From the Preface This book is the first extended look at a new and multifaceted polymer processing technology that has already been discussed in numerous articles. Called Solid-State Shear Pulverization (S3P), this innovative process produces polymeric powders with unique physical properties not found in the output of conventional size-reduction methods.... This technology, which utilizes a pulverizer based on a modified co-rotating twin-screw extruder..., has profound implications for both the creation of new polymer blends and recycling of plastic and rubber waste. Unlike [earlier processes] where polymers are melted prior to pulverization, ...pulverizing mixtures of polymers with the S3P process...does not involve melting. By contrast, S3P maintains polymers in the solid state and avoids the additional heat history that occurs during [other processes], which can be detrimental to the physical properties of pulverized materials. The research and development of the S3P technology...has grown significantly since 1990 from the development of a new plastics recycling process to a much broader polymer processing method that allows intimate mixing of polymers with very different viscosities, sold-state dispersion of additives, including pigments, and continuous production of powder with unique shapes and larger surface areas. Polymeric powders are of growing importance to plastics processors due to the increase use of plastics in various applications, such as rotational molding, powder coatings, and compounding, which require powder as the feedstock. ...[I]t has become clear that this process allows for in-situ compatibilization of dissimilar polymers by applying mechanical energy to cause chemical reactions. This aspect of S3P technology that we describe in this book should [be useful in] developing new polymer blends with the use of pre-made compatibilizing agents. In addition, it has been discovered that S3P efficiently mixes polymer blends with different component viscosities, resulting in the elimination of phase inversion. The S3P process directly produces blends with matrix and dispersed phase morphology like those obtained after phase inversion during a long melt-mixing process. This phenomenon is of practical importance because a long processing time is required by conventional melt-mixing to produce a stable blend morphology. S3P is also advantageous for producing thermoplastic or thermoset powder-coating compounds in a one-step process as opposed to a conventional multi-step operation that involves melt extrusion followed by batch grinding. The major capabilities of this new process can be summarized as follows: o Continuous powder production from plastics or rubber feedstocks o Blending of immiscible polymers o Efficient mixing of polymers with unmatched viscosities o Environmentally friendly recycling of multicolored, commingled plastics waste o Sold-state dispersion of heat-sensitive additives o Engineered plastic/rubber blends Materials and processes well illustrated The text is well illustrated with 60 photographs, micrographs, diagrams and others figures. Here is a small sampling of the captions of these figures. o Particle-size distribution for virgin LDPE powder made with PT-25 pulverizer o Optical photograph of virgin LDPE powder made with PT-25 pulverizer o Layout for a three-stage rubber pulverizer o Flow chart for powder coating production by conventional process and with new S3P technology o SEM image of pulverized virgin PP at 40X (first in series of SEM images of polymer powders) o Optical micrograph of melt-crystallized thin films of unpulverized virgin PP under polarized light o Log of viscosity vs. log shear rate for virgin HDPE after S3P processing o Gel permeation chromatograms (GPC) of polystyrene subjected to S3P processing Color-photo section One of the several functions of Solid-State Shear Pulverization technology is recycling mixed plastic waste. This section of twenty full-color photographs and micrographs illustrates different processed materials, as well as the machinery and mixed waste used. Here is a small sampling of the photo and micrograph captions. o Resultant flake feedstock from granulation o S3P-made uniform powder from feedstock o Flake feedstock of post-consumer HDPE/PP blend (90/10 ratio) o Injection-molded test bar (with translucence) made from S3P powder without pelletization o Injection-molded test bar made from S3P powder without pelletization showing uniform color o Several test bars subjected to tensile testing showing exceptionally high elongation at break Useful reference data in tables More than 60 tables provide useful data in convenient form. Here is a small sampling of table captions. o Physical properties of virgin PP 8020 GU injection-molded from S3P-made powder (first in series of tables on physical properties of various plastics processed from S3P-made powder) o Sieve analysis of powder resulting from S3P of virgin LDPE 509.48 (one of series of tables on sieve analysis of polymer powders) o Melt-flow rate before and after S3P processing for virgin PS and two PP samples o Key physical properties of injection-molded post-consumer polyolefin blends pulverized by S3P process The Authors Klementina Khait, M.S. Ch.E., Ph.D., is Research Associate Professor and Director of the Polymer Technology Center in the Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwestern University. Her industrial experience in polymer science and engineering includes work with Borg-Warner Chemicals and Quantum Chemical Corporation. She received her two advanced degrees, in chemical engineering and polymer chemistry, from the Technological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia. Dr. Khait holds several patents and has published more than 50 papers in scientific and technical journals. Stephen Carr, Ph.D., is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering at Northwestern University. His industrial work includes work in polymer science and engineering with General Motors Corp. He received a doctorate in polymer science from Case Western Reserve University. He has been on the Northwestern University faculty since 1969. Martin H. Mack is Vice President for R&D with the Berstorff Division of Krauss-Maffei Corporation. He holds an engineering degree from the University of Stuttgart. He has served for more than ten years on the Board of Directors of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE).
