This book describes the structure-property-composition relationships for silicate glasses and melts of industrial and geological interest. From Antiquity to the 20th century, an introductory chapter presents this subject in a historical perspective. Basic concepts are then discussed in three chapters where attention is paid to the glass transition and its various consequences on melt and glass properties, to the structural and physical differences between amorphous and crystalline silicates, and to the mutual relationships between local order, energetics and physical properties. With pure SiO2 as a starting point, compositions of increasing chemical complexity are successively dealt with in a dozen chapters. The effects of network-modifying cations on structure and properties are first exemplified by alkali and alkaline earth elements. The specific influence of aluminum, iron, titanium, and phosphorus are then reviewed. With water, volatiles in the system COHS, noble gases, and halogens, the effects of volatile components are also described. The last chapter explains how the results obtained on simpler melts can be applied to chemically complex systems. In each chapter, physical and chemical properties are described first and followed by a review of glass and melt structure. When possible, pressure effects are also considered. *From SiO2 to complex silicate compositions, the physical and chemical properties of melts and glasses of geological and industrial interest *Structural characterization of melts and glasses, from ambient to high pressure and temperature *From basic concepts to an advanced level, a consistent description of the structure-property-composition relationships in glasses and melts
Silicate Glasses and Melts, Second Edition describes the structure-property-composition relationships for silicate glasses and melts from a geological and industrial perspective. Updated sections include (i) characterization of silicate melt and COHN fluid structure (with and without dissolved silicate components) with pressure, temperature, and redox conditions and responses of structural variables to chemical composition, (ii) determination of solubility and solution mechanisms of COHN volatiles in silicate melts and minerals and of solubility and solution mechanisms of silicate components in COHN fluids, and (iii) effects of very high pressure on structure and properties of melts and glasses. This new book is an essential resource for researchers in a number of fields, including geology, geophysics, geoscience, volcanology, material science, glass science, petrology and mineralogy. Brings together multidisciplinary research scattered across the scientific literature into one reference, with a focus on silicate melts and their application to natural systems Emphasizes linking melt properties to melt structure Includes a discussion of the pros and cons of the use of glass as a proxy for melt structure and properties Written by highly regarded experts in the field who, among other honors, were the 2006 recipients of the prestigious G.W. Morey award of the American Ceramic Society
This book focuses on the experimental determination of the physical properties of silicate melts and magmas close to glass transition. Abundant new data are presented. The same type of measurement is performed on a range of melts to test the effect of composition on physical properties; and a range of different techniques are used to determine the same physical properties to illustrate the relationships between the relaxation of the melt structure and the relaxation of its physical properties. This book is of interest to experimental researchers in the discussion of data obtained from both a materials science and a geoscientific point of view.
Physical Sciences Data, Volume 15: Handbook of Glass Data: Silica Glass and Binary Silicate Glasses, Part A presents information on the systems capable of forming glasses by cooling melts. This book provides data on the crystallization rates of glasses. Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the melt properties for the glass-forming systems. This text then examines the notion of a component that is very significant for determining the number of components in each investigated glass. Other chapters consider the contents of several oxides of the same element but in different valent state as the reason to transfer a glass to the category of the increased number of components. This book discusses as well the analytical composition of glass. The final chapter deals with flotation method using tetrabromoethane and benzene mixture. This book is a valuable resource for glass specialists, chemists, engineers, scientists, and information science workers.
The global ageing society has significantly increased the need for implant materials, which not only replace damaged or lost tissue but are also able to regenerate it. The field of bioactive glasses has been expanding continuously over recent years as they have been shown to bond with hard and soft tissue, release therapeutically active ions, and be capable of enhancing bone formation and regeneration. In addition, they are successfully being used to re-mineralise teeth, thereby making bioactive glasses highly attractive materials in both dentistry and medicine. Understanding the multidisciplinary requirements set by the human body’s environment and the special characteristics of the different families of bioactive glasses is a key in developing new compositions to novel clinical applications. Bioactive Glasses aims to bridge the different scientific communities associated with the field of bioactive glasses with focus on the materials science point of view. Emerging applications covered include soft tissue regeneration, wound healing, vascularisation, cancer treatment and drug delivery devices. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest applications of bioactive glasses for material scientists.
