The Dynamical Ionosphere: A Systems Approach to Ionospheric Irregularity examines the Earth’s ionosphere as a dynamical system with signatures of complexity. The system is robust in its overall configuration, with smooth space-time patterns of daily, seasonal and Solar Cycle variability, but shows a hierarchy of interactions among its sub-systems, yielding apparent unpredictability, space-time irregularity, and turbulence. This interplay leads to the need for constructing realistic models of the average ionosphere, incorporating the increasing knowledge and predictability of high variability components, and for addressing the difficulty of dealing with the worst cases of ionospheric disturbances, all of which are addressed in this interdisciplinary book. Borrowing tools and techniques from classical and stochastic dynamics, information theory, signal processing, fluid dynamics and turbulence science, The Dynamical Ionosphere presents the state-of-the-art in dealing with irregularity, forecasting ionospheric threats, and theoretical interpretation of various ionospheric configurations. Presents studies addressing Earth’s ionosphere as a complex dynamical system, including irregularities and radio scintillation, ionospheric turbulence, nonlinear time series analysis, space-ionosphere connection, and space-time structures Utilizes interdisciplinary tools and techniques, such as those associated with stochastic dynamics, information theory, signal processing, fluid dynamics and turbulence science Offers new data-driven models for different ionospheric variability phenomena Provides a synoptic view of the state-of-the-art and most updated theoretical interpretation, results and data analysis tools of the "worst case" behavior in ionospheric configurations
|Author||: N. D'Angelo|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2013-12-17|
|ISBN 10||: 9401034028|
|Pages||: 218 pages|
During the last week of September 1968, ESRIN (the European Space Research Institute) held the ESRIN-ESLAB Symposium on 'Low-Frequency Waves and Irregularities in the Ionosphere' in Frascati, near Rome. The symposium was attended by about 60 participants, including speakers from most of the ESRO member states, the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., and Peru. The main topics covered were: (a) observations of ionospheric irregularities by radar scattering, (b) scintillations of satellite signals, (c) geomagnetic micropulsations, and (d) whistlers. Both theoretical and observational aspects were treated. In addition, laboratory results on low-frequency waves in plasmas were discussed, emphasis being given to their possible relevance to low-frequency ionospheric phenomena. Finally, a brief presentation (not included in these proceedings) of the ESRO rocket and satellite program was given by Dr. Pedersen of ESLAB. The symposium provided an exchange of information among workers in closely related fields. It was also valuable in bringing together people whose experience is predominantly in ionospheric observations with others whose field of interest is mainly in plasma physics (theoretical or laboratory) - a combination that seemed particularly appropriate to ESRIN's program and functions.
|Publisher||: National Academies|
|Release Date||: 1990|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Although interesting in its own right, due to the ever-increasing use of satellites for communication and navigation, weather in the ionosphere is of great concern. Every such system uses trans-ionospheric propagation of radio waves, waves which must traverse the commonly turbulent ionosphere. Understanding this turbulence and predicting it are one of the major goals of the National Space Weather program. Acquiring such a prediction capability will rest on understanding the very topics of this book, the plasma physics and electrodynamics of the system. Fully updated to reflect advances in the field in the 20 years since the first edition published Explores the buffeting of the ionosphere from above by the sun and from below by the lower atmosphere Unique text appropriate both as a reference and for coursework
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of theGeophysical Monograph Series, Volume 201. Modeling the Ionosphere-Thermosphere System bringstogether for the first time a detailed description of the physicsof the IT system in conjunction with numerical techniques to solvethe complex system of equations that describe the system, as wellas issues of current interest. Volume highlights includediscussions of: Physics of the ionosphere and thermosphere IT system, and thenumerical methods to solve the basic equations of the ITsystem The physics and numerical methods to determine the globalelectrodynamics of the IT system The response of the IT system to forcings from below (i.e., thelower atmosphere) and from above (i.e., the magnetosphere) The physics and numerical methods to model ionosphericirregularities Data assimilation techniques, comparison of model results todata, climate variability studies, and applications to spaceweather Providing a clear description of the physics of this system inseveral tutorial-like articles, Modeling theIonosphere-Thermosphere System is of value to the upperatmosphere science community in general. Chapters describingdetails of the numerical methods used to solve the equations thatdescribe the IT system make the volume useful to both activeresearchers in the field and students.
