The Changing Era of Diseases not only explores how to end humanity’s suffering from illness, but also attempts to explain the challenging problems that may arise from the control of future disease. It provides a novel perspective on how to understand the changing patterns of disease, disease development, and defense from an evolutionary point-of-view in an effort to ally the life sciences and historical approaches. Topics cover the origin of disease, its pandemic infectious manifestation, chronic and late chronic diseases, strategies of the human body to fight diseases, methods of ending diseases, and future medical systems are featured. The book is a valuable source for researchers interested in systematic approaches to disease and students who are interested in understanding the evolution of diseases and how we have succeeded in fighting them. Presents the concept of disease by demonstrating the transition of disease, from hunter-gatherers, to chronic diseases in the modern society Demonstrates how the concept of mechanistic causality does not allow us to properly understand chronic diseases Discusses the role that science and technology play in prolonging human life spans – and how that will lead to new healthcare challenges in the future
|Author||: Committee on Changing Health Care Systems and Rheumatic Disease,Institute of Medicine|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 1997-01-23|
|ISBN 10||: 0309596742|
|Pages||: 225 pages|
Market forces are driving a radical restructuring of health care delivery in the United States. At the same time, more and more people are living comparatively long lives with a variety of severe chronic health conditions. Many such people are concerned about the trend toward the creation of managed care systems because their need for frequent, often complex, medical services conflicts with managed care's desires to contain costs. The fear is that people with serious chronic disorders will be excluded from or underserved by the integrated health care delivery networks now emerging. Responding to a request from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, this book reflects the results of a workshop that focused on the following questions: Does the model of managed care or an integrated delivery system influence the types of interventions provided to patients with chronic conditions and the clinical and health status outcomes resulting from those interventions? If so, are these effects quantitatively and clinically significant, as compared to the effects that other variables (e.g., income, education, ethnicity) have on patient outcomes? If the type of health care delivery system appears to be related to patient care and outcomes, can specific organizational, financial, or other variables be identified that account for the relationships? If not, what type of research should be pursued to provide the information needed about the relationship between types of health care systems and the processes and outcomes of care provided to people with serious chronic conditions?
Disease is an ever-present threat faced by all human societies. Today, this concept has become an influential area of study known as the global burden of disease, which encompasses contemporary health concerns such as the economic costs of disease, the societal impact of illness in developing nations, and infectious diseases resulting from lifestyl
|Author||: Sabrina Sarrocco,Alfredo Herrera-Estrella,David B. Collinge|
|Publisher||: Frontiers Media SA|
|Release Date||: 2020-03-16|
|ISBN 10||: 2889635600|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
This compelling account charts the relentless trajectory of humankind, and its changing survival and disease patterns, across place and time from when our ancient ancestors roamed the African Savannah to today's populous, industrialised, globalising world. This expansion of human frontiers - geographic, climatic, cultural and technological - has encountered frequent setbacks from disease, famine and dwindling resources. The social and environmental transformations wrought by agrarianism, industrialisation, fertility control, social modernisation, urbanisation and mass consumption have profoundly affected patterns of health and disease. Today, as life expectancies rise, the planet's ecosystems are being damaged by the combined weight of population size and intensive economic activity. Global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion and loss of biodiversity pose large-scale hazards to human health and survival. Recognising this, can we achieve a transition to sustainability? This and other profound questions underlie this chronicle of expansive human activity, social change, environmental impact and their health consequences.
|Author||: Parvaiz Ahmad,Mohd Rafiq Wani,Mohamed Mahgoub Azooz,Lam-Son Phan Tran|
|Release Date||: 2014-07-28|
|ISBN 10||: 1461488249|
|Pages||: 368 pages|
Abiotic stress drastically limits agricultural crop productivity worldwide. Climate change threatens the sustainable agriculture with its rapid and unpredictable effects, making it difficult for agriculturists and farmers to respond to the challenges cropping up from environmental stresses. In light of population growth and climate changes, investment in agriculture is the only way to avert wide scale food shortages. This challenge comes at a time when plant sciences are witnessing remarkable progress in understanding the fundamental processes of plant growth and development. Plant researchers have identified genes controlling different aspects of plant growth and development, but many challenges still exist in creating an apt infrastructure, access to bioinformatics and good crop results. Improvement of Crops in the Era of Climatic Changes, Volume 2 focuses on many existing opportunities that can be applied methodically through conventional breeding, without touching upon the latest discoveries such as the power of genomics to applied breeding in plant biology. Written by a diverse faction of internationally famed scholars, this volume adds new horizons in the field of crop improvement, genetic engineering and abiotic stress tolerance. Comprehensive and lavishly illustrated, Improvement of Crops in the Era of Climatic Changes, Volume 2 is a state-of-the-art guide to recent developments vis-à-vis various aspects of plant responses in molecular and biochemical ways to create strong yields and overall crop improvement.