Characterization of the relationships between structure and properties of materials is based on the fundamental principle that the structure of the material be determined first, followed by assessments of which structural properties may govern their properties as a function of composition, pressure, temperature and other variables. Whereas this methodology has been successfully applied to further our understanding of crystalline materials, studies of silicate melt structure are often conducted on a somewhat different basis. Rather than from direct structural determination, structure models have been developed from assumed relationships between a specific melt property and its structure. As a result, a multitude of models has evolved - many of which are mutually exclusive. The overall scope of this book is to address properties and processes of magmatic systems from the vantage point of melt structure. To this end available data in chemically increasingly complex systems are reviewed and discussed with the ultimate goal being integration of the simple system data into a model that describes complex systems such as natural magmatic liquids. Thus the book evolves from the simplest possible system, SiO 2 , to complex systems such as natural magmatic liquids. From a petrologic point of view, sufficient data have been obtained so that a general framework of the structure of magmatic liquids is in place. This framework is based on the same principles as those of crystal chemistry, modulated by the absence of long range order in amorphous material, and systematic relationships between structure and properties can be discerned at least at atmospheric pressure.
Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses, Third Edition, is a comprehensive reference on the field of glass science and engineering that covers numerous, significant advances. This new edition includes the most recent advances in glass physics and chemistry, also discussing groundbreaking applications of glassy materials. It is suitable for upper level glass science courses and professional glass scientists and engineers at industrial and government labs. Fundamental concepts, chapter-ending problem sets, an emphasis on key ideas, and timely notes on suggested readings are all included. The book provides the breadth required of a comprehensive reference, offering coverage of the composition, structure and properties of inorganic glasses. Clearly develops fundamental concepts and the basics of glass science and glass chemistry Provides a comprehensive discussion of the composition, structure and properties of inorganic glasses Features a discussion of the emerging applications of glass, including applications in energy, environment, pharmaceuticals, and more Concludes chapters with problem sets and suggested readings to facilitate self-study
Volume 72 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry represents an extensive compilation of the material presented by the invited speakers at a short course on Diffusion in Minerals and Melts held prior (December 11-12, 2010) to the Annual fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco, California. The short course was held at the Napa Valley Marriott Hotel and Spa in Napa, California and was sponsored by the Mineralogical Society of America and the Geochemical Society.
This collection focuses on ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy where ionic melts, slags, fluxes, or salts play important roles in industrial growth and economy worldwide. Technical topics included are: thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams and kinetics of slags, fluxes, and salts; physical properties of slags, fluxes, and salts; structural studies of slags; interfacial and process phenomena involving foaming, bubble formation, and drainage; slag recycling, refractory erosion/corrosion, and freeze linings; and recycling and utilization of metallurgical slags and models and their applications in process improvement and optimization. These topics are of interest to not only traditional ferrous and non-ferrous metal industrial processes but also new and upcoming technologies.
|Author||: Hong Li,Chandra S. Ray,Denis M. Strachan,Richard Weber,Yuanzheng Yue|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2012-04-11|
|ISBN 10||: 1118408071|
|Pages||: 249 pages|
This volume will summarize the most recent development in experimentation, computation, and theory on chemistry of glass forming melt, including melt structure modeling and melt structure and characterizations. This volume provides a timely update on the advances in glass basic science research and development.
This book is a collection of papers presented in the 30th International Geological Congress, held in Beijing, on mineralogy. The papers deal with topics on fine structures and crystallographic orientations in biogenic magnetite and thermodynamic properties of minerals.
