sol gel derived optical and photonic materials

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Sol-Gel Derived Optical and Photonic Materials
Author : Rui Almeida,Alessandro Martucci,Luis Santos,Rocío Estefanía Rojas Hernández
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2020-11-25
ISBN 10 : 0128182369
Pages : 394 pages
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Sol-gel processing is a low temperature, low cost wet chemistry route to a range of different materials, particularly glassy and ceramic oxides, including nanoparticles and powders, fibers, thin films and membranes, or monoliths and composites. Thin films and coatings represent by far the most important category of sol-gel derived products with optical, electronic and magnetic functionalities, for example photoresist and dielectric spin-on-glass layers, flat screen displays, anti-reflection, conducting and magnetic disk coatings, as well as photochromic, electrochromic and photovoltaic coatings. Sol-gel derived materials are homogeneous at the molecular level and are a good example of a bottom-up approach to materials synthesis. There is increasing need of new optical and photonic materials with improved performance, where molecular level homogeneity and easy fabrication in film form may be especially convenient, highlighting a decisive advantage of sol-gel over other more established technologies to obtain graded index optical components, solar control coatings, phosphors, glass ceramics or multilayer photonic structures. There is no book available yet which focuses in particular on optical and photonic sol-gel derived materials. This is what makes this book unique at this point for those especially or exclusively interested in optical and photonic functional materials and applications. This book represents an important tool to update scientists and engineers with recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of optical and photonic materials, components and devices. Our target audience are those working in materials science, physics, engineering and chemistry disciplines, in particular academics and researchers working in advanced optical/photonic processing technologies, research and development engineers in high technology industries and research project leaders. This book will also be an essential tool for graduate students pursuing a PhD or even a Master’s degree. Reviews wide range of sol-gel derived coatings including reflective and anti-reflective, self-cleaning, and electrochromic Discusses latest advances in sol-gel derived photonic crystals including one dimensional, two dimensional, and three dimensional structures Addresses key applications in solid state lighting, solar cells, sensors, fiber optics, and magneto-optical devices

Sol-Gel Optics
Author : Lisa C. Klein
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-11-27
ISBN 10 : 1461527503
Pages : 592 pages
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Sol--Gel--Optics encompasses numerous schemes for fabricating optical materials from gels -- materials such as bulk optics, optical waveguides, doped oxides for laser and nonlinear optics, gradient refractive index (GRIN) optics, chemical sensors, environmental sensors, and `smart' windows. Sol--Gel--Optics: Processing and Applications provides in-depth coverage of the synthesis and fabrication of these materials and discusses the optics related to microporous, amorphous, crystalline and composite materials. The reader will also find in this book detailed descriptions of new developments in silica optics, bulk optics, waveguides and thin films. Various applications to sensor and device technology are highlighted. For researchers and students looking for novel optical materials, processing methods or device ideas, Sol--Gel--Optics: Processing and Applications surveys a wide array of promising new avenues for further investigation and for innovative applications. (This book is the first in a new subseries entitled `Electronic Materials: Science and Technology).

Handbook of sol-gel science and technology. 3. Applications of sol-gel technology
Author : Sumio Sakka
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2005
ISBN 10 : 9781402079689
Pages : 791 pages
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Since Dr. Disiich of Germany prepared a glass lens by the sol-gel method around 1970, sol-gel science and technology has continued to develop. Since then this field has seen remarkable technical developments as well as a broadening of the applications of sol-gel science and technology. There is a growing need for a comprehensive reference that treats both the fundamentals and the applications, and this is the aim of "Handbook of Sol-Gel Science and Technology."The primary purpose of sol-gel science and technology is to produce materials, active and non-active including optical, electronic, chemical, sensor, bio- and structural materials. This means that sol-gel science and technology is related to all kinds of manufacturing industries. Thus Volume 1, "Sol-Gel Processing," is devoted to general aspects of processing. Newly developed materials such as organic-inorganic hybrids, photonic crystals, ferroelectric coatings, photocatalysts will be covered. Topics in this volume include: Volume 2, "Characterization of Sol-Gel Materials and Products, "highlights the important fact that useful materials are only produced when characterization is tied to processing. Furthermore, characterization is essential to the understanding of nanostructured materials, and sol-gel technology is a most important technology in this new field. Since nanomaterials display their functional property based on their nano- and micro-structure, "characterization" is very important. Topics found in Volume 2 include: Sol-gel technology is a versatile technology, making it possible to produce a wide variety of materials and to provide existing substances with novel properties. This technology was applied to producingnovel materials, for example organic-inorganic hybrids, which are quite difficult to make by other fabricating techniques, and it was also applied to producing materials based on high temperature superconducting oxides. "Applications of Sol-Gel Technology," (Volume 3), will cover applications such as:

