stem cell epigenetics

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Stem Cell Epigenetics
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2020-08-13
ISBN 10 : 0128140852
Pages : 330 pages
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Stem Cell Epigenetics, Volume 16, examines how epigenetics are involved in stem cell differentiation, how a stem cell rapidly transitions into a molecularly distinct cell type, and how this process may be reversed or managed via epigenetic reprogramming. Topics discussed include chromatin in pluripotency, epigenetic regulation of reprogramming, stem cells and DNA methylation, histone modifications in stem cells and differentiation, higher-order chromatin conformation in pluripotent cells, epigenetics and disease modeling, organoids from pluripotent cells, transcriptional regulation in stem cells and differentiation, non-coding RNAs in pluripotency and early differentiation, and diseases caused by epigenetic alterations in stem cells. Additionally, the potential implementation of stem cell epigenetics in drug discovery, regenerative medicine, and disease treatment is discussed in detail, helping researchers and physicians bring this exciting and fast evolving field to the clinic. Provides genetic researchers, students and physicians with evidence indicating the epigenetic mechanisms involved in stem cell differentiation Highlights the specific characteristics of the epigenetic modifications and misregulations that may result in disease pathogenesis Examines the potential application of stem cell epigenetics towards developing therapeutic interventions for disease and advancing regenerative medicine Features chapter contributions by leading international experts

Pluripotent Stem Cells
Author : Deepa Bhartiya,Nibedita Lenka
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2013-08-28
ISBN 10 : 9535111922
Pages : 640 pages
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Stem cells have generated a lot of excitement among the researchers, clinicians and the public alike. Various types of stem cells are being evaluated for their regenerative potential. Marginal benefit resulting by transplanting autologus stem cells (deemed to be absolutely safe) in various clinical conditions has been proposed to be a growth factor effect rather than true regeneration. In contrast, various pre-clinical studies have been undertaken, using differentiated cells from embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells have shown promise, functional improvement and no signs of teratoma formation. The scientists are not in a rush to reach the clinic but a handful of clinical studies have shown promise. This book is a collection of studies/reviews, beginning with an introduction to the pluripotent stem cells and covering various aspects like derivation, differentiation, ethics, etc., and hence would provide insight into the recent standing on the pluripotent stem cells biology. The chapters have been categorized into three sections, covering subjects ranging from the generation of pluripotent stem cells and various means of their derivation from embryonic as well as adult tissues, the mechanistic understanding of pluripotency and narrating the potential therapeutic implications of these in vitro generated cells in various diseases, in addition to the associated pros and cons in the same.

Exam Prep for: Stem Cell Epigenetics
Author : N.A
Publisher : N.A
Release Date :
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Exam Prep for: Stem Cell Epigenetics
Author : N.A
Publisher : N.A
Release Date :
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Alterations of Epigenetics and MicroRNAs in Cancer and Cancer Stem Cell
Author : Yoshimasa Saito
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release Date : 2014-11-10
ISBN 10 : 2889193454
Pages : 79 pages
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Studies have shown that alterations of epigenetics and microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the initiation and progression of human cancer. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells is generally mediated by DNA hypermethylation of CpG island promoter and histone modification such as methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and tri-methylation of H3K27. MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate expression of various target genes. Specific miRNAs are aberrantly expressed and play roles as tumor suppressors or oncogenes during carcinogenesis. Important tumor suppressor miRNAs are silenced by epigenetic alterations, resulting in activation of target oncogenes in human malignancies. Stem cells have the ability to perpetuate themselves through self-renewal and to generate mature cells of various tissues through differentiation. Accumulating evidence suggests that a subpopulation of cancer cells with distinct stem-like properties is responsible for tumor initiation, invasive growth, and metastasis formation, which is defined as cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are considered to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy, suggesting that these cells are important targets of cancer therapy. DNA methylation, histone modification and miRNAs may be deeply involved in stem-like properties in cancer cells. Restoring the expression of tumor suppressor genes and miRNAs by chromatin modifying drugs may be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer stem cells. In this Research Topic, we discuss about alterations of epigenetics and miRNAs in cancer and cancer stem cell and understand the molecular mechanism underlying the formation of cancer stem cell, which may provide a novel insight for treatment of refractory cancer.

