This fourth volume in the Handbook of Stress series, Stress: Genetics, Epigenetics and Genomics, deals with the influence that genetics, epigenetics, and genomics have on the effects of and responses to stress. Chapters refer to epigenetic mechanisms that involve DNA methylation, histone modification, and/or noncoding RNA-associated gene activation or silencing. There is also coverage of epigenetic mechanisms in stress-related transgenerational transmission of characteristics, and how these may help explain heritability in some complex human diseases. The Handbook of Stress series, comprised of self-contained volumes that each focus on a specific stress area, covers the significant advances made since the publication of Elsevier’s Encyclopedia of Stress (2000 and 2007). Volume 4 is ideal for graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, faculty and clinicians interested in stress genetics, epigenetics and genomics involved in neuroendocrinology, neuroscience, biomedicine, endocrinology, psychology, psychiatry and the social sciences. Articles carefully selected by eminent stress researchers and prepared by contributors representing outstanding scholarship in the field, with each chapter fully vetted for reliable expert knowledge Richly illustrated with explanatory figures and tables Each chapter includes a boxed “Key points call out section Affordably priced, self-contained volume for readers specifically interested in stress genetics and epigenetics, removing the need to purchase the whole Handbook series
Stress and Epigenetics in Suicidediscusses the central role of epigenetic modifications in suicidal behavior. As early-life stress and an individual's ability to cope with such stressors, combined with psychological factors, social factors, and existential and cognitive factors can predispose young people to suicidal behavior and put them at added risk of suicidal behavior later in life, this book provides readers with an overview of the neurobiology of stress, an introduction to the epigenetic changes induced by stress, and an understanding of how vulnerability and resilience to stress are built. It integrates these mechanisms into a biobehavioral model of suicide based on epigenetic marks, gene-environment interactions, and other stressors. More importantly, it provides future direction for research and discusses potential interventions. This book is an ideal and trusted resource for researchers and clinicians who are interested in learning how the environment can affect behavior through genetics, and for those seeking the development of new methods for suicide prevention. Explores the neurobiology of stress and stress-related epigenetics, including discussion of the role of stress-induced epigenetic changes in behavioral, emotional, and cognitive mechanisms and whether these epigenetic marks are transgenerational Provides compelling biobehavioral models of suicide based on genetics, epigenetics, and behavioral adjustment Integrates social, psychological, and existential influences, giving readers a better understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of suicide risk factors Presents future directions for suicide-prevention strategies that incorporate recent research on genomics and stress resilience
|Author||: Tania L Roth,David M Diamond,Karestan C Koenen|
|Publisher||: Frontiers Media SA|
|Release Date||: 2015-04-14|
|ISBN 10||: 2889194582|
|Pages||: 158 pages|
This research topic focuses on epigenetic components of PTSD. Epigenetic mechanisms are a class of molecular mechanisms by which environmental influences, including stress, can interact with the genome to have long-term consequences for brain plasticity and behavior. Articles herein include empirical reports and reviews that link stress and trauma with epigenetic alterations in humans and animal models of early- or later-life stress. Themes present throughout the collection include: DNA methylation is a useful biomarker of stress and treatment outcome in humans; epigenetic programming of stress-sensitive physiological systems early in development confers an enhanced risk on disease development upon re-exposure to trauma or stress; and, long-lived fear memories are associated with epigenetic alterations in fear memory and extinction brain circuitry.
