From the Preface This book is the first extended look at a new and multifaceted polymer processing technology that has already been discussed in numerous articles. Called Solid-State Shear Pulverization (S3P), this innovative process produces polymeric powders with unique physical properties not found in the output of conventional size-reduction methods.... This technology, which utilizes a pulverizer based on a modified co-rotating twin-screw extruder..., has profound implications for both the creation of new polymer blends and recycling of plastic and rubber waste. Unlike [earlier processes] where polymers are melted prior to pulverization, ...pulverizing mixtures of polymers with the S3P process...does not involve melting. By contrast, S3P maintains polymers in the solid state and avoids the additional heat history that occurs during [other processes], which can be detrimental to the physical properties of pulverized materials. The research and development of the S3P technology...has grown significantly since 1990 from the development of a new plastics recycling process to a much broader polymer processing method that allows intimate mixing of polymers with very different viscosities, sold-state dispersion of additives, including pigments, and continuous production of powder with unique shapes and larger surface areas. Polymeric powders are of growing importance to plastics processors due to the increase use of plastics in various applications, such as rotational molding, powder coatings, and compounding, which require powder as the feedstock. ...[I]t has become clear that this process allows for in-situ compatibilization of dissimilar polymers by applying mechanical energy to cause chemical reactions. This aspect of S3P technology that we describe in this book should [be useful in] developing new polymer blends with the use of pre-made compatibilizing agents. In addition, it has been discovered that S3P efficiently mixes polymer blends with different component viscosities, resulting in the elimination of phase inversion. The S3P process directly produces blends with matrix and dispersed phase morphology like those obtained after phase inversion during a long melt-mixing process. This phenomenon is of practical importance because a long processing time is required by conventional melt-mixing to produce a stable blend morphology. S3P is also advantageous for producing thermoplastic or thermoset powder-coating compounds in a one-step process as opposed to a conventional multi-step operation that involves melt extrusion followed by batch grinding. The major capabilities of this new process can be summarized as follows: o Continuous powder production from plastics or rubber feedstocks o Blending of immiscible polymers o Efficient mixing of polymers with unmatched viscosities o Environmentally friendly recycling of multicolored, commingled plastics waste o Sold-state dispersion of heat-sensitive additives o Engineered plastic/rubber blends Materials and processes well illustrated The text is well illustrated with 60 photographs, micrographs, diagrams and others figures. Here is a small sampling of the captions of these figures. o Particle-size distribution for virgin LDPE powder made with PT-25 pulverizer o Optical photograph of virgin LDPE powder made with PT-25 pulverizer o Layout for a three-stage rubber pulverizer o Flow chart for powder coating production by conventional process and with new S3P technology o SEM image of pulverized virgin PP at 40X (first in series of SEM images of polymer powders) o Optical micrograph of melt-crystallized thin films of unpulverized virgin PP under polarized light o Log of viscosity vs. log shear rate for virgin HDPE after S3P processing o Gel permeation chromatograms (GPC) of polystyrene subjected to S3P processing Color-photo section One of the several functions of Solid-State Shear Pulverization technology is recycling mixed plastic waste. This section of twenty full-color photographs and micrographs illustrates different processed materials, as well as the machinery and mixed waste used. Here is a small sampling of the photo and micrograph captions. o Resultant flake feedstock from granulation o S3P-made uniform powder from feedstock o Flake feedstock of post-consumer HDPE/PP blend (90/10 ratio) o Injection-molded test bar (with translucence) made from S3P powder without pelletization o Injection-molded test bar made from S3P powder without pelletization showing uniform color o Several test bars subjected to tensile testing showing exceptionally high elongation at break Useful reference data in tables More than 60 tables provide useful data in convenient form. Here is a small sampling of table captions. o Physical properties of virgin PP 8020 GU injection-molded from S3P-made powder (first in series of tables on physical properties of various plastics processed from S3P-made powder) o Sieve analysis of powder resulting from S3P of virgin LDPE 509.48 (one of series of tables on sieve analysis of polymer powders) o Melt-flow rate before and after S3P processing for virgin PS and two PP samples o Key physical properties of injection-molded post-consumer polyolefin blends pulverized by S3P process The Authors Klementina Khait, M.S. Ch.E., Ph.D., is Research Associate Professor and Director of the Polymer Technology Center in the Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwestern University. Her industrial experience in polymer science and engineering includes work with Borg-Warner Chemicals and Quantum Chemical Corporation. She received her two advanced degrees, in chemical engineering and polymer chemistry, from the Technological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia. Dr. Khait holds several patents and has published more than 50 papers in scientific and technical journals. Stephen Carr, Ph.D., is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering at Northwestern University. His industrial work includes work in polymer science and engineering with General Motors Corp. He received a doctorate in polymer science from Case Western Reserve University. He has been on the Northwestern University faculty since 1969. Martin H. Mack is Vice President for R&D with the Berstorff Division of Krauss-Maffei Corporation. He holds an engineering degree from the University of Stuttgart. He has served for more than ten years on the Board of Directors of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE).
