the fundamentals and applications of light emitting diodes

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The Fundamentals and Applications of Light-Emitting Diodes
Author : Sanjay J. Dhoble,Govind B. Nair
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2020-07-09
ISBN 10 : 0128231610
Pages : 284 pages

The Fundamentals and Applications of Light-Emitting Diodes: The Revolution in the Lighting Industry examines the evolution of LEDs, including a review of the luminescence process and background on solid state lighting. The book emphasizes phosphor-converted LEDs that are based on inorganic phosphors but explores different types of LEDs based on inorganic, organic, quantum dots, perovskite-structured materials, and biomaterials. A detailed description is included about the diverse applications of LEDs in fields such as lighting, displays, horticulture, biomedicine, and digital communication, as well as challenges that must be solved before using LEDs in commercial applications. Traditional light sources are fast being replaced by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The fourth generation of lighting is completely dominated by LED luminaires. Apart from lighting, LEDs have extended their hold on other fields, such as digital communications, horticulture, medicine, space research, art and culture, display devices, and entertainment. The technological promises offered by LEDs have elevated them as front-runners in the lighting industry. Presents a concise overview of different types of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on inorganic phosphors, organic materials, quantum dots, perovskite-structured materials, and biomaterials Includes a discussion of current and emerging applications in lighting, communications, horticulture, and medical fields Addresses fundamentals, luminescence mechanisms, and key optical materials, including synthesis methods

New Generation Light Emitting Diodes
Author : Amit Yadav
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2017
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages

Introduction to Light Emitting Diode Technology and Applications
Author : Gilbert Held
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2016-04-19
ISBN 10 : 9781420076639
Pages : 192 pages

Recent improvements in LED technology have made them as ubiquitous as cell phones. In fact, LEDs light up almost all cell phones screens. The technology’s myriad applications and low energy use have made it nearly impossible to get through daily chores without coming in contact with LEDs. Probable advances include increased ability of the technology to support more efficient lighting and enhanced communications. With balanced coverage of the basics and future developments, Introduction to Light Emitting Diode Technology and Applications takes you on a tour of the LED evolution. The book begins with a brief history of the effort to enable the device that generates light through modern organic LEDs and reviews the fundamentals and principles of light prior to a detailed explanation of how LEDs generate different colors. After forming this basic foundation, the book examines the key LEDs in lighting and communications. It then discusses the latest opportunities and advancements in high brightness (HB) LED technology, solid state lighting, and handheld electronic applications. As we approach a new decade the role of LEDs is literally set to explode, with organic light emitting diodes emerging as a leading next generation technology for electronic displays and lighting. Challenges still exist, including light extraction, luminosity, and white light generation, not to mention non-technical obstacles such as IP disputes and the lack of standards. This book provides a foundation for resolving these issues and developing new applications for LEDs in the promising general illumination market.

Fundamentals of Solid-State Lighting
Author : Vinod Kumar Khanna
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2014-06-03
ISBN 10 : 1466561092
Pages : 604 pages

Compared to traditional electrical filaments, arc lamps, and fluorescent lamps, solid-state lighting offers higher efficiency, reliability, and environmentally friendly technology. LED / solid-state lighting is poised to take over conventional lighting due to cost savings—there is pretty much no debate about this. In response to the recent activity in this field, Fundamentals of Solid-State Lighting: LEDs, OLEDs, and Their Applications in Illumination and Displays covers a range of solid-state devices, technologies, and materials used for lighting and displays. It also examines auxiliary but critical requirements of efficient applications, such as modeling, thermal management, reliability, and smart lighting. The book discusses performance metrics of LEDs such as efficiency, efficacy, current–voltage characteristics, optical parameters like spectral distribution, color temperature, and beam angle before moving on to luminescence theory, injection luminescence, radiative and non-radiative recombination mechanisms, recombination rates, carrier lifetimes, and related topics. This lays down the groundwork for understanding LED operation. The book then discusses energy gaps, light emission, semiconductor material, special equipment, and laboratory facilities. It also covers production and applications of high-brightness LEDs (HBLEDs) and organic LEDs (OLEDs). LEDs represent the landmark development in lighting since the invention of electric lighting, allowing us to create unique, low-energy lighting solutions, not to talk about their minor maintenance expenses. The rapid strides of LED lighting technology over the last few years have changed the dynamics of the global lighting market, and LEDs are expected to be the mainstream light source in the near future. In a nutshell, the book traces the advances in LEDs, OLEDs, and their applications, and presents an up-to-date and analytical perspective of the scenario for audiences of different backgrounds and interests.