|Author||: David J. Knudsen|
|Release Date||: 1990|
|Pages||: 392 pages|
Perturbation electric and magnetic fields carry in excess of 10(exp10) to 10(exp12) W of electrical power between the magnetosphere and high-latitude ionosphere. Most of this power is generated by the solar wind. The ionosphere at large spatial and temporal scales acts as a dissipative slab which can be characterized by its height-integrated Pedersen conductivity sigma p, so that the power flux into the ionosphere due to a quasi-static electric field E is given by sigma (pE2) The energy transferred to the ionosphere by time-varying electromagnetic fields in the form of Alfven waves is more difficult to calculate because density and conductivity gradients can reflect energy. Thus, field resonances and standing wave patterns affect the magnitude and altitude distribution of electrical energy dissipation. We use a numerical model to calculate the frequency-dependent electric field reflection coefficient of the ionosphere and show that the ionosphere does not behave as a simple resistive slab for electric field time scales less than a few seconds. Time variation of spacecraft-measured high-latitude electric and perturbation magnetic fields is difficult to distinguish from spatial structuring that has been Doppler-shifted to a non-zero frequency in the spacecraft frame. However, by calculating the frequency-dependent amplitude and phase relations between fluctuating electric and magnetic fields we are able to show that low frequency fields (
The Earth's Ionosphere: Plasma Physics and Electrodynamics emphasizes the study of plasma physics and electrodynamics of the ionosphere, including many aeronomical influences. The ionosphere is somewhat of a battleground between the earth's neutral atmosphere and the sun's fully ionized atmosphere, in which the earth is embedded. One of the challenges of ionosphere research is to know enough about these two vast fields of research to make sense out of ionospheric phenomena. This book provides insights into how these competing sources of mass, momentum, and energy compete for control of the ionosphere. Some of the topics discussed include the fundamentals of ionospheric plasma dynamics; equatorial plasma instabilities; high-latitude electrodynamics; and instabilities and structure in the high-latitude ionosphere. Throughout this text only the region above 90 km are discussed, ignoring the D region entirely. This publication is a good source of information for students and individuals conducting research on earth’s ionosphere.
This book is a multi-author treatise on the most outstanding research problems in the field of the aeronomy of the Earth’s atmosphere and ionosphere, encompassing the science covered by Division II of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It contains several review articles and detailed papers by leading scientists in the field. The book is organized in five parts: 1) Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere Dynamics and Chemistry; 2) Vertical Coupling by Upward Propagating Waves; 3) Ionospheric Electrodynamics and Structuring; 4) Thermosphere- Ionosphere Coupling, Dynamics and Trends and 5) Ionosphere-Thermosphere Disturbances and Modeling. The book consolidates the progress achieved in the field in recent years and it serves as a useful reference for graduate students as well as experienced researchers.
This book on electromagnetic resonance phenomena describes a general approach to physical problems, ways to solve them, and properties of the solutions obtained. Attention is given to the discussion and interpretation of formal and experimental data and their links to global atmospheric conditions such as the dynamics of global thunderstorm activity, variations of the effective height of the lower ionosphere, etc. Schumann resonance is related to worldwide thunderstorm activity, and simultaneously, to global properties of the lower ionosphere. Transverse resonance is predominantly a local phenomenon containing information on the local height and conductivity of the lower ionosphere and on nearby thunderstorm activity. Transient events in ELF-VLF radio propagation are also treated. These are natural pulsed radio signals and/or abrupt changes of manmade VLF radio signals. The transients associated with cloud-to-ionosphere discharges (red sprites, blue jets, trolls) are discussed, and clarification of the underlying physical ideas and their practical applications to pioneer results achieved in the field recently are emphasised.
Despite the plethora of monographs published in recent years, few cover recent progress in magnetospheric physics in broad areas of research. While a topical focus is important to in-depth views at a problem, a broad overview of our field is also needed. The volume answers to the latter need. With the collection of articles written by leading scientists, the contributions contained in the book describe latest research results in solar wind-magnetosphere interaction, magnetospheric substorms, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, transport phenomena in the plasma sheet, wave and particle dynamics in the ring current and radiation belts, and extra-terrestrial magnetospheric systems. In addition to its breadth and timeliness, the book highlights innovative methods and techniques to study the geospace.
