With the discovery of stem cells capable of multiplying indefinitely in culture and differentiating into many other cell types in appropriate conditions, new hopes were born in repair and replacement of damaged cells and tissues. The features of stem cells may provide treatment for some incurable diseases with some therapies are already in clinics, particularly those from adult stem cells. Some treatments will require large number of cells and may also require multiple doses, generating a growing demand for generating and processing large numbers of cells to meet the need of clinical applications. With this in mind, our aim is to provide a book on the subject of stem cells and cell therapy for researchers and students of cell biotechnology, bioengineering and bioproduction. This book is exceptional as it teaches researchers stem cells and cell therapy in that it covers the concepts and backgrounds necessary so that readers get a good understanding of the production of stem cells. The book covers three topics: The basics of stem cells and cell therapy, the use of stem cells for the treatment of human diseases, and stem cell processing. It includes chapters on neural and vascular stem vascular stem cell therapy, expansion engineering of embryonic stem cells, stem cell based production of blood cells and separation technologies for stem cells and cell therapy products. It is an informed and informative presentation of what modern research, science and engineering have learned about stem cells and their production and therapies. Addressing both the medical and production issues, this book is an invaluable contribution to having an academic and industrial understanding with respect to R&D and manufacturing of clinical grade stem cells.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder of aging after Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pathologically, it is characterized by a degeneration of dopamine (DA) neurons in substantia nigra of middle brain, which causes the motor symptoms and nonmotor symptoms of PD. The dopamine replacement therapy using levodopa and surgical treatment of deep brain stimulation (DBS) can only improve the symptoms of PD, but cannot stop the disease progression. Because of the selective loss of DA neurons, cell transplantation provides an exciting potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The available cell sources include mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow, neural stem cells (NSCs) from fetal brain tissues, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from blastocysts, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogrammed from somatic cells transfected with stem cell transcription factors of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC. Here, we first review the research advance conducted in animal models and patients of PD with these cells, then moving forward to recent development of iPSCs as a future source for the treatment of PD, and highlight the current challenges to make good manufacturing practice (GMP) standard cells suitable for large-scale production to move the cell-based therapy from dish to clinic as soon as possible.
Focused on stem cell applications, this book bridges the fields of biomaterials, offering new insights into constructing and regenerating tissues and organs. Its unique feature is linking diseases of the human body to current thinking on how to deal with them in the context of current concepts and technologies by means of an in-depth focus on biomaterials. The book assembles recent advances and covers a range of topics related to stem cell biology, biomaterials and technological approaches such as bioreactors written by top researchers in the field. Stem cells of both embryonic and adult origin are discussed with applications ranging, but not limited to, nerve regeneration, liver, pancreas, skin, trachea, cartilage and bone repair and cardiovascular therapy. Developments in the field reflecting the design and construction of the human body and its principal anatomy are discussed from a materials point of view. The book will be a valuable tool for biomaterial scientists, tissue engineers, clinicians as well as stem cell biologists involved in basic research and applications of adult and embryonic stem cells. It will also be a source of reference for students in biotechnology, biomedical engineering, biology, biochemistry, materials sciences, pharmaceuticals, and veterinary and human medicine.
Since different types of stem cells for therapeutic applications have recently been proposed, this timely volume explores various sources of stem cells for tissue and organ regeneration and discusses their advantages and limitations. Also discussed are pros and cons for using embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and adult stem cells isolated from postnatal tissues. Different types of adult stem cells for therapeutic applications are also reviewed, including hematopoietic stem cells, epidermal stem cells, endothelial progenitors, neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and very small embryonic-like stem cells. This book also addresses paracrine effects of stem cells in regenerative medicine that are mediated by extracellular microvesicles and soluble secretome. Finally, potential applications of stem cells in cardiology, gastroenterology, neurology, immunotherapy, and aging are presented. This is an ideal book for students and researchers working in the stem cell research field.