LED Packaging for Lighting Applications
Author : Sheng Liu,Xiaobing Luo
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2011-07-05
ISBN 10 : 0470828404
Pages : 320 pages

Since the first light-emitting diode (LED) was invented by Holonyak and Bevacqua in 1962, LEDs have made remarkable progress in the past few decades with the rapid development of epitaxy growth, chip design and manufacture, packaging structure, processes, and packaging materials. LEDs have superior characteristics such as high efficiency, small size, long life, low power consumption, and high reliability. The market for white LED is growing rapidly in various applications. It has been widely accepted that white LEDs will be the fourth illumination source to substitute the incandescent, fluorescent, and high-pressure sodium lamps. With the development of LED chip and packaging technologies, the efficiency of high power white LED will broaden the application markets of LEDs while changing the lighting concepts of our lives. In LED Packaging for Lighting Applications, Professors Liu and Luo cover the full spectrum of design, manufacturing, and testing. Many concepts are proposed for the first time, and readers will benefit from the concurrent engineering and co-design approaches to advanced engineering design of LED products. One of the only books to cover LEDs from package design to manufacturing to testing Focuses on the design of LED packaging and its applications such as road lights Includes design methods and experiences necessary for LED engineers, especially optical and thermal design Introduces novel LED packaging structures and manufacturing processes, such as ASLP Covers reliability considerations, the most challenging problem for the LED industry Provides measurement and testing standards, which are critical for LED development, for both LED and LED fixtures Codes and demonstrations available from the book’s Companion Website This book is ideal for practicing engineers working in design or packaging at LED companies and graduate students preparing for work in industry. This book also provides a helpful introduction for advanced undergraduates, graduates, researchers, lighting designers, and product managers interested in the fundamentals of LED design and production. Color version of selected figures can be found at

Light Emitting Diodes for Agriculture
Author : S Dutta Gupta
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-10-25
ISBN 10 : 9811058075
Pages : 334 pages

This book presents a comprehensive treatise on the advances in the use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for sustainable crop production and describes the latest photomorphogenesis research findings. It introduces readers to the fundamentals and design features of LEDs applicable for plant growth and development and illustrates their advantages over the traditional lighting systems, including cost analyses. Further, it discusses a wide range of applications covering diverse areas of plant sciences relevant to controlled environment agriculture and in vitro plant morphogenesis. The chapters have been written by a team of pioneering international experts, who have made significant contributions to this emerging interdisciplinary field. The book will serve a valuable resource for graduate students, instructors, and researchers in the fields of horticulture, agricultural biotechnology, cell and developmental biology, and precision agriculture. It will also serve well professionals engaged in greenhouse and vertical farming.

OLED Fundamentals
Author : Daniel J. Gaspar,Evgueni Polikarpov
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2015-05-15
ISBN 10 : 1466515198
Pages : 494 pages

A Comprehensive Source for Taking on the Next Stage of OLED R&D OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes brings together key topics across the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), from fundamental chemistry and physics to practical materials science and engineering aspects to design and manufacturing factors. Experts from top academic institutions, industry, and national laboratories provide thorough, up-to-date coverage on the most useful materials, devices, and design and fabrication methods for high-efficiency lighting. The first part of the book covers all the construction materials of OLED devices, from substrate to encapsulation. For the first time in book form, the second part addresses challenges in devices and processing, including architectures and methods for new OLED lighting and display technologies. The book is suitable for a broad audience, including materials scientists, device physicists, synthetic chemists, and electrical engineers. It can also serve as an introduction for graduate students interested in applied aspects of photophysics and electrochemistry in organic thin films.

Principles and Applications of Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)
Author : N. Thejo Kalyani,Hendrik Swart,S. J. Dhoble
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2017-05-15
ISBN 10 : 0081012497
Pages : 332 pages

Principles and Applications of Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)explores the ways in which the development of organic semiconductor materials is opening up new applications in electronic and optoelectronic luminescent devices. The book begins by covering the principles of luminescence and the luminescent properties of organic semiconductors. It then covers the development of luminescent materials for OLEDs, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of organic versus inorganic luminescent materials. The fabrication and characterization of OLEDs is also covered in detail, including information on, and comparisons of, vacuum deposition and solution techniques. Finally, applications of OLEDs are explored, including OLEDs in solid-state lighting, colored lighting, displays and potential future applications, such as ultra-thin and flexible technologies. This book is an excellent resource both for experts and newcomers to the field of organic optoelectronics and OLEDs. It is ideal for scientists working on optical devices, lighting, display and imaging technologies, and for all those engaged in research in photonics, luminescence and optical materials. Provides a one-stop guide to OLED technology for the benefit of newcomers to the field of organic optoelectronics Comprehensively covers the luminescent properties of organic semiconductors and their development into OLED materials Offers practical information on OLED fabrication and their applications in solid-state lighting and displays, making this essential reading for optoelectronics engineers and materials scientists

Electronic Circuits: Fundamentals and Applications
Author : Michael H. Tooley
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2002-01
ISBN 10 : 0750653949
Pages : 301 pages

"This book combines comprehensive coverage of the principles and applications of both digital and analogue electronics with readability and ease of use." - back cover.