Regulatory Networks in Stem Cells
Author : Vinagolu K. Rajasekhar
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2009-03-04
ISBN 10 : 9781603272278
Pages : 601 pages
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Stem cells appear to be fundamental cellular units associated with the origin of multicellular organisms and have evolved to function in safeguarding the cellular homeostasis in organ t- sues. The characteristics of stem cells that distinguish them from other cells have been the fascinating subjects of stem cell research. The important properties of stem cells, such as ma- tenance of quiescence, self-renewal capacity, and differentiation potential, have propelled this exciting ?eld and presently form a common theme of research in developmental biology and medicine. The derivation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells, the prospective identi?cation of multipotent adult stem cells, and, more recently, the induced pluripotent stem cells (popularly called iPS) are important milestones in the arena of stem cell biology. Complex networks of transcription factors, different signaling molecules, and the interaction of genetic and epi- netic events constantly modulate stem cell behavior to evoke programming and reprogramming processes in normal tissue homeostasis during development. In any given cellular scenario, the regulatory networks can pose considerable complexity and yet exert an orderly control of stem cell differentiation during normal development. An aberration in these ?nely tuned processes during development usually results in a spectrum of diseases such as cancers and neurological disorders. Thisunderscorestheimminentneedforamorecompleteunderstandingofmolecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory circuitries required for stem cell maintenance. Overthepast3–5years,adiversegroupofbenchandphysicianscientistshaveprospectively enhanced our knowledge of stem cell biology. These studies are unveiling many unrecognized or previously unknown fundamentals of developmental biology.

Epigenetics and Dermatology
Author : Qianjin Lu,Christopher C. Chang,Bruce C. Richardson
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-02-16
ISBN 10 : 0128012722
Pages : 520 pages
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Epigenetics and Dermatology explores the role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of autoimmune-related skin diseases and skin cancer. Leading contributors cover common and uncommon skin conditions in which extensive epigenetic research has been done. They explain how environmental exposures (chemicals, drugs, sunlight, diet, stress, smoking, infection, etc.) in all stages of life (from a fetus in-utero to an elderly person) may result in epigenetic changes that lead to development of some skin diseases in life. They also discuss the possibilities of new and emergent epigenetic treatments which are gradually being adopted in management of various skin diseases. Chapters follow a conventional structure, covering fundamental biology of the disease condition, etiology and pathogenesis, diagnosis, commonly available treatments, and epigenetic therapy where applicable. Discusses the basic biology of skin diseases and skin cancers induced or aggravated by aberrant epigenetic changes Evaluates how to approach autoimmune-related skin diseases from a therapeutic perspective using the wealth of emergent epigenetic clinical trials Offers a coherent and structured table of contents with basic epigenetic biology followed by discussion of the spectrum of rheumatologic through neoplastic skin diseases, finally ending with a discourse on epigenetic therapy

Epigenetics in Human Disease
Author : Trygve O. Tollefsbol
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2012
ISBN 10 : 0123884152
Pages : 577 pages
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Epigenetics is one of the fastest growing fields of sciences, illuminating studies of human diseases by looking beyond genetic make-up and acknowledging that outside factors play a role in gene expression. The goal of this volume is to highlight those diseases or conditions for which we have advanced knowledge of epigenetic factors such as cancer, autoimmune disorders and aging as well as those that are yielding exciting breakthroughs in epigenetics such as diabetes, neurobiological disorders and cardiovascular disease. Where applicable, attempts are made to not only detail the role of epigenetics in the etiology, progression, diagnosis and prognosis of these diseases, but also novel epigenetic approaches to the treatment of these diseases. Chapters are also presented on human imprinting disorders, respiratory diseases, infectious diseases and gynecological and reproductive diseases. Since epigenetics plays a major role in the aging process, advances in the epigenetics of aging are highly relevant to many age-related human diseases. Therefore, this volume closes with chapters on aging epigenetics and breakthroughs that have been made to delay the aging process through epigenetic approaches. With its translational focus, this book will serve as valuable reference for both basic scientists and clinicians alike. Comprehensive coverage of fundamental and emergent science and clinical usage Side-by-side coverage of the basis of epigenetic diseases and their treatments Evaluation of recent epigenetic clinical breakthroughs

