"This book should go a long way towards filling the communication gap between biology and physics in [the area of biomaterials]. It begins with the basic theory of elasticity and viscoelasticity, describing concepts like stress, strain, compliance, and plasticity in simple mathematical terms. . . . For the non-biologist, these chapters provide a clear account of macromolecular structure and conformation. . . . [Vincent's work] is a delight to read, full of interesting anecdotes and examples from unexpected sources. . . . I can strongly recommend this book, as it shows how biologists could use mechanical properties as well as conventional methods to deduce molecular structure."--Anna Furth, The Times Higher Education Supplement In what is now recognized as a standard introduction to biomaterials, Julian Vincent presents a biologist's analysis of the structural materials of organisms, using molecular biology as a starting point. He explores the chemical structure of both proteins and polysaccharides, illustrating how their composition and bonding determine the mechanical properties of the materials in which they occurincluding pliant composites such as skin, artery, and plant tissue; stiff composites such as insect cuticle and wood; and biological ceramics such as teeth, bone, and eggshell. Here Vincent discusses the possibilities of taking ideas from nature with biomimicry and "intelligent" (or self-designing and sensitive) materials.
This is a thoroughly revised, updated, and expanded edition of a classic illustrated introduction to the structural materials in natural organisms and what we can learn from them to improve man-made technology--from nanotechnology to textiles to architecture. Julian Vincent's book has long been recognized as a standard work on the engineering design of biomaterials and is used by undergraduates, graduates, researchers, and professionals studying biology, zoology, engineering, and biologically inspired design. This third edition incorporates new developments in the field, the most important of which have been at the molecular level. All of the illustrations have been redrawn, the references have been updated, and a new chapter on biomimetic design has been added. Vincent emphasizes the mechanical properties of structural biomaterials, their contribution to the lives of organisms, and how these materials differ from man-made ones. He shows how the properties of biomaterials are derived from their chemistry and interactions, and how to measure them. Starting with proteins and polysaccharides, he shows how skin and hair function, how materials self-assemble, and how ceramics such as bone and mother-of-pearl can be so stiff and tough, despite being made in water in benign ambient conditions. Finally, he combines these topics with an analysis of how the design of biomaterials can be adapted in technology, and presents a series of guidelines for designers. An accessible illustrated introduction with minimal technical jargon Suitable for undergraduates and more advanced readers Integrates chemistry, mechanics, and biology Includes descriptions of all biological materials Simple exposition of mechanical analysis of materials
Structural Biomaterials: Properties, Characteristics, and Selection serves as a single point of reference to digest current research and develop a deeper understanding in the field of biomaterials engineering. This book uses a materials-focused approach, allowing the reader to quickly access specific, detailed information on biomaterials characterization and selection. Relevant to a range of readers, this book provides holistic coverage of the broad categories of structural biomaterials currently available and used in medical applications, highlighting the property requirements for structural biomaterials, their biocompatibility performance and their safety regulation in key categories such as metals, ceramics and polymers. The materials science perspective of this text ensures the content is accessible even to those without an extensive background in applied medicine, positioning this text not just for students, but as an overview and reference for researchers, scientists and engineers entering the field from related materials science disciplines. Provides a unique, holistic approach, covering key biomaterials categories in one text, including metals, ceramics and polymers Discusses advantages, disadvantages, biocompatibility performance and safety regulations, allowing for accurate materials selection in medical applications Utilizes a materials science perspective, allowing those without an extensive applied medical background to learn about the field
|Author||: John M. Gosline|
|Publisher||: Princeton University Press|
|Release Date||: 2018-05-08|
|ISBN 10||: 0691176876|
|Pages||: 400 pages|
Mechanical Design of Structural Materials in Animals explores the principles underlying how molecules interact to produce the functional attributes of biological materials: their strength and stiffness, ability to absorb and store energy, and ability to resist the fatigue that accrues through a lifetime of physical insults. These attributes play a central role in determining the size and shape of animals, the ways in which they can move, and how they interact with their environment. By showing how structural materials have been designed by evolution, John Gosline sheds important light on how animals work. Gosline elucidates the pertinent theories for how molecules are arranged into macromolecular structures and how those structures are then built up into whole organisms. In particular, Gosline develops the theory of discontinuous, fiber-reinforced composites, which he employs in a grand synthesis to explain the properties of everything from the body wall of sea anemones to spiders' silks and insect cuticles, tendons, ligaments, and bones. Although the theories are examined in depth, Gosline's elegant discussion makes them accessible to anyone with an interest in the mechanics of life. Focusing on the materials from which animals are constructed, this book answers fundamental questions about mechanical properties in nature.