Handbook of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2001
ISBN 10 : 0125137451
Pages : 316 pages
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Advances in Photonic Materials and Devices
Author : Suhas Bhandarkar
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2012-04-11
ISBN 10 : 111840727X
Pages : 128 pages
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Photonics is a critically important technology. It complements maturing micro-electronics to create new directions that impacts a wide-ranging array of other industries. From a materials standpoint, this technology uses essentially all the classes of materials and seeks to hybridize them to create new devices. These proceedings showcase the transformation of photonics from a telecom-aligned technology to a much wider sphere of applications.

Department of Defense appropriations for 2001
Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Department of Defense
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2004
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Sol-gel Optics
Author : N.A
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2000
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Sol-Gel Materials for Energy, Environment and Electronic Applications
Author : Suresh C. Pillai,Sarah Hehir
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-02-16
ISBN 10 : 3319501445
Pages : 315 pages
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This volume provides expert coverage of the state-of-the-art in sol-gel materials for functional applications in energy, environment and electronics. The use of sol-gel technology has become a hotbed for cutting edge developments in many fields due to the accessibility of advanced materials through low energy processes. The book offers a broad view of this growing research area from basic science through high-level applications with the potential for commercialization and industrial use. Taking an integrated approach, expert chapters present a wide range of topics, from photocatalysts, solar cells and optics, to thin films and materials for energy storage and conversion, demonstrating the combined use of chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering in the search for solutions to some of the most challenging problems of our time.

Handbook of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices: Chalcogenide glasses and sol-gel materials
Author : Hari Singh Nalwa
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2001
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Handbook of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices: Nonlinear optical materials
Author : Hari Singh Nalwa
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2001
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Electronic and photonic materials discussed in this handbook are the key elements of continued scientific and technological advances in the 21st century. The electronic and photonic materials comprising this handbook include semiconductors, superconductors, ferroelectrics, liquid crystals, conducting polymers, organic and superconductors, conductors, nonlinear optical and optoelectronic materials, electrochromic materials, laser materials, photoconductors, photovoltaic and electroluminescent materials, dielectric materials, nanostructured materials, supramolecular and self-asemblies, silicon and glasses, photosynthetic and respiratory proteins, etc, etc. Some of these materials have already been used and will be the most important components of the semiconductor and photonic industries, computers, internet, information processing and storage, telecommunications, satellite communications, integrated circuits, photocopiers, solar cells, batteries, light-emitting diodes, liquid crystal displays, magneto-optic memories, audio and video systems, recordable compact discs, video cameras, X-ray technology, color imaging, printing, flat-panel displays, optical waveguides, cable televisions, computer chips, molecular-sized transistors and switches, as well as other emerging cutting edge technologies. Electronic and photonic materials are expected to grow to a trillion-dollar industry in the new millennium and will be the most dominating forces in the emerging new technologies in the fields of science and engineering. This handbook is a unique source of the in-depth knowledge of synthesis, processing, fabrication, spectroscopy, physical properties and applications of electronic and photonic materials covering everything for today's and developing future technologies. This handbook consists of over one hundred state-of-the-art review chapters written by more than 200 world leading experts from 25 different countries. With more than 23,000 bibliographic citations and several thousands of figures, tables, photographs, chemical structures and equations, this handbook is an invaluable major reference source for scientists and students working in the field of materials science, solid-state physics, chemistry, electrical and optical engineering, polymer science, device engineering and computational engineering, photophysics, data storage and information technology and technocrats, everyone who is involved in science and engineering of electronic and photonic materials. Key Features * This is the first handbook ever published on electronic and photonic materials * 10 volumes summarize the advances in electronic and photonic materials made over past the two decades * This handbook is a unique source of the in-depth knowledge of synthesis, processing, spectroscopy, physical properties and applications of electronic and photonic materials * Over 100 state-of-the-art review chapters written by more than 200 leading experts from 25 different countries * About 25,000 bibliographic citations and several thousand figures, tables, photographs, chemical structures and equations * Easy access to electronic and photonic materials from a single reference * Each chapter is self-contained with cross references * Single reference having all inorganic, organic and biological materials * Witten in very clear and concise fashion for easy understanding of structure property relationships in electronic and photonic materials