The new edition of this critically praised textbook continues to provide the most comprehensive overview of the concepts, methods, and research advances in the field; particularly the application of molecular genomics and of neuroimaging. It has been revised and enhanced to capitalize on the strengths of the first and second editions while keeping it up-to-date with the field of psychiatry and epidemiology. This comprehensive publication now includes chapters on experimental epidemiology, gene-environment interactions, the use of case registries, eating disorders, suicide, childhood disorders and immigrant populations, and the epidemiology of a number of childhood disorders. As in the first and second editions, the objective is to provide a comprehensive, easy to understand overview of research methods for the non-specialist. The book is ideal for students of psychiatric epidemiology, psychiatric residents, general psychiatrists, and other mental health professionals. The book features a new editor, Peter Jones, from the University of Cambridge, who joins the successful US team of Ming Tsuang and Mauricio Tohen.
This book was originally published in 1996. At the time of publication, a number of unexpected and far-reaching events had transformed the world. In rapid succession the disintegration of the Communist bloc reconfigured international relationships, while the ending of apartheid symbolised human faith for a better future. AIDS ravaged developing countries, but it also reshaped scientific research and cultural attitudes towards sexuality. The revolution in genetic medicine coincided with increased rights for minorities and women, yet a growing sensitivity towards our environment means that millennial celebrations are overshadowed by forecasts of ecological catastrophe. In this volume, eight famous experts present their energetic commitment to improvement. These powerful essays enabled a deeper understanding of the challenges confronting modern society.
|Author||: Verdon S. Staines|
|Publisher||: World Bank Publications|
|Release Date||: 1999-01-01|
|ISBN 10||: 9780821344811|
|Pages||: 85 pages|
The health systems inherited by transition countries of Europe and Central Asia (ECA) are changing in response to fundamental and unprecedented challenges. Although the desired shape of future health systems in many ECA countries is discernible, the process for getting there must be invented along the way. 'A Health Sector Strategy for the Europe and Central Asia Region' reviews substantive issues facing health policymakers in ECA. It summarizes the World Bank's experience so far in this arena and the lessons it suggests. Furthermore, it outlines both an external strategy by which the Bank's ECA health staff could assist countries to restructure their health systems and an internal strategy by which the staff could organize their own activities to achieve this result. The publication offers those outside the Bank a basis for professional dialogue to foster constructive change in the Bank's approaches.
At its core, epidemiology is concerned with changes in health and disease. The discipline requires counts and measures: of births, health disorders, and deaths, and in order to make sense of these counts it requires a population base defined by place and time. Epidemiology relies on closely defined concepts of cause - experimental or observational - of the physical or social environment, or in the laboratory. Epidemiologists are guided by these concepts, and have often contributed to their development. Because the disciplinary focus is on health and disease in populations, epidemiology has always been an integral driver of public health, the vehicle that societies have evolved to combat and contain the scourges of mass diseases. In this book, the authors trace the evolution of epidemiological ideas from earliest times to the present. Beginning with the early concepts of magic and the humors of Hippocrates, it moves forward through the dawn of observational methods, the systematic counts of deaths initiated in 16th-century London by John Graunt and William Petty, the late 18th-century Enlightenment and the French Revolution, which established the philosophical argument for health as a human right, the national public health system begun in 19th-century Britain, up to the development of eco-epidemiology, which attempts to re-integrate the fragmented fields as they currently exist. By examining the evolution of epidemiology as it follows the evolution of human societies, this book provides insight into our shared intellectual history and shows a way forward for future study.
|Author||: Michael S. Saag|
|Publisher||: Elsevier Health Sciences|
|Release Date||: 2014-08-28|
|ISBN 10||: 0323323286|
|Pages||: 225 pages|
This first part of a 2-part issue of Infectious Disease Clinics, edited by Michael S. Saag, MD and Henry Masur, MD, is devoted to HIV/AIDS. This issue will cover global epidemiology; testing, staging, and evaluation; linkage to care, retention in care; antiretroviral therapy: current drugs, when to start, what to start, failure; update on opportunistic infections; HIV co-morbidities; and co-infection Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C.
We all want to understand the world around us, and the ancient Greeks were the first to try and do so in a way we can properly call scientific. Their thought and writings laid the essential foundations for the revivals of science in medieval Baghdad and renaissance Europe. Now their work is accessible to all, with this invaluable introduction to c.100 scientific authors active from 320 BCE to 230 CE. The book begins with an outline of a new socio-political model for the development and decline of Greek science, followed by eleven chapters that cover the main disciplines: * the science which the Greeks saw as fundamental - mathematics * astronomy * astrology and geography * mechanics * optics and pneumatics * the non-mathematical sciences of alchemy, biology, medicine and 'psychology'. Each chapter contains an accessible introduction on the origins and development of the topic in question, and all the authors are set in context with brief biographies.