The use of biologically derived polymers is emerging as an important component of sustainable economic development. Technical lignins, derivatives from naturally occurring lignin polymers in woody plants, are generated commercially in large quantities - up to 70 million tons worldwide annually. Besides being burned as fuels, only a small percentage of these lignins are used for various applications because technical lignins present relatively unpredictable structural characteristics and are therefore unreliable feedstocks to make products with consistent and satisfactory quality. Over the past two decades, there has been great progress in the research and commercialization of lignin-based products and processes that add significant value to lignins. This book provides critical reviews and the latest research results relating to selected fields of lignin structural analysis and applications. Featuring the significant advances in selected topics of the lignin research field, this reference book is for college students and scientists with the intent of promoting further research and innovations in this specialized field. (Nova)
The understanding of the in vivo performance of synthetic materials is largely dependent upon a profound knowledge of the properties of the materials in question. Analogous to materials science in its broadest sense, the basis for biomaterials science is formed by microstructural there. It is therefore, that in this series on structure property relationships in biomaterials a substantial part is devoted to the analysis of the basic properties of the various synthetic biomaterials. In addition, the effect of microstructural aspects on properties is considered at great length.
|Author||: Jacek Twardowski|
|Publisher||: Sigma Press|
|Release Date||: 1988|
|Pages||: 289 pages|
Foundations of Biomaterials Engineering provides readers with an introduction to biomaterials engineering. With a strong focus on the essentials of materials science, the book also examines the physiological mechanisms of defense and repair, tissue engineering and the basics of biotechnology. An introductory section covers materials, their properties, processing and engineering methods. The second section, dedicated to Biomaterials and Biocompatibility, deals with issues related to the use and application of the various classes of materials in the biomedical field, particularly within the human body, the mechanisms underlying the physiological processes of defense and repair, and the phenomenology of the interaction between the biological environment and biomaterials. The last part of the book addresses two areas of growing importance: Tissue Engineering and Biotechnology. This book is a valuable resource for researchers, students and all those looking for a comprehensive and concise introduction to biomaterials engineering. Offers a one-stop source for information on the essentials of biomaterials and engineering Useful as an introduction or advanced reference on recent advances in the biomaterials field Developed by experienced international authors, incorporating feedback and input from existing customers
The ongoing process of bio-evolution has produced materials which are perfectly adapted to fulfil a specific functional role. The natural world provides us with a multitude of examples of materials with durability, strength, mechanisms of programmed self-assembly and biodegradability. The materials industry has sought to observe and appreciate the relationship between structure, properties and function of these biological materials. A multidisciplinary approach, building on recent advances at the forefront of physics, chemistry and molecular biology, has been successful in producing many synthetic structures with interesting and useful properties. Structural Biological Materials: Design and Structure-Property Relationships represents an invaluable reference in the field of biological materials science and provides an incisive view into this rapidly developing and increasingly important topic within materials science. This book focuses on the study of three sub-groups of structural biological materials: • Hard tissue engineering, focussing on cortical bone • Soft tissue engineering • Fibrous materials, particularly engineering with silk fibers. The fundamental relationship between structure and properties, and certain aspects of design and engineering, are explored in each of the sub-groups. The importance of these materials, both in their intrinsic properties and specific functions, are illustrated with relevant examples. These depict the successful integration of material properties, architecture and shape, providing a wide range of optimised designs, tailored to specific functions. Edited by Manuel Elices of the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain, this book is Volume 4 in the Pergamon Material Series.