|Author||: Visakh P. M.,Oguz Bayraktar,Gopalakrishnan Menon|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2019-10-21|
|ISBN 10||: 1119301645|
|Pages||: 248 pages|
Presents new and innovative bio-based monomers to replace traditional petrochemical-based building blocks Featuring contributions from top experts in the field, this book discusses new developments in the area of bio monomers and green polymeric composite materials. It covers bio monomers, green polymeric composites, composites from renewable resources, bio-sourced polymers, green composites, biodegradation, processing methods, green polymeric gels, and green polymeric membranes. Each chapter in Bio Monomers for Green Polymeric Composites Materials presents the most recent research and technological ideas in a comprehensive style. It examines bio monomers for green polymer and the processing methods for the bio nanocomposites. It covers the preparation, characterization, and applications of bio-polymeric materials based blends, as well as the applications of biopolymeric gels in medical biotechnology. The book also explores the properties and applications of gelatins, pectins, and carrageenans gels. Additionally, it offers a plethora of information on green polymeric membranes; the bio-degradation of green polymeric composites materials; applications of green polymeric composites materials; hydrogels used for biomedical applications; and the use of natural aerogels as thermal insulations. Introduces readers to the innovative, new bio-based monomers that are taking the place of traditional petrochemical-based building blocks Covers green polymers, green composites, bio-sourced polymers, bio nanocomposites, biodegradable polymers, green polymer gels, and membranes Features input from leading researchers immersed in the area of study Bio Monomers for Green Polymeric Composites Materials is suitable for academics, researchers, scientists, engineers and advanced students in the field of bio monomers and green polymeric composites materials.
Over 30% of commercial polymers are blends or alloys or one kind or another. Nanostructured blends offer the scientist or plastics engineer a new range of possibilities with characteristics including thermodynamic stablility; the potential to improve material transparency, creep and solvent resistance; the potential to simultaneously increase tensile strength and ductility; superior rheological properties; and relatively low cost. Nanostructured Polymer Blends opens up immense structural possibilities via chemical and mechanical modifications that generate novel properties and functions and high-performance characteristics at a low cost. The emerging applications of these new materials cover a wide range of industry sectors, encompassing the coatings and adhesives industry, electronics, energy (photovoltaics), aerospace and medical devices (where polymer blends provide innovations in biocompatible materials). This book explains the science of nanostructure formation and the nature of interphase formations, demystifies the design of nanostructured blends to achieve specific properties, and introduces the applications for this important new class of nanomaterial. All the key topics related to recent advances in blends are covered: IPNs, phase morphologies, composites and nanocomposites, nanostructure formation, the chemistry and structure of additives, etc. Introduces the science and technology of nanostructured polymer blends – and the procedures involved in melt blending and chemical blending to produce new materials with specific performance characteristics Unlocks the potential of nanostructured polymer blends for applications across sectors, including electronics, energy/photovoltaics, aerospace/automotive, and medical devices (biocompatible polymers) Explains the performance benefits in areas including rheological properties, thermodynamic stablility, material transparency, solvent resistance, etc.