Epigenetics in Psychiatry covers all major areas of psychiatry in which extensive epigenetic research has been performed, fully encompassing a diverse and maturing field, including drug addiction, bipolar disorder, epidemiology, cognitive disorders, and the uses of putative epigenetic-based psychotropic drugs. Uniquely, each chapter correlates epigenetics with relevant advances across genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. The book acts as a catalyst for further research in this potentially very important and useful area of psychiatry. The elucidation of basic principles of epigenetic biology points to the creation of more optimal and effective therapies for major classes of psychiatric disease. In this regard, epigenetic therapy, the use of drugs to correct epigenetic defects, may help in the pharmacotherapy of patients with these disorders. With time, such advances may eventually point to replacements for psychotropic drugs presently of symptomatic value and low efficacy. Moreover, there is evidence to suggest that other forms of treatment commonly used in the management of psychiatric disorders, like psychotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy, may also act by epigenetic mechanisms. Chapters review fascinating new areas of research across neuronal stem cells, cognitive disorders, and transgenerational epigenetics through drug addiction Relates broad advances in psychiatric epigenetics to a modern understanding of the genome, transcriptome, and protein Catalyzes knowledge discovery in both basic epigenetic biology and clinical application as epigenetic targets for drug discovery
Transgenerational Epigenetics provides a comprehensive analysis of the inheritance of epigenetic phenomena between generations. Recent research points to the existence of biological phenomena that are controlled not through gene mutations, but rather through reversible and heritable epigenetic processes. Epidemiological studies have suggested that environmental factors may be heritable. In fact, environmental factors often play a role in transgenerational epigenetics, which may have selective or adverse effects on the offspring. This epigenetic information can be transferred through a number of mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modifications or RNA and the effects can persist for multiple generations. This book examines the evolution of epigenetic inheritance, its expression in animal and plant models, and how human diseases, such as metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases, appear to be affected by transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. It discusses clinical interventions in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance that may be on the horizon to help prevent diseases before the offspring are born, or to reduce the severity of diseases at the very earliest stages of development in utero, and current controversies in this area of study, as well as future directions for research. Focused discussion of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular diseases and longevity, which appear most affected by reversible and heritable epigenetic processes Encompasses both foundational and clinical aspects including discussions of preventative in utero therapies Covers history, future outlook, disease management and current controversies
Every species has to preserve the integrity of its genome to ensure faithful passage of genetic information to the progeny. At the same time, there are times during the life of the organism and population in general when a fine balance in genome stability and diversification has to be made to benefit the survival of the species. Genome Stability teaches the reader how various species maintain this fine balance in genome stability and genome diversification in response to their environments. Genome Stability covers a wide range of topics, including the genome stability of DNA/RNA viruses, prokaryotes, single cell eukaryotes, lower multicellular eukaryotes and mammals. Topics also include major DNA repair mechanisms, the role of chromatin in genome stability, human diseases associated with genome instability as well as changes in genome stability in response to aging. Finally, Genome Stability covers how epigenetic factors contribute to genome stability and how the species pass the memory of the encounters to the progeny, thus influencing the genome of the progeny in an indirect manner. This volume is an essential resource for geneticists, epigeneticists, and molecular biologists who are looking to gain a deeper understanding of this rapidly-expanding field, and can also be of great use to advanced students who are looking to gain additional expertise in genome stability. Includes a collection of chapters on genome stability research from various kingdoms, including topics such as epigenetics and transgenerational effects Provides the first comprehensive coverage of the differences in the mechanisms utilized by different organisms to maintain genomic stability Contains applications of genome instability and its effect on human diseases Explains how various species maintain the fine balance in genome stability and genome diversification in response to their environments
Medical Epigenetics provides a comprehensive analysis of the importance of epigenetics to health management. The purpose of this book is to fill a current need for a comprehensive volume on the medical aspects of epigenetics with a focus on human systems, epigenetic diseases that affect these systems and modes of treating epigenetic-based disorders and diseases. The intent of this book is to provide a stand-alone comprehensive volume that will cover all human systems relevant to epigenetic maladies and all major aspects of medical epigenetics. The overall goal is to provide the leading book on medical epigenetics that will be useful not only to physicians, nurses, medical students and many others directly involved with health care, but also investigators in life sciences, biotech companies, graduate students and many others who are interested in more applied aspects of epigenetics. Research in the area of translational epigenetics is a cornerstone of this volume. Critical reviews dedicated to the burgeoning role of epigenetics in medical practice Coverage of emerging topics including twin epigenetics as well as epigenetics of gastrointestinal disease, muscle disorders, endocrine disorders, ocular medicine, pediatric diseases, sports medicine, noncoding RNA therapeutics, pain management and regenerative medicine Encompasses a disease-oriented perspective of medical epigenetics as well as diagnostic and prognostic epigenetic approaches to applied medicine
Abiotic stresses are the major cause that limits productivity of crop plants worldwide. Plants have developed intricate machinery to respond and adapt over these adverse environmental conditions both at physiological and molecular levels. Due to increasing problems of abiotic stresses, plant biotechnologists and breeders need to employ new approaches to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Although current research has divulged several key genes, gene regulatory networks and quantitative trait loci that mediate plant responses to various abiotic stresses, the comprehensive understanding of this complex trait is still not available. This e-book is focused on molecular genetics and genomics approaches to understand the plant response/adaptation to various abiotic stresses. It includes different types of articles (original research, method, opinion and review) that provide current insights into different aspects of plant responses and adaptation to abiotic stresses.
Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies. The book shows how these heritable mechanisms allow individual cells to establish stable and unique patterns of gene expression that can be passed through cell divisions without DNA mutations, thereby establishing how different heritable patterns of gene regulation control cell differentiation and organogenesis, resulting in a distinct human organism with a variety of differing cellular functions and tissues. The work begins with basic biology, encompasses methods, cellular and tissue organization, topical issues in epigenetic evolution and environmental epigenesis, and lastly clinical disease discovery and treatment. Each highly illustrated chapter is organized to briefly summarize current research, provide appropriate pedagogical guidance, pertinent methods, relevant model organisms, and clinical examples. Reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies Helps readers understand how epigenetic marks are targeted, and to what extent transgenerational epigenetic changes are instilled and possibly passed onto offspring Chapters are replete with clinical examples to empower the basic biology with translational significance Offers more than 100 illustrations to distill key concepts and decipher complex science
Epigenetics of Aging and Longevity provides an in-depth analysis of the epigenetic nature of aging and the role of epigenetic factors in mediating the link between early-life experiences and life-course health and aging. Chapters from leading international contributors explore the effect of adverse conditions in early-life that may result in disrupted epigenetic pathways, as well as the potential to correct these disrupted pathways via targeted therapeutic interventions. Intergenerational epigenetic inheritance, epigenetic drug discovery, and the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating specific age-associated illnesses—including cancer and cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases—are explored in detail. This book will help researchers in genomic medicine, epigenetics, and biogerontology better understand the epigenetic determinants of aging and longevity, and ultimately aid in developing therapeutics to extend the human life-span and treat age-related disease. Offers a comprehensive overview of the epigenetic nature of aging, as well as the impact of epigenetic factors on longevity and regulating age-related disease Provides readers with clinical and epidemiological evidence for the role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating the link between early-life experiences, life-course health and aging trajectory Applies current knowledge of epigenetic regulatory pathways towards developing therapeutic interventions for age-related diseases and extending the human lifespan
This book examines the toxicological and health implications of environmental epigenetics and provides knowledge through an interdisciplinary approach. Included in this volume are chapters outlining various environmental risk factors such as phthalates and dietary components, life states such as pregnancy and ageing, hormonal and metabolic considerations and specific disease risks such as cancer cardiovascular diseases and other non-communicable diseases. Environmental Epigenetics imparts integrative knowledge of the science of epigenetics and the issues raised in environmental epidemiology. This book is intended to serve both as a reference compendium on environmental epigenetics for scientists in academia, industry and laboratories and as a textbook for graduate level environmental health courses. Environmental Epigenetics imparts integrative knowledge of the science of epigenetics and the issues raised in environmental epidemiology. This book is intended to serve both as a reference compendium on environmental epigenetics for scientists in academia, industry and laboratories and as a textbook for graduate level environmental health courses.