Handbook of sol-gel science and technology. 1. Sol-gel processing
Author : Sumio Sakka,Hiromitsu Kozuka
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2005
ISBN 10 : 9781402079665
Pages : 680 pages
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Since Dr. Disiich of Germany prepared a glass lens by the sol-gel method around 1970, sol-gel science and technology has continued to develop. Since then this field has seen remarkable technical developments as well as a broadening of the applications of sol-gel science and technology. There is a growing need for a comprehensive reference that treats both the fundamentals and the applications, and this is the aim of "Handbook of Sol-Gel Science and Technology."The primary purpose of sol-gel science and technology is to produce materials, active and non-active including optical, electronic, chemical, sensor, bio- and structural materials. This means that sol-gel science and technology is related to all kinds of manufacturing industries. Thus Volume 1, "Sol-Gel Processing," is devoted to general aspects of processing. Newly developed materials such as organic-inorganic hybrids, photonic crystals, ferroelectric coatings, photocatalysts will be covered. Topics in this volume include: Volume 2, "Characterization of Sol-Gel Materials and Products, "highlights the important fact that useful materials are only produced when characterization is tied to processing. Furthermore, characterization is essential to the understanding of nanostructured materials, and sol-gel technology is a most important technology in this new field. Since nanomaterials display their functional property based on their nano- and micro-structure, "characterization" is very important. Topics found in Volume 2 include: Sol-gel technology is a versatile technology, making it possible to produce a wide variety of materials and to provide existing substances with novel properties. This technology was applied to producingnovel materials, for example organic-inorganic hybrids, which are quite difficult to make by other fabricating techniques, and it was also applied to producing materials based on high temperature superconducting oxides. "Applications of Sol-Gel Technology," (Volume 3), will cover applications such as:

Sol-gel and Polymer Photonic Devices
Author : Mark P. Andrews,S. Iraj Najafi
Publisher : Society of Photo Optical
Release Date : 1997
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 451 pages
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Proceedings of SPIE present the original research papers presented at SPIE conferences and other high-quality conferences in the broad-ranging fields of optics and photonics. These books provide prompt access to the latest innovations in research and technology in their respective fields. Proceedings of SPIE are among the most cited references in patent literature.

Selected Papers on Sol-gel for Photonics
Author : S. Iraj Najafi
Publisher : Society of Photo Optical
Release Date : 1998
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 522 pages
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SPIE Milestones are collections of seminal papers from the world literature covering important discoveries and developments in optics and photonics.