Emerging infectious diseases may be defined as diseases being caused by pathogens only recently recognized to exist. This group of diseases is important globally, and the experience of the last 30 years suggests that new emerging diseases are likely to bedevil us. As the global climate changes, so changes the environment, which can support not only the pathogens, but also their vectors of transmission. This expands the exposure and effects of infectious disease and, therefore, the importance of widespread understanding of the relationship between public health and infectious disease. This work brings together chapters that explain reasons for the emergence of these infectious diseases. These include the ecological context of human interactions with other humans, with animals that may host human pathogens, and with a changing agricultural and industrial environment, increasing resistance to antimicrobials, the ubiquity of global travel, and international commerce. * Features the latest discoveries related to influenza with a newly published article by Davidson Hamer and Jean van Seventer * Provides a listing of rare diseases that have become resurgent or spread their geographic distribution and are re-emergent * Highlights dengue and malaria, as well as agents such as West Nile and other arboviruses that have spread to new continents causing widespread concerns * Includes discussions of climate influencing the spread of infectious disease and political and societal aspects
|Author||: Kristina Crothers,Laurence Huang,Alison Morris|
|Publisher||: Elsevier Health Sciences|
|Release Date||: 2013-05-29|
|ISBN 10||: 145577149X|
|Pages||: 214 pages|
This issue of Clinics in Chest Medicine is Guest Edited by Kristina Crothers, MD from the University of Washington and will focus on HIV and Respiratory Disease. Article topics include Abnormalities in Host Defense, Antiretroviral Therapy and Lung Immunology, HIV associated Pneumonia, HIV associated Tuberculosis, HIV associated lung malignancies, and HIV associated COPD.
This introduction to medical sociology is for medical students and health professionals in the United Kingdom and Europe. A concise and jargon-free introduction to medical sociology – accessible and readable for medical students with little time to devote to this subject. Practical emphasis on essential social issues: the doctor-patient relationship, social class, ethnic minority groups and organization of health services. Attractive two-colour page design with boxed summaries. New section on theory and methods of social research, pointing out the important differences between social research and the more biologically orientated research familiar to medical readers. Extensive revision of those chapters covering health policy, eg NHS chapter, health promotion, community care, organisation of health care.
This book examines the ways that various syndromes, disorders and diseases appear in modern literature and film. What is especially interesting is that rather than be portrayed as an insurmountable handicap, limitation becomes the hero of the novels and films under discussion. What once would have been rejected as flawed, ill, diseased or unworthy has now earned the opportunity to be included into mainstream society. By accepting the other, these works of art allow previous outcasts of society into the mainstream to affirm their moral worth, skill and intelligence. Representations of Illness in Literature and Film analyzes the deconstruction of the above mentioned syndromes, disorders and diseases to describe their reception in the 21st-century, postmodern world.
Over the past 25 years, the growing impor cardiovascular. We hope that by having this tance of genetic factors in the basic understand compilation of cardiovascular diseases in one ing of human cardiovascular disease has become source, it will be of value to all who are involved apparent. Prior to this time, there was an era in the care of patients with cardiovascular dis when cardiovascular disease was first viewed at ease or their families. the diagnostic level followed by an era when The first six chapters of this book delineate cardiovascular disease was viewed at a treatment conditions related to congenital cardiac mal level. The first era occurred at the turn of the formations. Their etiology is not precisely century with the first clinical recognition of known, so we have included chapters that dis symptoms and patterns for diagnosis of car cuss many aspects of congenital cardiac mal diovascular diseases. The development of formations. The first chapter provides discus diagnostic methodology, such as radiographic sion of mechanisms of maldevelopment of the studies and electrocardiography, led to marked heart. We believe that these mechanisms pro changes in our understanding of cardiovascular vide a basis for understanding the genetic and disease. This era was followed by improved environmental factors which operate to produce methods of medical treatment, introduction congenital cardiac malformations. Chapter 2 describes the occurrence of con of medication such as antibiotics, and more genital cardiac malformations in families and sophisticated surgical techniques.
The development of immunisation has been one of the most striking features in the control of infectious disease in the twentieth century. This book takes into account the need for a simple, concise account of immunisation procedures not only in the UK and USA but also in other countries, and to this end a special chapter on immunisation in developing countries has been included. Following two introductory chapters, there are nine chapters on various diseases and the vaccines that have been developed to combat them. In each of these chapters, a short discussion of the epidemiology of the disease and the history of immun isation against it is followed by a description of the vaccine, its efficacy, contraindications to its use and future developments. The book concludes with four general chapters on vaccines for travel, vaccines for selective use, passive immunisation and immunisation in tropical environments. The demand for this book follows the popularity of a series of articles on immunisation which appeared in Update. These have been expanded and largely rewritten. I have drawn on many expert sources and have made an effort to provide a balanced and non-controversial opinion with a discussion of alternative procedures where indicated. Immunisation is intended not only for the family practitioner but also for many specialists, particularly paediatricians, community physicians, Armed Forces medical officers, and all those concerned with immigration procedures and with the spread of infectious diseases. Medical students, nurses and para medical staff will also find much of value.