|Author||: Anthony Atala|
|Release Date||: 2012-03-15|
|ISBN 10||: 0857096079|
|Pages||: 568 pages|
Progenitor and stem cells have the ability to renew themselves and change into a variety of specialised types, making them ideal materials for therapy and regenerative medicine. Progenitor and stem cell technologies and therapies reviews the range of progenitor and stem cells available and their therapeutic application. Part one reviews basic principles for the culture of stem cells before discussing technologies for particular cell types. These include human embryonic, induced pluripotent, amniotic and placental, cord and multipotent stem cells. Part two discusses wider issues such as intellectual property, regulation and commercialisation of stem cell technologies and therapies. The final part of the book considers the therapeutic use of stem and progenitor cells. Chapters review the use of adipose tissue-derived stem cells, umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells, bone marrow, auditory and oral cavity stem cells. Other chapters cover the use of stem cells in therapies in various clinical areas, including lung, cartilage, urologic, nerve and cardiac repair. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Progenitor and stem cell technologies and therapies is a standard reference for both those researching in cell and tissue biology and engineering as well as medical practitioners investigating the therapeutic use of this important technology. Reviews the range of progenitor and stem cells available and outlines their therapeutic application Examines the basic principles for the culture of stem cells before discussing technologies for particular cell types, including human embryonic, induced pluripotent, amniotic and placental, cord and multipotent stem cells Includes a discussion of wider issues such as intellectual property, regulation and commercialisation of stem cell technologies and therapies
Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetes, one of the latest installments of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine series, reviews the three main approaches for generation of sufficient numbers of insulin-producing cells for restoration of an adequate beta-cell mass: beta-cell expansion, stem-cell differentiation, and nuclear reprogramming. Adeptly collecting the research of the leading scientists in the field, Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetes compares the merits of employing autologous versus banked allogeneic cell sources for generation of surrogate beta cells, and addresses tissue engineering and ways for cell protection from recurring autoimmunity and graft rejection. Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetes provides essential reading for those especially interested in tracking the progress in applying of one of the most exciting new developments in bio-medicine towards a cure for diabetes.
Over the past decade, significant efforts have been made to develop stem cell-based therapies for difficult to treat diseases. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, also referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), appear to hold great promise in regards to a regenerative cell-based therapy for the treatment of these diseases. Currently, more than 200 clinical trials are underway worldwide exploring the use of MSCs for the treatment of a wide range of disorders including bone, cartilage and tendon damage, myocardial infarction, graft-versus-host disease, Crohn’s disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, critical limb ischemia and many others. MSCs were first identified by Friendenstein and colleagues as an adherent stromal cell population within the bone marrow with the ability to form clonogenic colonies in vitro. In regards to the basic biology associated with MSCs, there has been tremendous progress towards understanding this cell population’s phenotype and function from a range of tissue sources. Despite enormous progress and an overall increased understanding of MSCs at the molecular and cellular level, several critical questions remain to be answered in regards to the use of these cells in therapeutic applications. Clinically, both autologous and allogenic approaches for the transplantation of MSCs are being explored. Several of the processing steps needed for the clinical application of MSCs, including isolation from various tissues, scalable in vitro expansion, cell banking, dose preparation, quality control parameters, delivery methods and numerous others are being extensively studied. Despite a significant number of ongoing clinical trials, none of the current therapeutic approaches have, at this point, become a standard of care treatment. Although exceptionally promising, the clinical translation of MSC-based therapies is still a work in progress. The extensive number of ongoing clinical trials is expected to provide a clearer path forward for the realization and implementation of MSCs in regenerative medicine. Towards this end, reviews of current clinical trial results and discussions of relevant topics association with the clinical application of MSCs are compiled in this book from some of the leading researchers in this exciting and rapidly advancing field. Although not absolutely all-inclusive, we hope the chapters within this book can promote and enable a better understanding of the translation of MSCs from bench-to-bedside and inspire researchers to further explore this promising and quickly evolving field.