Handbook of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices: Ferroelectrics and dielectrics
Author : Hari Singh Nalwa
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2001
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Electronic and photonic materials discussed in this handbook are the key elements of continued scientific and technological advances in the 21st century. The electronic and photonic materials comprising this handbook include semiconductors, superconductors, ferroelectrics, liquid crystals, conducting polymers, organic and superconductors, conductors, nonlinear optical and optoelectronic materials, electrochromic materials, laser materials, photoconductors, photovoltaic and electroluminescent materials, dielectric materials, nanostructured materials, supramolecular and self-asemblies, silicon and glasses, photosynthetic and respiratory proteins, etc, etc. Some of these materials have already been used and will be the most important components of the semiconductor and photonic industries, computers, internet, information processing and storage, telecommunications, satellite communications, integrated circuits, photocopiers, solar cells, batteries, light-emitting diodes, liquid crystal displays, magneto-optic memories, audio and video systems, recordable compact discs, video cameras, X-ray technology, color imaging, printing, flat-panel displays, optical waveguides, cable televisions, computer chips, molecular-sized transistors and switches, as well as other emerging cutting edge technologies. Electronic and photonic materials are expected to grow to a trillion-dollar industry in the new millennium and will be the most dominating forces in the emerging new technologies in the fields of science and engineering. This handbook is a unique source of the in-depth knowledge of synthesis, processing, fabrication, spectroscopy, physical properties and applications of electronic and photonic materials covering everything for today's and developing future technologies. This handbook consists of over one hundred state-of-the-art review chapters written by more than 200 world leading experts from 25 different countries. With more than 23,000 bibliographic citations and several thousands of figures, tables, photographs, chemical structures and equations, this handbook is an invaluable major reference source for scientists and students working in the field of materials science, solid-state physics, chemistry, electrical and optical engineering, polymer science, device engineering and computational engineering, photophysics, data storage and information technology and technocrats, everyone who is involved in science and engineering of electronic and photonic materials. Key Features * This is the first handbook ever published on electronic and photonic materials * 10 volumes summarize the advances in electronic and photonic materials made over past the two decades * This handbook is a unique source of the in-depth knowledge of synthesis, processing, spectroscopy, physical properties and applications of electronic and photonic materials * Over 100 state-of-the-art review chapters written by more than 200 leading experts from 25 different countries * About 25,000 bibliographic citations and several thousand figures, tables, photographs, chemical structures and equations * Easy access to electronic and photonic materials from a single reference * Each chapter is self-contained with cross references * Single reference having all inorganic, organic and biological materials * Witten in very clear and concise fashion for easy understanding of structure property relationships in electronic and photonic materials

Handbook of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices: Semiconductor devices
Author : Hari Singh Nalwa
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2001
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Electronic and photonic materials discussed in this handbook are the key elements of continued scientific and technological advances in the 21st century. The electronic and photonic materials comprising this handbook include semiconductors, superconductors, ferroelectrics, liquid crystals, conducting polymers, organic and superconductors, conductors, nonlinear optical and optoelectronic materials, electrochromic materials, laser materials, photoconductors, photovoltaic and electroluminescent materials, dielectric materials, nanostructured materials, supramolecular and self-asemblies, silicon and glasses, photosynthetic and respiratory proteins, etc, etc. Some of these materials have already been used and will be the most important components of the semiconductor and photonic industries, computers, internet, information processing and storage, telecommunications, satellite communications, integrated circuits, photocopiers, solar cells, batteries, light-emitting diodes, liquid crystal displays, magneto-optic memories, audio and video systems, recordable compact discs, video cameras, X-ray technology, color imaging, printing, flat-panel displays, optical waveguides, cable televisions, computer chips, molecular-sized transistors and switches, as well as other emerging cutting edge technologies. Electronic and photonic materials are expected to grow to a trillion-dollar industry in the new millennium and will be the most dominating forces in the emerging new technologies in the fields of science and engineering. This handbook is a unique source of the in-depth knowledge of synthesis, processing, fabrication, spectroscopy, physical properties and applications of electronic and photonic materials covering everything for today's and developing future technologies. This handbook consists of over one hundred state-of-the-art review chapters written by more than 200 world leading experts from 25 different countries. With more than 23,000 bibliographic citations and several thousands of figures, tables, photographs, chemical structures and equations, this handbook is an invaluable major reference source for scientists and students working in the field of materials science, solid-state physics, chemistry, electrical and optical engineering, polymer science, device engineering and computational engineering, photophysics, data storage and information technology and technocrats, everyone who is involved in science and engineering of electronic and photonic materials. Key Features * This is the first handbook ever published on electronic and photonic materials * 10 volumes summarize the advances in electronic and photonic materials made over past the two decades * This handbook is a unique source of the in-depth knowledge of synthesis, processing, spectroscopy, physical properties and applications of electronic and photonic materials * Over 100 state-of-the-art review chapters written by more than 200 leading experts from 25 different countries * About 25,000 bibliographic citations and several thousand figures, tables, photographs, chemical structures and equations * Easy access to electronic and photonic materials from a single reference * Each chapter is self-contained with cross references * Single reference having all inorganic, organic and biological materials * Witten in very clear and concise fashion for easy understanding of structure property relationships in electronic and photonic materials