A multitude of processes that operate in the upper atmosphere are revealed by detailed physical and mathematical descriptions of the interactions of particles and radiation, temperatures, spectroscopy and dynamics.
The Dynamic Loss of Earth's Radiation Belts: From Loss in the Magnetosphere to Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere presents a timely review of data from various explorative missions, including the Van Allen Probes, the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (which aims to determine magnetopause losses), the completion of four BARREL balloon campaigns, and several CubeSat missions focusing on precipitation losses. This is the first book in the area to include a focus on loss, and not just acceleration and radial transport. Bringing together two communities, the book includes contributions from experts with knowledge in both precipitation mechanisms and the effects on the atmosphere. There is a direct link between what gets lost in the magnetospheric radiation environment and the energy deposited in the layers of our atmosphere. Very recently, NASA’s Living With a Star program identified a new, targeted research topic that addresses this question, highlighting the timeliness of this precise science. The Dynamic Loss of Earth's Radiation Belts brings together scientists from the space and atmospheric science communities to examine both the causes and effects of particle loss in the magnetosphere. Examines both the causes and effects of particle loss in the magnetosphere from multiple perspectives Presents interdisciplinary content that bridges the gap, through communication and collaboration, between the magnetospheric and atmospheric communities Fills a gap in the literature by focusing on loss in the radiation belt, which is especially timely based on data from the Van Allen Probes, the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission, and other projects Includes contributions from various experts in the field that is organized and collated by a clear-and-consistent editorial team
|Author||: Nathan Blaunstein,Christos G. Christodoulou|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2014-04-03|
|ISBN 10||: 1118816722|
|Pages||: 704 pages|
Radio Propagation and Adaptive Antennas for Wireless Communication Networks, 2nd Edition, presents a comprehensive overview of wireless communication system design, including the latest updates to considerations of over-the-terrain, atmospheric, and ionospheric communication channels. New features include the latest experimentally-verified stochastic approach, based on several multi-parametric models; all-new chapters on wireless network fundamentals, advanced technologies, and current and modern multiple access networks; and helpful problem sets at the conclusion of each chapter to enhance clarity. The volume’s emphasis remains on a thorough examination of the role of obstructions on the corresponding propagation phenomena that influence the transmission of radio signals through line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation conditions along the radio path between the transmitter and the receiver antennas—and how adaptive antennas, used at the link terminals, can be used to minimize the deleterious effects of such obstructions. With its focus on 3G, 4G, MIMO, and the latest wireless technologies, Radio Propagation and Adaptive Antennas for Wireless Communication Networks represents an invaluable resource to topics critical to the design of contemporary wireless communication systems. Explores novel wireless networks beyond 3G, and advanced 4G technologies, such as MIMO, via propagation phenomena and the fundamentals of adapted antenna usage. Explains how adaptive antennas can improve GoS and QoS for any wireless channel, with specific examples and applications in land, aircraft and satellite communications. Introduces new stochastic approach based on several multi-parametric models describing various terrestrial scenarios, which have been experimentally verified in different environmental conditions New chapters on fundamentals of wireless networks, cellular and non-cellular, multiple access networks, new applications of adaptive antennas for positioning, and localization of subscribers Includes the addition of problem sets at the end of chapters describing fundamental aspects of wireless communication and antennas.
For advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in atmospheric, oceanic, and climate science, Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics is an introductory textbook on the circulations of the atmosphere and ocean and their interaction, with an emphasis on global scales. It will give students a good grasp of what the atmosphere and oceans look like on the large-scale and why they look that way. The role of the oceans in climate and paleoclimate is also discussed. The combination of observations, theory and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments sets this text apart by making it accessible to students with no prior training in meteorology or oceanography. * Written at a mathematical level that is appealing for undergraduates and beginning graduate students * Provides a useful educational tool through a combination of observations and laboratory demonstrations which can be viewed over the web * Contains instructions on how to reproduce the simple but informative laboratory experiments * Includes copious problems (with sample answers) to help students learn the material.