|Author||: Nabil Dib,Doris A. Taylor,Edward B. Diethrich|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2006-04-09|
|ISBN 10||: 038730939X|
|Pages||: 335 pages|
In excess of 7 million people worldwide die of coronary heart disease each year. Only one-third of these heart attack victims recover completely. The remainder suffer the consequences of myocardial infarction and its ill fated remodeling process, resulting in chronic congestive heart failure. This malady alone is the leading cause of hospital admissions in the United States. New breakthroughs in stem cell therapy and tissue engineering have promised to reverse this dismal outcome by cardiovascular repair. World authorities, including scientists and regulatory authorities, have joined in a collaborative effort to present for the reader the first collective review of stem cell therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. These contributions in basic science, pre-clinical and clinical experience guided by the regulatory pathways, assure a rapid course of translational research and clinical trials. The contents of this publication will become a prerequisite for those preparing to meet the challenges of this exciting and potentially rewarding field of stem cell research.
|Author||: Fabin Han,Pengzhe (Paul) Lu|
|Publisher||: Springer Nature|
|Release Date||: 2020-10-26|
|ISBN 10||: 9811543704|
|Pages||: 145 pages|
This book reviews the state-of-the-art in stem-cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, and highlights advances in both animal models and clinical trials. It comprehensively discusses most neurodegenerative diseases, including such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington’s diseases, amyotrophic sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy and retinal degeneration, in which stem cells could potentially be used for therapy in the future. It also addresses the challenges and problems relating to the translation of stem-cell-based therapies into treatments. As such, the book will appeal to research scientists, physicians, graduate students, and medical professionals in the field of stem cells, neuroscience, neurology, neurorestoratology and major neurological disorders.
This book, Physical Disabilities - Therapeutic Implications, presents reports on a wide range of areas in the field of neurobiological disabilities, including movement disorders (Uner Tan syndrome, genetic and environmental influences, chronic brain damage, stroke, and pediatric disabilities) related to physical and stem cell therapy. Studies are presented from researchers around the world, looking at aspects as wide-ranging as the genetics, wheelchair, and robotics behind the conditions to new and innovative therapeutic approaches.
A scientist assesses the potential of stem cell therapies for treating such brain disorders as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Stem cell therapies are the subject of enormous hype, endowed by the media with almost magical qualities and imagined by the public to bring about miracle cures. Stem cells have the potential to generate new cells of different types, and have been shown to do so in certain cases. Could stem cell transplants repair the damaged brain? In this book, neurobiologist Jack Price assesses the potential of stem cell therapies to treat such brain disorders as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injuries. Certainly brain disorders are in need of effective treatments. These disorders don't just kill, they disable, and conventional drug therapies have not had much success in treating them. Price explains that repairing the human brain is difficult, largely because of its structural, functional, and developmental complexity. He examines the self-repairing capacity of blood and gut cells—and the lack of such capacity in the brain; describes the limitations of early brain stem cell therapies for neurodegenerative disorders; and discusses current clinical trials that may lead to the first licensed stem cell therapies for stroke, Parkinson's and macular degeneration. And he describes the real promise of pluripotential stem cells, which can make all the cell types that constitute the body. New technologies, Price reports, challenge the very notion of cell transplantation, instead seeking to convince the brain itself to manufacture the new cells it needs. Could this be the true future of brain repair?
Stem cells have generated a lot of excitement among the researchers, clinicians and the public alike. Various types of stem cells are being evaluated for their regenerative potential. Marginal benefit resulting by transplanting autologus stem cells (deemed to be absolutely safe) in various clinical conditions has been proposed to be a growth factor effect rather than true regeneration. In contrast, various pre-clinical studies have been undertaken, using differentiated cells from embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells have shown promise, functional improvement and no signs of teratoma formation. The scientists are not in a rush to reach the clinic but a handful of clinical studies have shown promise. This book is a collection of studies/reviews, beginning with an introduction to the pluripotent stem cells and covering various aspects like derivation, differentiation, ethics, etc., and hence would provide insight into the recent standing on the pluripotent stem cells biology. The chapters have been categorized into three sections, covering subjects ranging from the generation of pluripotent stem cells and various means of their derivation from embryonic as well as adult tissues, the mechanistic understanding of pluripotency and narrating the potential therapeutic implications of these in vitro generated cells in various diseases, in addition to the associated pros and cons in the same.