Compatibilization of Polymer Blends: Micro and Nano Scale Phase Morphologies, Interphase Characterization and Properties offers a comprehensive approach to the use of compatibilizers in polymer blends, examining both fundamental and advanced knowledge in the field. The book begins by introducing polymer blends, describing thermodynamics, miscibility, and phase separation, and explaining the main concepts of compatibilization. Other sections cover theoretical approaches for nearly compatible blends, incompatible blends, nanofillers, physical compatibilization, reactive compatibilization, morphological and structural characterization, and physico-mechanical characterization. Finally, key application areas are covered, including biomedical applications, packaging and automobile engineering. While this book will be a highly valuable reference source for academics, researchers and postgraduate students interested in polymer blends, it will also be ideal for anyone involved in the fields of polymer science, polymer chemistry, polymer physics, materials science, scientists, R&D professionals, and engineers in involved in the development or engineering of polymer products. Offers detailed and systematic coverage of essential and advanced topics relating to the compatibilization of polymer blends Presents a critical analysis of the effect of compatibilization on morphology and thermal, mechanical, electrical and viscoelastic properties of polymer blends Draws on novel studies and state-of-the-art research, discussing the latest issues and developments
Tribology of Polymeric Nanocomposites provides a comprehensive description of polymeric nanocomposites, both as bulk materials and as thin surface coatings, and provides rare, focused coverage of their tribological behavior and potential use in tribological applications. Providing engineers and designers with the preparation techniques, friction and wear mechanisms, property information and evaluation methodology needed to select the right polymeric nanocomposites for the job, this unique book also includes valuable real-world examples of polymeric nanocomposites in action in tribological applications. Provides a complete reference to polmer nanocomposite material use in tribology from preparation through to selection and use. Explains the theory through examples of real-world applications, keeping this high-level topic practical and accessible. Includes contributions from more than 20 international tribology experts to offer broad yet detailed coverage of this fast-moving field.
|Author||: Visakh P. M.,Oguz Bayraktar,Gopalakrishnan Menon|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2019-10-21|
|ISBN 10||: 1119301645|
|Pages||: 248 pages|
Presents new and innovative bio-based monomers to replace traditional petrochemical-based building blocks Featuring contributions from top experts in the field, this book discusses new developments in the area of bio monomers and green polymeric composite materials. It covers bio monomers, green polymeric composites, composites from renewable resources, bio-sourced polymers, green composites, biodegradation, processing methods, green polymeric gels, and green polymeric membranes. Each chapter in Bio Monomers for Green Polymeric Composites Materials presents the most recent research and technological ideas in a comprehensive style. It examines bio monomers for green polymer and the processing methods for the bio nanocomposites. It covers the preparation, characterization, and applications of bio-polymeric materials based blends, as well as the applications of biopolymeric gels in medical biotechnology. The book also explores the properties and applications of gelatins, pectins, and carrageenans gels. Additionally, it offers a plethora of information on green polymeric membranes; the bio-degradation of green polymeric composites materials; applications of green polymeric composites materials; hydrogels used for biomedical applications; and the use of natural aerogels as thermal insulations. Introduces readers to the innovative, new bio-based monomers that are taking the place of traditional petrochemical-based building blocks Covers green polymers, green composites, bio-sourced polymers, bio nanocomposites, biodegradable polymers, green polymer gels, and membranes Features input from leading researchers immersed in the area of study Bio Monomers for Green Polymeric Composites Materials is suitable for academics, researchers, scientists, engineers and advanced students in the field of bio monomers and green polymeric composites materials.
This work contains 20 peer reviewed papes representing the work of 49 researchers from around the world. It explores such critical topics as: fluidization fundamentals; circulating fluidized beds; advances in fluid-particle glow property measurementcomputer simulation of fluid-partic le systems; applications of particle technology in polymer and rubber processing; and particle interaction and mixing.
This completely new Third Edition of the Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology brings the state-of-the-art to the twenty-first century, with coverage of nanotechnology, new imaging and analytical techniques, new methods of controlled polymer architecture, biomimetics, and more. Whereas earlier editions published one volume at a time, the Third Edition is being published in three parts of four volumes each. Each of these four-volume parts is an A?Z selection of the latest in polymer science and technology as published in the updated online edition of the Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology.
Faculties, publications and doctoral theses in departments or divisions of chemistry, chemical engineering, biochemistry and pharmaceutical and/or medicinal chemistry at universities in the United States and Canada.
|Release Date||: 2004|
|Pages||: 93 pages|
The English version will include two issues, chemistry and the physics of polymers.