Lignocellulose for Future Bioeconomy discusses the conversion and utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. This book focuses on the utilization of lignocelluloses for various products, including biopolymers, bionanomaterials and bioproducts. Recent findings in scientific investigation, engineering, product development, economic and lifecycle analysis are discussed, as are current synthesis technologies and potential applications. The book progresses from a discussion of the potential sources of biomass, to the refinement and processing of materials. A sampling of various sustainability issues faced by industries in their production methods and a look at real world examples of the use of lignocellulose-based materials in the bioeconomy round out the discussion. Presents information on lignocellulosic biomass management and its utilization for the production of bioproducts, biopolymers and bionanomaterials Highlights the applications of advanced materials developed from lignocellulosic biomass and their contribution towards future bioeconomy Discusses the lifecycle of lignocellulosic biomass
Compatibilization of Polymer Blends: Micro and Nano Scale Phase Morphologies, Interphase Characterization and Properties offers a comprehensive approach to the use of compatibilizers in polymer blends, examining both fundamental and advanced knowledge in the field. The book begins by introducing polymer blends, describing thermodynamics, miscibility, and phase separation, and explaining the main concepts of compatibilization. Other sections cover theoretical approaches for nearly compatible blends, incompatible blends, nanofillers, physical compatibilization, reactive compatibilization, morphological and structural characterization, and physico-mechanical characterization. Finally, key application areas are covered, including biomedical applications, packaging and automobile engineering. While this book will be a highly valuable reference source for academics, researchers and postgraduate students interested in polymer blends, it will also be ideal for anyone involved in the fields of polymer science, polymer chemistry, polymer physics, materials science, scientists, R&D professionals, and engineers in involved in the development or engineering of polymer products. Offers detailed and systematic coverage of essential and advanced topics relating to the compatibilization of polymer blends Presents a critical analysis of the effect of compatibilization on morphology and thermal, mechanical, electrical and viscoelastic properties of polymer blends Draws on novel studies and state-of-the-art research, discussing the latest issues and developments
Filling the gap for a reference dedicated to the characterization of polymer blends and their micro and nano morphologies, this book provides comprehensive, systematic coverage in a one-stop, two-volume resource for all those working in the field. Leading researchers from industry and academia, as well as from government and private research institutions around the world summarize recent technical advances in chapters devoted to their individual contributions. In so doing, they examine a wide range of modern characterization techniques, from microscopy and spectroscopy to diffraction, thermal analysis, rheology, mechanical measurements and chromatography. These methods are compared with each other to assist in determining the best solution for both fundamental and applied problems, paying attention to the characterization of nanoscale miscibility and interfaces, both in blends involving copolymers and in immiscible blends. The thermodynamics, miscibility, phase separation, morphology and interfaces in polymer blends are also discussed in light of new insights involving the nanoscopic scale. Finally, the authors detail the processing-morphology-property relationships of polymer blends, as well as the influence of processing on the generation of micro and nano morphologies, and the dependence of these morphologies on the properties of blends. Hot topics such as compatibilization through nanoparticles, miscibility of new biopolymers and nanoscale investigations of interfaces in blends are also addressed. With its application-oriented approach, handpicked selection of topics and expert contributors, this is an outstanding survey for anyone involved in the field of polymer blends for advanced technologies.
The book covers new sintering techniques on ceramic materials, metals and composites as well as reprocessed PTFE. The book covers theoretical as well as experimental aspects on Spark Plasma Sintered (SPS) Porous copper, development of cutting blades with high hardness and resistance to cracking and wear, increased microhardness of austenitic steel ? TiB2 composites obtained with high pressure - high temperature sintering, Al2O3 porous body with cotton as the template and excellent thermal insulation with direct application for refractories as well as Metal matrix composites added nanostructured tantalum carbide and an overview of different sintering techniques used in powder metallurgy. Finally recycling of PTFE scrap materials using ram extrusion and compression molding is described.