Epigenetics is one of the fastest growing fields of sciences, illuminating studies of human diseases by looking beyond genetic make-up and acknowledging that outside factors play a role in gene expression. The goal of this volume is to highlight those diseases or conditions for which we have advanced knowledge of epigenetic factors such as cancer, autoimmune disorders and aging as well as those that are yielding exciting breakthroughs in epigenetics such as diabetes, neurobiological disorders and cardiovascular disease. Where applicable, attempts are made to not only detail the role of epigenetics in the etiology, progression, diagnosis and prognosis of these diseases, but also novel epigenetic approaches to the treatment of these diseases. Chapters are also presented on human imprinting disorders, respiratory diseases, infectious diseases and gynecological and reproductive diseases. Since epigenetics plays a major role in the aging process, advances in the epigenetics of aging are highly relevant to many age-related human diseases. Therefore, this volume closes with chapters on aging epigenetics and breakthroughs that have been made to delay the aging process through epigenetic approaches. With its translational focus, this book will serve as valuable reference for both basic scientists and clinicians alike. Comprehensive coverage of fundamental and emergent science and clinical usage Side-by-side coverage of the basis of epigenetic diseases and their treatments Evaluation of recent epigenetic clinical breakthroughs
|Author||: Thomas Lehner,Bruce L. Miller,Matthew W. State|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2016-06-07|
|ISBN 10||: 0128005300|
|Pages||: 796 pages|
This foundational work comprehensively examines the current state of the genetics, genomics and brain circuitry of psychiatric and neurological disorders. It consolidates discoveries of specific genes and genomic regions associated with these conditions, the genetic and anatomic architecture of these syndromes, and addresses how recent advances in genomics are leading to a reappraisal of the biology underlying clinical neuroscience. In doing so, it critically examines the promise and limitations of these discoveries toward treatment, and to the interdisciplinary nature of understanding brain and behavior. Coverage includes new discoveries regarding autism, epilepsy, intellectual disability, dementias, movement disorders, language impairment, disorders of attention, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Genomics, Circuits, and Pathways in Clinical Neuropsychiatry focuses on key concepts, challenges, findings, and methods in genetics, genomics, molecular pathways, brain circuitry, and related neurobiology of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Provides interdisciplinary appeal in psychiatry, neurology, neuroscience, and genetics Identifies key concepts, methods, and findings Includes coverage of multiple disorders from autism to schizophrenia Reviews specific genes associated with disorders Discusses the genetic architecture of these syndromes Explains how recent findings are influencing the understanding of biology Clarifies the promise of these findings for future treatment
Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology have markedly changed our understanding of the heart, and this is having tremendous ramifications for the clinician. This unique reference offers a comprehensive and critical evaluation of this contribution in the field of cardiovascular molecular medicine providing the reader with a sense of new directions in which molecular medicine might be applied. It begins with a detailed primer that makes readily accessible recent molecular, genetic and cellular techniques. Rounding out the coverage of this exciting field are critical and comprenhesive discussions on the use of molecular, genetic and cellular techniques used to identify the etiology and pathophysiology of specific cardiac diseases. * Discusses diagnostic and therapeutic options available not only in the adult and aging individuals but also in infants/children * Numerous illustrations and flow-charts * Explans cutting-edge molecular techniques, including analysis of mitochondria, their role in cardiac dysfunction and updated analysis of Cardioprotection and Metabolic Syndrome * Presentation of recent translational studies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases is included (e.g., gene therapy, pharmacological treatments and stem cell transplantation)
Nutritional genomics, also referred to as nutrigenomics, is considered one of the next frontiers in the post-genomic era. Its fundamental premise is that while alterations in gene expression or epigenetic phenomena can subvert a healthy phenotype into manifesting chronic disease, through the introduction of certain nutrients, this process can be reversed or modified. Employing state-of-the-art genomic and proteomic investigations that monitor the expression of thousands of genes in response to diet, nutrigenomics investigates the occurrence of relationship between dietary nutrients and gene expression. Nutrigenomics was compiled to update the reader on recent advances in this emerging field. Over forty experts in nutrition, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and the microbial sciences from all across the world present cutting-edge developments and emerging methods presently used in nutrigenomics. They include the latest studies and research on the role of oxidants, antioxidants, phytochemicals, and micronutrients in the modulation of gene expression affecting aging, immune function, carcinogenesis, and vascular health. As most human diseases are largely avoidable by lifestyle changes, this places nutrigenomics at the forefront of preventive medicine.