Conducting Polymers, Fundamentals and Applications
Author : Prasanna Chandrasekhar
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 1999-08-31
ISBN 10 : 9780792385646
Pages : 719 pages

This book deals with the practical fundamentals and applications of conducting polymers. Written from a pedagogical point of view and at a very basic level, it provides a thorough grounding in CPs ideal for further work, as a reference, or as a supplementary course text.

Electronic Fundamentals and Applications
Author : Jacob Millman,Christos C. Halkias
Publisher : McGraw-Hill Companies
Release Date : 1976
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 482 pages

Light-Emitting Diodes
Author : Jinmin Li,G. Q. Zhang
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2019-01-07
ISBN 10 : 3319992112
Pages : 600 pages

Comprehensive in scope, this book covers the latest progresses of theories, technologies and applications of LEDs based on III-V semiconductor materials, such as basic material physics, key device issues (homoepitaxy and heteroepitaxy of the materials on different substrates, quantum efficiency and novel structures, and more), packaging, and system integration. The authors describe the latest developments of LEDs with spectra coverage from ultra-violet (UV) to the entire visible light wavelength. The major aspects of LEDs, such as material growth, chip structure, packaging, and reliability are covered, as well as emerging and novel applications beyond the general and conventional lightings. This book, written by leading authorities in the field, is indispensable reading for researchers and students working with semiconductors, optoelectronics, and optics. Addresses novel LED applications such as LEDs for healthcare and wellbeing, horticulture, and animal breeding; Editor and chapter authors are global leading experts from the scientific and industry communities, and their latest research findings and achievements are included; Foreword by Hiroshi Amano, one of the 2014 winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on light-emitting diodes.

OLED Displays and Lighting
Author : Mitsuhiro Koden
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2016-12-12
ISBN 10 : 1119040485
Pages : 232 pages

Explains the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs for displays and lighting Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs. Key features: Covers all of the aspects necessary to the design and manufacturing of OLED displays and lighting. Explains the fundamental basic technologies and also related technologies which might contribute to the next innovation in the industry. Provides several indications for future innovation in the OLED industry. Includes coverage of OLED vacuum deposition type and solution type materials. The book is essential reading for early career engineers developing OLED devices and OLED related technologies in industrial companies, such as OLED device fabrication companies.

Ultraviolet LED Technology for Food Applications
Author : Tatiana Koutchma
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-08-10
ISBN 10 : 0128177950
Pages : 146 pages

Ultraviolet LED Technology for Food Applications: From Farms to Kitchens examines the next wave in the LED revolution and its ability to bring numerous advantages of UVC disinfection. As UVC LED-based light fixtures will become the driving force behind wider adoption, with potential use in the treatment of beverages, disinfection of food surfaces, packaging and other food contact and non-contact surfaces, this book presents the latest information, including LEDs unique properties and advantages and the developments and advances made in four areas of application, including produce production and horticulture, post-harvest and post processing storage, safety and point-of-use applications. Alternative opportunities to current practices of food production and processing that are more sophisticated and diverse are being intensively investigated in recent decades, things like Ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation. The effects of UVC LEDs against bacteria, viruses and fungi already have been demonstrated and reported, along with the first applications for disinfection of air, water and surface made for the "point-of-use" integration. Brings unique advantages of LEDs for foods from farm to kitchens Explores applications and advances in LEDs for horticulture, crops production, postharvest reservation and produce storage Investigates UV LEDs in food safety

Handbook Of Nanobiomedical Research: Fundamentals, Applications And Recent Developments (In 4 Volumes)
Author : Torchilin Vladimir P
Publisher : World Scientific
Release Date : 2014-08-18
ISBN 10 : 9814520667
Pages : 2352 pages

This book consists of 4 volumes containing about 70 chapters covering all the major aspects of the growing area of nanomedicine. Leading scientists from 15 countries cover all major areas of nanobiomedical research — materials for nanomedicine, application of nanomedicine in therapy of various diseases, use of nanomedicines for diagnostic purposes, technology of nanomedicines, and new trends in nanobiomedical research.This is the first detailed handbook specifically addressing various aspects of nanobiomedicine. Readers are treated to cutting-edge research and the newest data from leading researchers in this area.