Leukemia Stem Cells in Hematologic Malignancies
Author : Haojian Zhang,Shaoguang Li
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2019-07-23
ISBN 10 : 9811373426
Pages : 229 pages
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This book introduces readers to the biology of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) and emphasizes the necessity and importance of targeting LSCs in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies. It addresses the role of leukemia stem cells in different leukemia diseases and molecular signatures, as well as the metabolic and epigenetic regulation of leukemia stem cell function. With regard to solid tumors, a significant number of blood cancers are believed to be derived from leukemia stem cells (LSCs), which are responsible for disease progression, relapse and drug resistance. Consequently, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed by focusing on the complete eradication of LSCs. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable asset for graduate students and scientists in the fields of cell biology and cancer research etc.

Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Biology
Author : Nagwa El-Badri
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 3030553590
Pages : 329 pages
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The Biology and Therapeutic Application of Mesenchymal Cells - Set
Author : Kerry Atkinson
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2017-01-17
ISBN 10 : 1118907515
Pages : 1048 pages
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The Biology and Therapeutic Application of Mesenchymal Cells comprehensively describes the cellular and molecular biology of mesenchymal stem cells and mesenchymal stromal cells, describing their therapeutic potential in a wide variety of preclinical models of human diseases and their mechanism of action in these preclinical models. Chapters also discuss the current status of the use of mesenchymal stem and stromal cells in clinical trials in a wide range of human diseases and disorders, for many of which there are limited, or no other, therapeutic avenues. • Provides coverage on both the biology of mesenchymal stem cells and stromal cells, and their therapeutic applications • Describes the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem and stromal cells in a wide variety of preclinical models of human diseases and their mechanism of action in these preclinical models • Discusses the current status of mesenchymal stem and stromal cells in clinical trials in a wide range of human diseases and disorders, for many of which there are limited, or no other, therapeutic avenues • Written and edited by leaders in the field The Biology and Therapeutic Application of Mesenchymal Cells is an invaluable resource for those studying stem cells, cell biology, genetics, gene or cell therapy, or regenerative medicine. About the Author Kerry Atkinson, MBBS MD DTM&H FRCP FRACP, is an Adjunct Professor at the University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research in Brisbane, Australia, an Adjunct Professor in the Stem Cell Laboratories, Queensland University of Technology at the Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia and a Specialist in Internal Medicine at the Salisbury Medical Centre, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Human Neural Stem Cells
Author : Leonora Buzanska
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-09-12
ISBN 10 : 3319934856
Pages : 329 pages
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This book summarizes early pioneering achievements in the field of human neural stem cell (hNSC) research and combines them with the latest advances in stem cell technology, including reprogramming and gene editing. The powerful potential of hNSC to generate and repair the developing and adult CNS has been confirmed by numerous experimental in vitro and in vivo studies. The book presents methods for hNSC derivation and discusses the mechanisms underlying NSC in vitro fate decisions and their in vivo therapeutic mode of action. The long-standing dogma that the human central nervous system (CNS) lacks the ability to regenerate was refuted at the end of the 20th century, when evidence of the presence of neurogenic zones in the adult human brain was found. These neurogenic zones are home to human neural stem cells (hNSCs), which are capable of self-renewing and differentiating into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. NSCs isolated from human CNS have a number of clinical advantages, especially the innate potential to differentiate into functional neural cells. Nevertheless, their full clinical exploitation has been hindered by limited access to the tissue and low expansion potential. The search for an alternative to CNS sources of autologous, therapeutically competent hNSCs was the driving force for the many studies proving the in vitro plasticity of different somatic stem cells to generate NSCs and their functional progeny. Now the era of induced pluripotent stem cells has opened entirely new opportunities to achieve research and therapeutic goals with the aid of hNSCs.

Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation
Author : Suming Huang,Michael D Litt,C. Ann Blakey
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-10-19
ISBN 10 : 0128004711
Pages : 482 pages
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Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies. The book shows how these heritable mechanisms allow individual cells to establish stable and unique patterns of gene expression that can be passed through cell divisions without DNA mutations, thereby establishing how different heritable patterns of gene regulation control cell differentiation and organogenesis, resulting in a distinct human organism with a variety of differing cellular functions and tissues. The work begins with basic biology, encompasses methods, cellular and tissue organization, topical issues in epigenetic evolution and environmental epigenesis, and lastly clinical disease discovery and treatment. Each highly illustrated chapter is organized to briefly summarize current research, provide appropriate pedagogical guidance, pertinent methods, relevant model organisms, and clinical examples. Reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies Helps readers understand how epigenetic marks are targeted, and to what extent transgenerational epigenetic changes are instilled and possibly passed onto offspring Chapters are replete with clinical examples to empower the basic biology with translational significance Offers more than 100 illustrations to distill key concepts and decipher complex science

Essential Current Concepts in Stem Cell Biology
Author : Beate Brand-Saberi
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2020-01-03
ISBN 10 : 3030339238
Pages : 242 pages
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This textbook describes the biology of different adult stem cell types and outlines the current level of knowledge in the field. It clearly explains the basics of hematopoietic, mesenchymal and cord blood stem cells and also covers induced pluripotent stem cells. Further, it includes a chapter on ethical aspects of human stem cell research, which promotes critical thinking and responsible handling of the material. Based on the international masters program Molecular and Developmental Stem Cell Biology taught at Ruhr-University Bochum and Tongji University Shanghai, the book is a valuable source for postdocs and researchers working with stems cells and also offers essential insights for physicians and dentists wishing to expand their knowledge. This textbook is a valuable complement to Concepts and Applications of Stem Cell Biology, also published in the Learning Materials in Biosciences textbook series.

Epigenetics of the Immune System
Author : Dieter Kabelitz,Jaydeep Bhat
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2020-06-04
ISBN 10 : 0128179651
Pages : 384 pages
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Epigenetics of the Immune System focuses on different aspects of epigenetics and immunology, providing readers with the fundamental mechanisms relating to epigenetics and the immune system. This book provides in-depth information on immune cells as a toolbox in deciphering systematically regulated mechanisms using "omics" and computational biology approaches. In addition, the book presents the translational importance of epigenetics and the immune system in our understanding of pathophysiology in diseases and its therapeutic applications. Provides an overview of most important immune mechanisms, the current status of epigenetics, and how both of them are brought together Presents key principles of immune mechanisms in epigenetics, presenting current findings and key principles Features in-depth chapter contributions from a wide range of international researchers and specialists in immunology, translational medicine and epigenetics Merges two very large areas, covering the unique interrelatedness of epigenetics and immunology

Epigenetics
Author : Lyle Armstrong
Publisher : Garland Science
Release Date : 2020-09-11
ISBN 10 : 1000319733
Pages : 300 pages
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The concept of epigenetics has been known about since the 1940s, but it is only in the last 10 years that research has shown just how wide ranging its effects are. It is now a very widely-used term, but there is still a lot of confusion surrounding what it actually is and does.Epigenetics is a new textbook that brings together the structure and mac

Autophagy: from Big Data to Physiological Significance
Author : Ioannis Nezis,Sovan Sarkar,Maria Ines Vaccaro
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2020-02-10
ISBN 10 : 2889634825
Pages : 329 pages
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Epigenetics in Human Disease
Author : Trygve Tollefsbol
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2012-07-26
ISBN 10 : 0123884160
Pages : 592 pages
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Epigenetics is one of the fastest growing fields of sciences, illuminating studies of human diseases by looking beyond genetic make-up and acknowledging that outside factors play a role in gene expression. The goal of this volume is to highlight those diseases or conditions for which we have advanced knowledge of epigenetic factors such as cancer, autoimmune disorders and aging as well as those that are yielding exciting breakthroughs in epigenetics such as diabetes, neurobiological disorders and cardiovascular disease. Where applicable, attempts are made to not only detail the role of epigenetics in the etiology, progression, diagnosis and prognosis of these diseases, but also novel epigenetic approaches to the treatment of these diseases. Chapters are also presented on human imprinting disorders, respiratory diseases, infectious diseases and gynecological and reproductive diseases. Since epigenetics plays a major role in the aging process, advances in the epigenetics of aging are highly relevant to many age-related human diseases. Therefore, this volume closes with chapters on aging epigenetics and breakthroughs that have been made to delay the aging process through epigenetic approaches. With its translational focus, this book will serve as valuable reference for both basic scientists and clinicians alike. Comprehensive coverage of fundamental and emergent science and clinical usage Side-by-side coverage of the basis of epigenetic diseases and their treatments Evaluation of recent epigenetic clinical breakthroughs