Toxicoepigenetics: Core Principles and Applications examines the core aspects of epigenetics, including chromatin biology, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNA, as well as fundamental techniques and considerations for studying each of these mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. Although its integration into the field of toxicology is in its infancy, epigenetics have taken center stage in the study of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. Increasing the presence of epigenetics in toxicological research allows for a more in-depth understanding of important aspects of toxicology such as the role of the environment and lifestyle influencing the individual susceptibility to these effects and the trans-generational transmission of these health effects and susceptibilities. Methods chapters are included to help improve efficacy and efficiency of protocols in both the laboratory and the classroom. Toxicoepigenetics: Core Principles and Applications is an essential book for researchers and academics using epigenetics in toxicology research and study. Introduces the fundamental principles and practices for understanding the role of the epigenome in toxicology Presents the foundation of epigenetics for toxicologists with a broad range of backgrounds Discusses the incorporation of epigenetics and epigenomics into current toxicological studies and interpretation of epigenetic data in toxicological applications
This book provides a comprehensive overview of current knowledge of cannabinoid activity in human physiology and points out the importance of endocannabinoid system for the maintenance of human health and treatment of diseases. Each chapter has been organized with the aim to cover basic concepts in the modulation of endocannabinoid system in both physiological and pathological conditions, thanks to the integration of data from experimental animal models and clinical observations. A special focus has been put on the medical use of cannabinoids and on the targeting of endocannabinoid system as new therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of human diseases. Taken together, this book targets a wide audience of basic and clinical scientists, teachers and students interested in gaining a better understanding in the field of cannabinoids.
Handbook of Epigenetics: The New Molecular and Medical Genetics, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive analysis of epigenetics, from basic biology, to clinical application. Epigenetics is considered by many to be the new genetics in that many biological phenomena are controlled, not through gene mutations, but rather through reversible and heritable epigenetic processes. These epigenetic processes range from DNA methylation to prions. The biological processes impacted by epigenetics are vast and encompass effects in lower organisms and humans that include tissue and organ regeneration, X-chromosome inactivation, stem cell differentiation, genomic imprinting, and aging. The first edition of this important work received excellent reviews; the second edition continues its comprehensive coverage adding more current research and new topics based on customer and reader reviews, including new discoveries, approved therapeutics, and clinical trials. From molecular mechanisms and epigenetic technology, to discoveries in human disease and clinical epigenetics, the nature and applications of the science is presented for those with interests ranging from the fundamental basis of epigenetics, to therapeutic interventions for epigenetic-based disorders. Timely and comprehensive collection of fully up-to-date reviews on epigenetics that are organized into one volume and written by leading figures in the field Covers the latest advances in many different areas of epigenetics, ranging from basic aspects, to technologies, to clinical medicine Written at a verbal and technical level that can be understood by scientists and college students Updated to include new epigenetic discoveries, newly approved therapeutics, and clinical trials
DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease reviews the possibilities of methyl-group-based epigenetic biomarkers of major diseases, tailored epigenetic therapies, and the future uses of high-throughput methylome technologies. This volume includes many pertinent advances in disease-bearing research, including obesity, type II diabetes, schizophrenia, and autoimmunity. DNA methylation is also discussed as a plasma and serum test for non-invasive screening, diagnostic and prognostic tests, as compared to biopsy-driven gene expression analysis, factors which have led to the use of DNA methylation as a potential tool for determining cancer risk, and diagnosis between benign and malignant disease. Therapies are at the heart of this volume and the possibilities of DNA demethylation. In cancer, unlike genetic mutations, DNA methylation and histone modifications are reversible and thus have shown great potential in the race for effective treatments. In addition, the authors present the importance of high-throughput methylome analysis, not only in cancer, but also in non-neoplastic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Discusses breaking biomarker research in major disease families of current health concern and research interest, including obesity, type II diabetes, schizophrenia, and autoimmunity Summarizes advances not only relevant to cancer, but also in non-neoplastic disease, currently an emerging field Describes wholly new concepts, including the linking of metabolic pathways with epigenetics Provides translational researchers with the knowledge of both basic research and clinic applications of DNA methylation in human diseases