III-Nitride Based Light Emitting Diodes and Applications
Author : Tae-Yeon Seong,Jung Han,Hiroshi Amano,Hadis Morkoc
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2014-07-08
ISBN 10 : 9400758634
Pages : 390 pages

Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are already used in traffic signals, signage lighting, and automotive applications. However, its ultimate goal is to replace traditional illumination through LED lamps since LED lighting significantly reduces energy consumption and cuts down on carbon-dioxide emission. Despite dramatic advances in LED technologies (e.g., growth, doping and processing technologies), however, there remain critical issues for further improvements yet to be achieved for the realization of solid-state lighting. This book aims to provide the readers with some contemporary LED issues, which have not been comprehensively discussed in the published books and, on which the performance of LEDs is seriously dependent. For example, most importantly, there must be a breakthrough in the growth of high-quality nitride semiconductor epitaxial layers with a low density of dislocations, in particular, in the growth of Al-rich and and In-rich GaN-based semiconductors. The materials quality is directly dependent on the substrates used, such as sapphire, Si, etc. In addition, efficiency droop, growth on different orientations and polarization are also important. Chip processing and packaging technologies are key issues. This book presents a comprehensive review of contemporary LED issues. Given the interest and importance of future research in nitride semiconducting materials and solid state lighting applications, the contents are very timely. The book is composed of chapters written by leading researchers in III-nitride semiconducting materials and device technology. This book will be of interest to scientists and engineers working on LEDs for lighting applications. Postgraduate researchers working on LEDs will also benefit from the issues this book provides.

Organic Light Emitting Devices
Author : Klaus Müllen,Ullrich Scherf
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2006-05-12
ISBN 10 : 3527607234
Pages : 426 pages

This high-class book reflects a decade of intense research, culminating in excellent successes over the last few years. The contributions from both academia as well as the industry leaders combine the fundamentals and latest research results with application know-how and examples of functioning displays. As a result, all the four important aspects of OLEDs are covered: - syntheses of the organic materials - physical theory of electroluminescence and device efficiency - device conception and construction - characterization of both materials and devices. The whole is naturally rounded off with a look at what the future holds in store. The editor, Klaus Muellen, is director of the highly prestigious MPI for polymer research in Mainz, Germany, while the authors include Nobel Laureate Alan Heeger, one of the most notable founders of the field, Richard Friend, as well as Ching Tang, Eastman Kodak's number-one OLED researcher, known throughout the entire community for his key publications.

Diamond Electronics--fundamentals to Applications II
Author : Christoph E. Nebel
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2008
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 259 pages

Semiconductors, Metal Oxides, and Composites: Metallization and Electrodeposition of Thin Films and Nanostructures
Author : G. Oskam
Publisher : The Electrochemical Society
Release Date : 2010-02
ISBN 10 : 156677800X
Pages : 222 pages

This symposium provided a forum for current work on the electrodeposition and characterization of functional coatings and nanostructures. Central issues include the control of size and architecture and the ample choices and demands of substrate and deposited materials. The focus materials of this symposium were semiconductors, oxides and composites with e.g. ceramic nanoparticles or nanotubes.

Advanced Nanomaterials for Solar Cells and Light Emitting Diodes
Author : Feng Gao
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2019-04-10
ISBN 10 : 0128136480
Pages : 549 pages

Advanced Nanomaterials for Solar Cells and Light Emitting Diodes discusses the importance of nanomaterials as the active layers in solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs), along with the progress of nanomaterials as the electron and hole transporting layers. Specifically, the book reviews the use of nano-morphology of polymers, small molecules, and the organic-inorganic perovskites as the active layers in solar cells and LEDs. The design, fabrication and properties of metal-oxide-based nano-structures as electron and hole transporting layers are also reviewed. In addition, the development of plasmonic nanomaterials for solar cells and LEDs is discussed. Each topic in this book includes an overview of the materials system from principles to process. The advantages, disadvantages and related methodologies are highlighted. The book includes applications based on materials and emphasize how to improve the performance of solar cells and LEDs by the materials design, with a focus on nanomaterials. Provides latest research on nanostructured materials including small molecules, polymers, organic-inorganic perovskites, and many other relevant materials systems for solar cells and LEDs Addresses each promising materials system from principles to process, detailing the advantages and disadvantages of the most relevant methods of processing and fabrication Looks ahead to most likely techniques to improve performance of solar cells and light emitting diodes