Pluripotent Stem Cells
Author : Minoru Tomizawa
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2016-07-20
ISBN 10 : 9535124714
Pages : 532 pages
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Pluripotent stem cells have distinct characteristics: self-renewal and the potential to differentiate into various somatic cells. In recent years, substantial advances have been made from basic science to clinical applications. The vast amount knowledge available makes obtaining concise yet sufficient information difficult, hence the purpose of this book. In this book, embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells are discussed. The book is divided into five sections: pluripotency, culture methods, toxicology, disease models, and regenerative medicine. The topics covered range from new concepts to current technologies. Readers are expected to gain useful information from expert contributors.

Stem Cells and Cancer
Author : Rebecca G. Bagley,Beverly A. Teicher
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2009-04-20
ISBN 10 : 9781603279338
Pages : 346 pages
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Significance of Stem Cells to Tumor Development Cancer stem cells remain a controversial topic and the criteria that define cancer stem cells are continuing to evolve. A recent surge in stem cell research has ignited a field of discovery into many human diseases including diabetes, neuropathologies, and cancer. By replacing specific differentiated cells that have either been lost or died, stem cell therapy proves to be a very promising approach to the treatment of many debilitating diseases. Though stem cells may provide therapeutic benefit under certain conditions, they are also often implicated in the initiation, progression, and therapeutic resistance of malignant disease. This first edition of Stem Cells and Cancer is intended to give a current perspective on the role of stem cells in cancer and strategies for novel therapies directed toward tumor stem cells. The current cancer stem cell hypothesis is presented in several chapters with distinctions made between the hierarchical and stochastic models of tumor cell development. "Stemness," self-renewal, pluripotency, clonality, and tumorigenicity are important concepts applied towards defining cancer stem cells. Signaling pathways such as Wnt, Sonic Hedgehog, Notch, and Bmi-1 that are involved in differentiation, proliferation, and survival are implicated in the malignant process. Additional chapters address the identification of cancer stem cell populations through the evaluation of molecular markers such as CD133, CD44, and CD24, for example, or by Hoescht dye exclusion to recognize ‘side populations.’ Mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells are described as well as mouse models that are employed to elucidate the properties and functionality of stem cells in cancer and the stem cell niche. This book encompasses a wide variety of human cancers that include but are not limited to leukemia, gliomas, breast, and prostate cancers. Resistance to conventional therapies, genetic versus epigenetic changes that affect therapeutic response and strategies to prevent disease recurrence are challenges have been incorporated into this volume. Stem Cells and Cancer represents a compendium of cutting edge research by experts in the field and will be instrumental in the study of this intriguing line of investigation for many years to come. Rebecca Bagley is a senior scientist at Genzyme Corporation and has worked in the biotechnology industry for 20 years with degrees in biology from Wellesley College and Harvard University. Her expertise in drug development spans a wide range of approaches including immunotherapies, gene and protein therapies, and small molecule delivery with publications in journals such as Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, Cancer Research, and Microvascular Research . Her current research focuses on stem cells, tumor vasculature, and target validation. Dr. Beverly A. Teicher is Vice President of Oncology Research at Genzyme Corporation. Dr. Teicher completed a PhD in Bioorganic Chemistry at the Johns Hopkins University and postdoctoral training at Yale University School of Medicine. Dr. Teicher joined Dana-Farber Cancer Institute as an Assistant Professor of Pathology and rose to Associate Professor of Medicine and Radiation Therapy, Harvard Medical School at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Joint Center for Radiation Therapy. Dr. Teicher is an active member of the international scientific community having authored or co-authored more than 400 scientific publications. She has edited eight books, is senior editor for the journal Clinical Cancer Research and is series editor for the Cancer Drug Discovery and Development book series.