|Author||: Xiao-Dong Chen|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2018-08-31|
|ISBN 10||: 0128119217|
|Pages||: 544 pages|
A Roadmap to Non-hematopoietic Stem Cell-Based Therapeutics: From the Bench to the Clinic is a resource that provides an overview of the principles of stem cell therapy, the promises and challenges of using stem cells for treating various clinical conditions, and future perspectives. The overall goal is to facilitate the translation of basic research on stem cells to clinical applications. The properties of stem cells from various sources are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of each for clinical use are discussed. Modifying stem cell properties through preconditioning strategies using physical, chemical, genetic, and molecular manipulation to improve cell survival, increase cell differentiation potential, enhance production of paracrine factors, and facilitate homing to the site of injury or disease upon transplantation are reviewed. Various routes of stem cell administration and dosing, and the duration of effects, are explored. Individual chapters are written by experts in the field and focus on the use of stem cells in treating various degenerative diseases, autoimmune diseases, wound healing, cardiovascular disease, spinal cord injury, oral and dental diseases, and skeletal disorders. Finally, experts in the regulatory arena discuss mechanisms used in different countries for approving the use of stem cells to treat diseases and many common issues that are typically encountered while seeking approval for this class of therapeutic agent. Offers advanced students, as well as new researchers, an overview of the principles of stem cell therapy Discusses a wide array of pressing clinical issues with stem cell-based therapies so that new ideas in the laboratory can be efficiently translated to the clinic through better designed clinical trials Helps clarify current regulatory mechanisms so that the safe use of stem cells for treating a variety of diseases can move forward Fosters cross-disciplinary dialogue between research scientists and physicians to accelerate the safe implementation of efficacious cell therapies
The first volume of Stem Cells deals with the fundamental principles that govern embryonic and somatic stem cell biology. Historically, the identification and characterization of such pathways and general rules of stemness occurred during embryonic development and Volume I reflects this with topics spanning cell cycle regulation, epigenetics, and asymmetric cell division in a number of organ systems from planarian to human. Three specific sections discuss i) Basic Stem Cell Biology, ii) Tissue Formation During Development, and iii) Model Organisms with particular emphasis on those more relevant for biomedical research and, thus, leading to the topics addressed in Volume II.
The book “STEM CELL THERAPY FOR ORGAN FAILURES” edited by Dr. S. Indumathi demonstrates the In Vitro and In vivo therapeutic strategies and applications of pre- and post-natal stem cells for treating the failures of various organ systems of our body in a wide perspective. It explores the past, present and the futuristic approach of the exciting field of stem cells and its intriguing properties involved in tissue repair and regeneration. The prime focus of this volume is to unravel the basic, advanced, therapeutic and translational approaches put-forth so far in the field of stem cells and regenerative medicine at research, pre-clinical and clinical levels. Stem cells has ushered in widespread interest and exciting possibilities for cell based therapies, albeit failures do prevail and small uncontrolled phase I/II studies are only signals generating, rather than definite proof of concept thereby limiting its applicability in curative therapeutics. Despite certain initiatives and meticulous untiring efforts, bringing this basic bench side research into advanced transitional bedside remained a challenge. Thus, this book embarked upon the expanding researches in these areas that seem decisive in improvising regenerative medical therapeutics, thereby leading to further path-breaking studies that cure all health challenges facing mankind. Overall, this book reveals the imperativeness of various stem cell sources and its utility in curative therapeutics.
|Author||: Thomas Dittmar,Kurt S. Zänker|
|Publisher||: CRC Press|
|Release Date||: 2016-04-19|
|ISBN 10||: 1466577363|
|Pages||: 332 pages|
This book summarizes the latest findings about the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in cancer biology and how this knowledge could be used for novel anticancer therapies. It provides an overview of CSCs in selected malignancies with particular emphasis on hematopoietic neoplasias. It then reviews the role of CSCs in metastasis formation and initiation of cancer relapses. It also examines the dark side of cancer therapy such as conventional cancer therapies that may lead to the origin of recurrence CSCs. Finally, it supplies a brief overview of current concepts that may allow for a selective eradication of CSCs.