It turned out to be really a rare and happy occasion that we know exact1y when and how a new branch of space physics was born, namely, a physics of solar cosmic rays. It happened on February 28 and March 7, 1942 when the fIrst "cosmic ray bursts" were recorded on the Earth, and the Sun was unambiguously identifIed for the fIrst time as the source of high-velocity 10 particles with energies up to > 10 eV. Just due to such a high energy these relativistic particles have been called "solar cosmic rays" (SCR), in distinction from the "true" cosmic rays of galactic origin. Between 1942 and the beginning ofthe space era in 1957 only extremely high energy solar particle events could be occasionally recorded by cosmic ray ground-Ievel detectors and balloon borne sensors. Since then the detection techniques varied considerably and the study of SCR turned into essential part of solar and solar-terrestrial physics.
The editors present a state-of-the-art overview on the Physics of Space Weather and its effects on technological and biological systems on the ground and in space. It opens with a general introduction on the subject, followed by a historical review on the major developments in the field of solar terrestrial relationships leading to its development into the up-to-date field of space weather. Specific emphasis is placed on the technological effects that have impacted society in the past century at times of major solar activity. Chapter 2 summarizes key milestones, starting from the base of solar observations with classic telescopes up to recent space observations and new mission developments with EUV and X-ray telescopes (e.g., STEREO), yielding an unprecedented view of the sun-earth system. Chapter 3 provides a scientific summary of the present understanding of the physics of the sun-earth system based on the latest results from spacecraft designed to observe the Sun, the interplanetary medium and geospace. Chapter 4 describes how the plasma and magnetic field structure of the earth's magnetosphere is impacted by the variation of the solar and interplanetary conditions, providing the necessary science and technology background for missions in low and near earth's orbit. Chapter 5 elaborates the physics of the layer of the earth's upper atmosphere that is the cause of disruptions in radio-wave communications and GPS (Global Positioning System) errors, which is of crucial importance for projects like Galileo. In Chapters 6-10, the impacts of technology used up to now in space, on earth and on life are reviewed.
|Author||: K. Rawer|
|Publisher||: Pergamon Pr|
|Release Date||: 1997|
|ISBN 10||: 9780080433066|
|Pages||: 7 pages|
|Release Date||: 2012-01-09|
|ISBN 10||: 1464963681|
|Pages||: 2979 pages|
Issues in Astronomy and Astrophysics / 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Astronomy and Astrophysics. The editors have built Issues in Astronomy and Astrophysics: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Astronomy and Astrophysics in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Astronomy and Astrophysics: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
|Author||: Nathan Blaunstein,Eugeniu Plohotniuc|
|Publisher||: CRC Press|
|Release Date||: 2008-05-13|
|ISBN 10||: 9781420055177|
|Pages||: 600 pages|
A Complete Reference for the 21st Century Until recently, much of the communications technology in the former Eastern bloc countries was largely unknown. Due to the historically competitive nature of East/West relations, scientific groups operated independently, without the benefit of open communication on theoretical frameworks and experimental technologies. As these countries have begun to bridge the gap and work in a more cooperative environment, the need has grown for a comprehensive guide which assimilates all the information in this vast knowledge bank. Ionosphere and Applied Aspects of Radio Communication and Radar meets the demand for an updated reference on this continually evolving global technology. This book examines the changes that have occurred in the past two or three decades. It thoroughly reviews ionospheric radio propagation, over-horizon and above-horizon radars, and miniature ionospheric stations used for investigating nonregular phenomena occurring in the ionosphere. In addition, it also comprehensively discusses land-satellite and satellite-satellite communications. This volume also reviews an area that has been all but ignored in previous works: the effects of plasma irregularities on radio waves propagation through the inhomogeneous ionosphere. Here, a heavy focus is placed on the effects of these irregular phenomena. And due to the recent wireless revolution, more attention than ever has been aimed on improving the efficiency of land-satellite and satellite-satellite communication networks, which are fully addressed. Included are— Transport processes and photochemistry reactions occurring in the regular homogeneous ionosphere Nonlinear phenomena occurring in the irregular ionosphere Instabilities in the inhomogeneous disturbed ionosphere Various ambient natural and artificial sources and corresponding plasma irregularities Written by two leading scientists, this book will be an invaluable guide to anyone working in this ever-changing field.