Handbook of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices: Liquid crystals, display and laser materials
Author : Hari Singh Nalwa
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2001
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Electronic and photonic materials discussed in this handbook are the key elements of continued scientific and technological advances in the 21st century. The electronic and photonic materials comprising this handbook include semiconductors, superconductors, ferroelectrics, liquid crystals, conducting polymers, organic and superconductors, conductors, nonlinear optical and optoelectronic materials, electrochromic materials, laser materials, photoconductors, photovoltaic and electroluminescent materials, dielectric materials, nanostructured materials, supramolecular and self-asemblies, silicon and glasses, photosynthetic and respiratory proteins, etc, etc. Some of these materials have already been used and will be the most important components of the semiconductor and photonic industries, computers, internet, information processing and storage, telecommunications, satellite communications, integrated circuits, photocopiers, solar cells, batteries, light-emitting diodes, liquid crystal displays, magneto-optic memories, audio and video systems, recordable compact discs, video cameras, X-ray technology, color imaging, printing, flat-panel displays, optical waveguides, cable televisions, computer chips, molecular-sized transistors and switches, as well as other emerging cutting edge technologies. Electronic and photonic materials are expected to grow to a trillion-dollar industry in the new millennium and will be the most dominating forces in the emerging new technologies in the fields of science and engineering. This handbook is a unique source of the in-depth knowledge of synthesis, processing, fabrication, spectroscopy, physical properties and applications of electronic and photonic materials covering everything for today's and developing future technologies. This handbook consists of over one hundred state-of-the-art review chapters written by more than 200 world leading experts from 25 different countries. With more than 23,000 bibliographic citations and several thousands of figures, tables, photographs, chemical structures and equations, this handbook is an invaluable major reference source for scientists and students working in the field of materials science, solid-state physics, chemistry, electrical and optical engineering, polymer science, device engineering and computational engineering, photophysics, data storage and information technology and technocrats, everyone who is involved in science and engineering of electronic and photonic materials. Key Features * This is the first handbook ever published on electronic and photonic materials * 10 volumes summarize the advances in electronic and photonic materials made over past the two decades * This handbook is a unique source of the in-depth knowledge of synthesis, processing, spectroscopy, physical properties and applications of electronic and photonic materials * Over 100 state-of-the-art review chapters written by more than 200 leading experts from 25 different countries * About 25,000 bibliographic citations and several thousand figures, tables, photographs, chemical structures and equations * Easy access to electronic and photonic materials from a single reference * Each chapter is self-contained with cross references * Single reference having all inorganic, organic and biological materials * Witten in very clear and concise fashion for easy understanding of structure property relationships in electronic and photonic materials