In the last 3 decades, stem cells have greatly impacted the scientific and lay communities, providing huge advances in the treatment of devastating human diseases, including myocardial infarction, diabetes, muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and osteoporosis. Alongside debates of induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells has been the discovery of adult stem cells in many different tissues. While these organ resident or progenitor stem cells offer prospects to contribute to tissue regeneration, they also present challenges because of the complexity of organ structures. This book will present the main findings to date and the important factors to be considered when considering resident stem cells in regenerative therapies. Chapters on cardiac, brain, neural, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, bone, pancreatic, skin, and lung resident stem cells will assist in defining the level of success that has been achieved and the direction for the road ahead. With contributions from leading laboratories, open questions related to resident stem cells and regenerative therapies will also be presented for debate. Highlights basic research in tissue specific stem cells, experiments with animal models and clinical trials that are transforming the field of regeneration Provides a clear understanding of endogenous stem cells, their role in current regenerative therapies, and prospects for future research Reports on the main-stream clinical approaches and in vivo experiments published in primary literature to help categorizes the advances in various aspects of regenerative therapy and illustrate opportunities for clinical applications
|Author||: Emerson C. Perin,Leslie W. Miller,Doris Taylor,James T. Willerson|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2015-08-21|
|ISBN 10||: 0128018631|
|Pages||: 538 pages|
Stem Cell and Gene Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease is a state-of-the-art reference that combines, in one place, the breadth and depth of information available on the topic. As stem cell and gene therapies are the most cutting-edge therapies currently available for patients with heart failure, each section of the book provides information on medical trials from contributors and specialists from around the world, including not only what has been completed, but also what is planned for future research and trials. Cardiology researchers, basic science clinicians, fellows, residents, students, and industry professionals will find this book an invaluable resource for further study on the topic. Provides information on stem and gene therapy medical trials from contributors and specialists around the world, including not only what has been completed, but also what is planned for future research and trials Presents topics that can be applied to allogeneic cells, mesenchymal cells, gene therapy, cardiomyoctyes, iPS cells, MAPC's, and organogenesis Covers the three areas with the greatest clinical trials to date: chronic limb ischemia, chronic angina, and acute MI Covers the prevailing opinions on how to harness the body’s natural repair mechanisms Ideal resource for cardiology researchers, basic science clinicians, fellows, residents, students, and industry professionals
The second edition of Stem Cells: Scientific Facts and Fiction provides the non-stem cell expert with an understandable review of the history, current state of affairs, and facts and fiction of the promises of stem cells. Building on success of its award-winning preceding edition, the second edition features new chapters on embryonic and iPS cells and stem cells in veterinary science and medicine. It contains major revisions on cancer stem cells to include new culture models, additional interviews with leaders in progenitor cells, engineered eye tissue, and xeno organs from stem cells, as well as new information on "organs on chips" and adult progenitor cells. In the past decades our understanding of stem cell biology has increased tremendously. Many types of stem cells have been discovered in tissues that everyone presumed were unable to regenerate in adults, the heart and the brain in particular. There is vast interest in stem cells from biologists and clinicians who see the potential for regenerative medicine and future treatments for chronic diseases like Parkinson's, diabetes, and spinal cord lesions, based on the use of stem cells; and from entrepreneurs in biotechnology who expect new commercial applications ranging from drug discovery to transplantation therapies. Explains in straightforward, non-specialist language the basic biology of stem cells and their applications in modern medicine and future therapy Includes extensive coverage of adult and embryonic stem cells both historically and in contemporary practice Richly illustrated to assist in understanding how research is done and the current hurdles to clinical practice