The safe disposal and reuse of industrial and consumer rubber waste continues to pose a serious threat to environmental safety and health, despite the fact that the technology now exits for its effective recycling and reuse. Mountains of used tires confirm the belief that chemically crosslinked rubber is one of the most difficult materials to recycle. That coupled with a long history of failed attempts to create quality products from crumb rubber has resulted in such a resistance to new ideas concerning rubber recycling that very little literature on the subject has even seen the light of day. Rubber Recycling is one of those rare books that has the potential to directly impact our ecological well-being. The editors of this important volume have filled a void in technological responsibility by bringing together a group of international experts who, using substantial research evidence, prove that the utilization of recycled rubber is not just desirable, but is also quite feasible and profitable. This text provides a thorough overview of the fundamentals of rubber and the challenges of recycling. However, the heart of the book lies in its detailed explanation of the various processes currently available to breakdown, recycle, and reuse crosslinked rubber. These include -- Unconventional polymer recycling High-pressure, high-temperature sintering Ultrasonic and non ultrasonic devulcanization The use of tire particles as replacement aggregates for low-strength concrete material The utilization of powdered rubber waste in the production of rubber compounds The future potential for recycling waste rubber by blending it with waste plastics Never forgetting that these technologies are meaningless without industry participation, the book concludes with a highly practical discussion on how present market demands can be met with recycled rubber.
This completely new Third Edition of the Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology brings the state-of-the-art to the twenty-first century, with coverage of nanotechnology, new imaging and analytical techniques, new methods of controlled polymer architecture, biomimetics, and more. Whereas earlier editions published one volume at a time, the Third Edition is being published in three parts of four volumes each. Each of these four-volume parts is an A?Z selection of the latest in polymer science and technology as published in the updated online edition of the Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology.
This work contains 20 peer reviewed papes representing the work of 49 researchers from around the world. It explores such critical topics as: fluidization fundamentals; circulating fluidized beds; advances in fluid-particle glow property measurementcomputer simulation of fluid-partic le systems; applications of particle technology in polymer and rubber processing; and particle interaction and mixing.
|Author||: Satoru Suzuki|
|Publisher||: BoD – Books on Demand|
|Release Date||: 2013-05-09|
|ISBN 10||: 9535111256|
|Pages||: 550 pages|
Carbon nanotubes are rolled up graphene sheets with a quasi-one-dimensional structure of nanometer-scale diameter. In these last twenty years, carbon nanotubes have attracted much attention from physicists, chemists, material scientists, and electronic device engineers, because of their excellent structural, electronic, optical, chemical and mechanical properties. More recently, demand for innovative industrial applications of carbon nanotubes is increasing. This book covers recent research topics regarding syntheses techniques of carbon nanotubes and nanotube-based composites, and their applications. The chapters in this book will be helpful to many students, engineers and researchers working in the field of carbon nanotubes.
Faculties, publications and doctoral theses in departments or divisions of chemistry, chemical engineering, biochemistry and pharmaceutical and/or medicinal chemistry at universities in the United States and Canada.
|Author||: Herman F. Mark|
|Release Date||: 2003|
|ISBN 10||: 9780471287810|
|Pages||: 3112 pages|
This is the third Edition is a completely new version in a new century of the Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology. The new edition will bring the state-of-the-art up to the 21st century, with coverage of nanotechnology, new imaging and analytical techniques, new methods of controlled polymer architecture, biomimetics, and more. New topics covered include nanotechnology, AFM, MALDI, biomimetics, and genetic methods, of increasing importance since 1990 and will also bring up-to-date coverage of traditional topics of continuing interest. This edition will publish in 3 Parts of 4 volumes each. Each Part will be an A-Z selection of the newest articles available in the online edition of this encyclopedia. A list of the titles to appear in Part I can be viewed by clicking "What's New" at www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/epst. Titles for Parts II and III will appear there as well when available.