advances in space weather can be gained using nontraditional approaches that take into account nonlinear and complex dynamics, including information theory, nonlinear auto-regression models, neural networks and clustering algorithms. Offering practical techniques for translating the huge amount of information hidden in data into useful knowledge that allows for better prediction, this book is a unique and important resource for space physicists, space weather professionals and computer scientists in related fields. Collects many representative non-traditional approaches to space weather into a single volume Covers, in an accessible way, the mathematical background that is not often explained in detail for space scientists Includes free software in the form of simple MATLAB® scripts that allow for replication of results in the book, also familiarizing readers with algorithms
Globalization of Water is a first-of-its-kind review of the critical relationship between globalization and sustainable water management. It explores the impact of international trade on local water depletion and pollution and identifies “water dependent” nations. Examines the critical link between water management and international trade, considering how local water depletion and pollution are often closely tied to the structure of the global economy Offers a consumer-based indicator of each nation’s water use: the water footprint Questions whether trade can enhance global water use efficiency, or whether it simply shifts the environmental burden to a distant location Highlights the hidden link between national consumption and the use of water resources across the globe, identifying the threats facing ‘water dependent’ countries worldwide Provides a state-of-the-art review and in-depth data source for a new field of knowledge
This book introduces the general field of Sun-weather/climate relationships, that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity, and provides theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown causal mechanisms. It is directed to researchers active in the atmospheric and space sciences who wish to expand their background for meeting the challenge of this newly emerging field and to students who desire a general background in the several disciplinary areas of the field. In the 200-year history of Sun-weather studies, a large body of information has accumulated. Even though the reported results have sometimes been confused, disjointed, and contradictory, there has emerged a growing belief that there are connections between changes on the Sun and changes in the lower atmosphere. There is, however, a deplorable lack of acceptable physical mechanisms to explain those probable connections, and this has prevented widespread acceptance of the reality of solar activity effects on the weather and climate. The discovery of viable mechanisms will strengthen the scientific basis of Sun-weather relationships and may lead to improved predictions of weather and climate. It is obvious that improved predictions would have a profound impact on several crucial societal problems, especially in the areas of global food production and utilization of solar energy for man's needs. This book reviews the correlations between solar activity and weather and climate reported in historical and contemporary literature, addresses the physical linking mechanisms, and suggests experimental concepts for future investigations of such mechanisms. It is our intention to fill a gap in the literature by combining a review of the nature and quality of existing correlations with the basic physics underlying the various scientific disciplines required to pursue studies of physical linking mechanisms. We emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of the subject while providing a basic background in each of the various areas thought to play a role in coupling processes. In following this approach, we hope to acquaint meteorologists with solar and geophysical phenomena, solar physicists with terrestrial atmospheric processes, and so on, thereby stimulating the cross fertilization we believe is necessary for further progress in Sun-weather studies.