Handbook of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices: Ferroelectrics and dielectrics
Author : Hari Singh Nalwa
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2001
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Electronic and photonic materials discussed in this handbook are the key elements of continued scientific and technological advances in the 21st century. The electronic and photonic materials comprising this handbook include semiconductors, superconductors, ferroelectrics, liquid crystals, conducting polymers, organic and superconductors, conductors, nonlinear optical and optoelectronic materials, electrochromic materials, laser materials, photoconductors, photovoltaic and electroluminescent materials, dielectric materials, nanostructured materials, supramolecular and self-asemblies, silicon and glasses, photosynthetic and respiratory proteins, etc, etc. Some of these materials have already been used and will be the most important components of the semiconductor and photonic industries, computers, internet, information processing and storage, telecommunications, satellite communications, integrated circuits, photocopiers, solar cells, batteries, light-emitting diodes, liquid crystal displays, magneto-optic memories, audio and video systems, recordable compact discs, video cameras, X-ray technology, color imaging, printing, flat-panel displays, optical waveguides, cable televisions, computer chips, molecular-sized transistors and switches, as well as other emerging cutting edge technologies. Electronic and photonic materials are expected to grow to a trillion-dollar industry in the new millennium and will be the most dominating forces in the emerging new technologies in the fields of science and engineering. This handbook is a unique source of the in-depth knowledge of synthesis, processing, fabrication, spectroscopy, physical properties and applications of electronic and photonic materials covering everything for today's and developing future technologies. This handbook consists of over one hundred state-of-the-art review chapters written by more than 200 world leading experts from 25 different countries. With more than 23,000 bibliographic citations and several thousands of figures, tables, photographs, chemical structures and equations, this handbook is an invaluable major reference source for scientists and students working in the field of materials science, solid-state physics, chemistry, electrical and optical engineering, polymer science, device engineering and computational engineering, photophysics, data storage and information technology and technocrats, everyone who is involved in science and engineering of electronic and photonic materials. Key Features * This is the first handbook ever published on electronic and photonic materials * 10 volumes summarize the advances in electronic and photonic materials made over past the two decades * This handbook is a unique source of the in-depth knowledge of synthesis, processing, spectroscopy, physical properties and applications of electronic and photonic materials * Over 100 state-of-the-art review chapters written by more than 200 leading experts from 25 different countries * About 25,000 bibliographic citations and several thousand figures, tables, photographs, chemical structures and equations * Easy access to electronic and photonic materials from a single reference * Each chapter is self-contained with cross references * Single reference having all inorganic, organic and biological materials * Witten in very clear and concise fashion for easy understanding of structure property relationships in electronic and photonic materials

The Sol-Gel Handbook
Author : David Levy,Marcos Zayat
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2015-11-02
ISBN 10 : 3527334866
Pages : 1616 pages
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This comprehensive three-volume handbook brings together a review of the current state together with the latest developments in sol-gel technology to put forward new ideas. The first volume, dedicated to synthesis and shaping, gives an in-depth overview of the wet-chemical processes that constitute the core of the sol-gel method and presents the various pathways for the successful synthesis of inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic materials, bio- and bio-inspired materials, powders, particles and fibers as well as sol-gel derived thin films, coatings and surfaces. The second volume deals with the mechanical, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of sol-gel derived materials and the methods for their characterization such as diffraction methods and nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The third volume concentrates on the various applications in the fields of membrane science, catalysis, energy research, biomaterials science, biomedicine, photonics and electronics.

Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Photonic Devices
Author : N.A
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 1999
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Sol-Gel Technologies for Glass Producers and Users
Author : Michel A Aegerter,M. Mennig
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2004-10-29
ISBN 10 : 9781402079382
Pages : 493 pages
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Sol-Gel Techniques for Glass Producers and Users provides technological information, descriptions and characterizations of prototypes, or products already on the market, and illustrates advantages and disadvantages of the sol-gel process in comparison to other methods. The first chapter entitled "Wet Chemical Technology" gives a summary of the basic principles of the sol-gel chemistry. The most promising applications are related to coatings. Chapter 2 describes the various "Wet Chemical Coating Technologies" from glass cleaning to many deposition and post-coating treatment techniques. These include patterning of coatings through direct or indirect techniques which have became very important and for which the sol-gel processing is particularly well adapted. Chapter 3 entitled "Bulk Glass Technologies" reports on the preparation of special glasses for different applications. Chapter 4 entitled "Coatings and Materials Properties" describes the properties of the different coatings and the sol-gel materials, fibers and powders. The chapter also includes a section dedicated to the characterization techniques especially applied to sol-gel coatings and products.