The popularity of the plant Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) has risen due to increasing use and interest in its sweet constituents called steviol glycosides. In recent years, these have been approved all over the world as food additives in the category of sweetener, hence they have received more attention and their use in food formulations has increased significantly. New techniques in growing stevia have resulted in new varieties with interesting steviol glycoside profiles. Also, new techniques to analyse the content of sweeteners in different matrices and the detection of new steviol glycosides with very pleasant sensory profiles has followed. The aim of this book is to present novel uses and manufacturing developments as well as to gather together up-to-date information across the whole developing area of steviol glycosides research.
Steviol Glycosides: Production, Properties, and Applications illustrates the health effects of steviol glycosides, presenting methods to preserve their stability, bioactivity and bioavailability during handling, extraction and processing. Beginning with biosynthesis, metabolism and health uses, the book also explores agronomic practices, toxicology and pharmacology, leaf drying, conventional techniques, non-thermal technologies, green recovery, membrane clarification technologies, chemical and enzymatic modifications, stability studies and food applications. This book is an excellent resource for food scientists, technologists, engineers, chemists, nutritionists, new product developers, researchers and academics with an interest in understanding steviol glycoside applications in the development of functional foods, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Assesses the biosynthesis, metabolism and health effects of steviol glycosides Covers three critical dimensions, including properties, recovery and applications Explores recovery, analysis and processing issues, also revealing industrial applications
|Author||: A.M.J. Kootstra,H..J.H. Elissen,S. Huurman|
|Release Date||: 2016|
|Pages||: 36 pages|
The toxicological monographs in this volume summarize the safety data on a number of food additives: asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane and steviol glycosides. A monograph on the assessment of dietary exposure to sulfites is also included. Monographs on 10 groups of related flavoring agents evaluated by the Procedure for the Safety Evaluation of Flavouring Agents are also included. This volume also contains a monograph on incorporating the single portion exposure technique (SPET) into the Procedure for the Safety Evaluation of Flavouring Agents in the dietary exposure assessment of flavoring agents. This volume and others in the WHO Food Additives Series contain information that is useful to those who produce and use food additives and veterinary drugs and those involved with controlling contaminants in food, government and food regulatory officers, industrial testing laboratories, toxicological laboratories and universities.
|Release Date||: 2014|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Abstract: Following a request from the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) carried out an exposure assessment of steviol glycosides (E 960) from its use as a food additive, taking into account the proposed extension of uses. In 2010, the EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) adopted a scientific opinion on the safety of steviol glycosides (E 960) and established an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 4 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day. Conservative estimates of exposure, both in adults and children, suggested that it is likely that the ADI would be exceeded at the maximum proposed use level. In 2011, EFSA carried out a revised exposure assessment for steviol glycosides based on revised proposed uses and concluded that high level dietary exposure in children may still exceed the ADI. The current refined exposure estimates are based on the currently authorised uses, the proposed extension, and the EFSA Comprehensive Food Consumption Database. The mean dietary exposure to steviol glycosides ranges from 0.1 mg/kg bw/day in adults and the elderly, to 2.4 mg/kg bw/day in toddlers. Estimates at the 95 th percentile of exposure range from 0.3 to 4.3 mg/kg bw/day in the elderly and toddlers, respectively. The Panel concluded that dietary exposure to steviol glycosides is considerably lower than that in the previous exposure assessment. Overall, the revised exposure estimates for all age groups remain below the ADI, except for toddlers at the upper range of the high level (95 th percentile) estimates, in one country. Moreover, the Panel noted that table top sweeteners may represent an important source of exposure and therefore a MPL with a numerical value, rather than quantum satis, would be preferable, to allow for a more precise estimation of the potential maximum level of exposure from table top sweeteners.
|Author||: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,World Health Organization|
|Publisher||: Food & Agriculture Org.|
|Release Date||: 2020-01-29|
|ISBN 10||: 9251321213|
|Pages||: 110 pages|
This document contains food additive specification monographs, analytical methods, and other information prepared at the eighty-seventh meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), which was held in Rome, 4–13 June 2019. The tasks before the Committee were (a) to elaborate principles governing the evaluation of food additives, (b) to undertake safety evaluations of certain food additives, (c) to review and prepare specifications for certain food additives and (d) to establish specifications for certain flavouring agents. The Committee evaluated the safety of six food additives (including one group of food additives) and revised the specifications for five other food additives (including one group of food additives) and nine flavouring agents. This publication contains information that is useful to all those who work with or are interested in food additives and their safe use in food.
The publication aims to familiarize students of public policy with the precautionary principle, which plays a vital role in the European Union’s approach toward regulating risks. The precautionary principle contends that policy makers should refrain from actions having a suspected risk of causing harm to the public and/or the environment. However, the precautionary principle only provides guidance to policy makers but does not prescribe specific policy responses. Therefore, there should be variation in the way the principle is applied. Furthermore, precautionary measures are, in principle, of a provisional nature, suggesting that they are likely to be subject to changes over time. This book is thus interested in shedding light on how the precautionary principle is put into practice and to what extent precautionary measures become modified. Empirically, it focuses on how the EU has regulated the use of growth hormones in meat production, the cultivation of genetically modified corn and the use of Stevia-based sweeteners in foods and beverages. The main theoretical argument advanced by this study is that the way in which the original regulatory standards were formulated affects whether and how they are changed. By placing particular emphasis on the relevance of scientific evidence for the (re-)definition of precautionary measures, the book is expected to appeal to both academics and practitioners.
|Author||: Shemilah Fayaz|
|Release Date||: 2016|
|Pages||: 71 pages|
|Release Date||: 2015|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Abstract: Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) provides a scientific opinion regarding the safety of an amendment of the specifications for the food additive steviol glycosides (E 960). It was requested that rebaudioside M be added to the list of steviol glycosides as an authorised component of the mixture and that the minimum amount of 75% of stevioside and/or rebaudioside A be deleted. The ANS Panel received a dossier from the applicant and subsequently requested additional data. The Panel noted that for all stevioside and any rebaudioside following intestinal degradation, only steviol would be available in the plasma. The toxicological conclusions made by the ANS Panel in 2010 were also based on the conversion to steviol in the intestine and that steviol was the only compound systemically available. Further to this, the Panel considered that the toxicological studies performed with stevioside and rebaudioside A were relevant for assessing the safety of any steviol glycoside degraded in the intestine. The ANS Panel therefore concluded that extending the current specifications to include rebaudioside D and M as alternatives to rebaudioside A in the predominant components would be of no safety concern. The Panel also concluded that provided that the total amount of steviol glycosides (stevioside; rebaudioside, A, B, C, D, E, F and M; steviolbioside; rubusoside and dulcoside) were greater than 95% which are all converted to steviol and given that there was no evidence of absorption for intact glycosides at realistic use levels, the specific steviol glycosides (E 960) composition would not be of safety concern. Finally it was considered that the ADI of 4 mg/kg bw/day can also be applied where total steviol glycosides comprise more than 95% of the material.