|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Ad Hoc Committee on the Solar System Radiation Environment and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration: A Workshop|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2006-10-10|
|ISBN 10||: 9780309180665|
|Pages||: 104 pages|
Fulfilling the Presidentâ€™s Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) will require overcoming many challenges. Among these are the hazards of space radiation to crews traveling to the Moon and Mars. To explore these challenges in some depth and to examine ways to marshal research efforts to address them, NASA, NSF, and the NRC sponsored a workshop bringing together members of the space and planetary science, radiation physics, operations, and exploration engineering communities. The goals of the workshop were to increase understanding of the solar and space physics in the environment of Earth, the Moon, and Mars; to identify compelling relevant research goals; and discuss directions this research should take over the coming decade. This workshop report presents a discussion of radiation risks for the VSE, an assessment of specifying and predicting the space radiation environment, an analysis of operational strategies for space weather support, and a summary and conclusions of the workshop.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Committee on Solar and Space Physics and Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2000-02-25|
|ISBN 10||: 9780309172448|
|Pages||: 92 pages|
A major objective of the International Space Station is learning how to cope with the inherent risks of human spaceflight--how to live and work in space for extended periods. The construction of the station itself provides the first opportunity for doing so. Prominent among the challenges associated with ISS construction is the large amount of time that astronauts will be spending doing extravehicular activity (EVA), or "space walks." EVAs from the space shuttle have been extraordinarily successful, most notably the on-orbit repair of the Hubble Space Telescope. But the number of hours of EVA for ISS construction exceeds that of the Hubble repair mission by orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the ISS orbit has nearly twice the inclination to Earth's equator as Hubble's orbit, so it spends part of every 90-minute circumnavigation at high latitudes, where Earth's magnetic field is less effective at shielding impinging radiation. This means that astronauts sweeping through these regions will be considerably more vulnerable to dangerous doses of energetic particles from a sudden solar eruption. Radiation and the International Space Station estimates that the likelihood of having a potentially dangerous solar event during an EVA is indeed very high. This report recommends steps that can be taken immediately, and over the next several years, to provide adequate warning so that the astronauts can be directed to take protective cover inside the ISS or shuttle. The near-term actions include programmatic and operational ways to take advantage of the multiagency assets that currently monitor and forecast space weather, and ways to improve the in situ measurements and the predictive power of current models.
|Author||: Lev Dorman|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2013-03-19|
|ISBN 10||: 1402021135|
|Pages||: 862 pages|
The present monograph as well as the next one (Dorman, M2005) is a result of more than 50 years working in cosmic ray (CR) research. After graduation in December 1950 Moscow Lomonosov State University (Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics Division, the Team of Theoretical Physics), my supervisor Professor D. I. Blokhintsev planned for me, as a winner of a Red Diploma, to continue my education as an aspirant (a graduate student) to prepare for Ph. D. in his very secret Object in the framework of what was in those time called the Atomic Problem. To my regret the KGB withheld permission, and I, together with other Jewish students who had graduated Nuclear Divisions of Moscow and Leningrad Universities and Institutes, were faced with a real prospect of being without any work. It was our good fortune that at that time there was being brought into being the new Cosmic Ray Project (what at that time was also very secret, but not as secret as the Atomic Problem), and after some time we were directed to work on this Project. It was organized and headed by Prof. S. N. Vernov (President of All-Union Section of Cosmic Rays) and Prof. N. V. Pushkov (Director of IZMIRAN); Prof. E. L. Feinberg headed the theoretical part of the Project.
The only work to date to collect data gathered during the American and Soviet missions in an accessible and complete reference of current scientific and technical information about the Moon.
Extreme Events in Geospace: Origins, Predictability, and Consequences helps deepen the understanding, description, and forecasting of the complex and inter-related phenomena of extreme space weather events. Composed of chapters written by representatives from many different institutions and fields of space research, the book offers discussions ranging from definitions and historical knowledge to operational issues and methods of analysis. Given that extremes in ionizing radiation, ionospheric irregularities, and geomagnetically induced currents may have the potential to disrupt our technologies or pose danger to human health, it is increasingly important to synthesize the information available on not only those consequences but also the origins and predictability of such events. Extreme Events in Geospace: Origins, Predictability, and Consequences is a valuable source for providing the latest research for geophysicists and space weather scientists, as well as industries impacted by space weather events, including GNSS satellites and radio communication, power grids, aviation, and human spaceflight. The list of first/second authors includes M. Hapgood, N. Gopalswamy, K.D. Leka, G. Barnes, Yu. Yermolaev, P. Riley, S. Sharma, G. Lakhina, B. Tsurutani, C. Ngwira, A. Pulkkinen, J. Love, P. Bedrosian, N. Buzulukova, M. Sitnov, W. Denig, M. Panasyuk, R. Hajra, D. Ferguson, S. Lai, L. Narici, K. Tobiska, G. Gapirov, A. Mannucci, T. Fuller-Rowell, X. Yue, G. Crowley, R. Redmon, V. Airapetian, D. Boteler, M. MacAlester, S. Worman, D. Neudegg, and M. Ishii. Helps to define extremes in space weather and describes existing methods of analysis Discusses current scientific understanding of these events and outlines future challenges Considers the ways in which space weather may affect daily life Demonstrates deep connections between astrophysics, heliophysics, and space weather applications, including a discussion of extreme space weather events from the past Examines national and space policy issues concerning space weather in Australia, Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States
The year 1998 marked the 50th anniversary of the invention of the neutron monitor, a key research tool in the field of space physics and solar-terrestrial relations. In honor of this occasion a workshop entitled 'Cosmic Rays and Earth' was organized to review the detection of cosmic rays at the surface and in the lower atmosphere of Earth, including the effect that this radiation has on the terrestrial environment. A special focus was the role of neutron monitors in the investigation of this radiation, on the science enabled by the unique dataset of the worldwide network of neutron monitors, and on continuing opportunities to use these data to solve outstanding problems. This book is the principal product of that workshop, integrating the contribu tions of all participants. Following a general summary of the workshop prepared by the editors, the volume leads off with a keynote article by Professor John Simpson describing his invention of the neutron monitor in 1948 and the early scientific discoveries made with this instrument.
The Sun as a Guide to Stellar Physics illustrates the significance of the Sun in understanding stars through an examination of the discoveries and insights gained from solar physics research. Ranging from theories to modeling and from numerical simulations to instrumentation and data processing, the book provides an overview of what we currently understand and how the Sun can be a model for gaining further knowledge about stellar physics. Providing both updates on recent developments in solar physics and applications to stellar physics, this book strengthens the solar–stellar connection and summarizes what we know about the Sun for the stellar, space, and geophysics communities. Applies observations, theoretical understanding, modeling capabilities and physical processes first revealed by the sun to the study of stellar physics Illustrates how studies of Proxima Solaris have led to progress in space science, stellar physics and related fields Uses characteristics of solar phenomena as a guide for understanding the physics of stars
|Author||: Percival D. McCormack,Charles E. Swenberg,Horst Bucker|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2012-12-06|
|ISBN 10||: 1461315670|
|Pages||: 864 pages|
This volume is based on the proceedings of an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) held October 1987 in Corfu, Greece. The Institute received financial support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S.A. Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, U.S.A. Department of Energy, U.S.A. Deutsche Forschungs-und Versuchanstalt fur Luft und Raumfahrt e.v., Kaln, Germany The advent of the shuttle era is providing fresh impetus for large space ventures such as communication centers, solar power stations, astronomical observatories, orbiting factories, and space based radar. Such ventures will rely heavily on an extensive and prolonged human presence in space doing in-orbit construction, maintenance, and opera tion. Among the advantages of location in space are the near zero gravity environment, commanding location, and the reception of solar energy and astronomical signals unattenuated by the atmosphere. Central to long-term manned space missions are the problems associated with the effects of exposure to ionizing radiations on humans. Manned space mis sions in the past have encountered relatively benign radiation environ ments because of their very short duration and orbit configuration. However, crew stay time of up to a year has been recently achieved by the Soviet space program; and Mars missions lasting several years are under serious consideration.