With the rapid development of fast processors, the power of a mini-super computer now exists in a lap-top box. Quite sophisticated techniques are be coming accessible to geoscientists, thus making disciplinary boundaries fade. Chemists and physicists are no longer shying away from computational mineral ogical and material science problems "too complicated to handle." Geoscientists are willing to delve into quantitative physico-chemical methods and open those "black boxes" they had shunned for several decades but with which had learned to live. I am proud to present yet another volume in this series which is designed to break the disciplinary boundaries and bring the geoscientists closer to their chemist and physicist colleagues in achieving a common goal. This volume is the result of an international collaboration among many physical geochemists (chemists, physicists, and geologists) aiming to understand the nature of material. The book has one common theme: namely, how to determine quantitatively through theory the physico-chemical parameters of the state of a solid or fluid.
This is the first book that explains how to structure glass for micro- and nanophotonic applications. It deals with various glass compositions and their properties, and the interactions between glass and the electromagnetic waves used to modify it. The book also explores methods for influencing the geometrical microstructure of glass as well as methods to produce actual microdevices. It also details methods for influencing the geometrical microstructure of glasses.
Magmas under Pressure: Advances in High-Pressure Experiments on Structure and Properties of Melts summarizes recent advances in experimental technologies for studying magmas at high pressures. In the past decade, new developments in high-pressure experiments, particularly with synchrotron X-ray techniques, have advanced the study of magmas under pressure. These new experiments have revealed significant changes of structure and physical properties of magmas under pressure, which significantly improves our understanding of the behavior of magmas in the earth’s interior. This book is an important reference, not only in the earth and planetary sciences, but also in other scientific fields, such as physics, chemistry, material sciences, engineering and in industrial applications, such as glass formation and metallurgical processing. Includes research and examples of high-pressure technologies for studying the structure and properties of magma Summarizes the current knowledge on the structure and properties of high-pressure magma Highlights the importance of magma in understanding the evolution of the earth’s interior
|Author||: Jonathan F. Stebbins,Paul F. McMillan,Donald B. Dingwell|
|Publisher||: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG|
|Release Date||: 2018-12-17|
|ISBN 10||: 1501509381|
|Pages||: 632 pages|
Volume 32 of Reviews in Mineralogy introduces the basic concepts of melt physics and relaxation theory as applied to silicate melts, then to describe the current state of experimental and computer simulation techniques for exploring the detailed atomic structure and dynamic processes which occur at high temperature, and finally to consider the relationships between melt structure, thermodynamic properties and rheology within these liquids. These fundamental relations serve to bridge the extrapolation from often highly simplified melt compositions studied in the laboratory to the multicomponent systems found in nature. This volume focuses on the properties of simple model silicate systems, which are usually volatile-free. The behavior of natural magmas has been summarized in a previous Short Course volume (Nicholls and Russell, editors, 1990: Reviews in Mineralogy, Vol. 24), and the effect of volatiles on magmatic properties in yet another (Carroll and Holloway, editors, 1994: Vol. 30). The Mineralogical Society of America sponsored a short course for which this was the text at Stanford University December 9 and 10, 1995, preceding the Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union and MSA in San Fransisco, with about 100 professionals and graduate students in attendance.
Today large numbers of geoscientists apply thermodynamic theory to solu tions of a variety of problems in earth and planetary sciences. For most problems in chemistry, the application of thermodynamics is direct and rewarding. Geoscientists, however, deal with complex inorganic and organic substances. The complexities in the nature of mineralogical substances arise due to their involved crystal structure and multicomponental character. As a result, thermochemical solutions of many geological-planetological problems should be attempted only with a clear understanding of the crystal-chemical and thermochemical character of each mineral. The subject of physical geochemistry deals with the elucidation and application of physico-chemical principles to geosciences. Thermodynamics of mineral phases and crystalline solutions form an integral part of it. Developments in mineralogic thermody namics in recent years have been very encouraging, but do not easily reach many geoscientists interested mainly in applications. This series is to provide geoscientists and planetary scientists with current information on the develop ments in thermodynamics of mineral systems, and also provide the active researcher in this rapidly developing field with a forum through which he can popularize the important conclusions of his work. In the first several volumes, we plan to publish original contributions (with an abundant supply of back ground material for the uninitiated reader) and thoughtful reviews from a number of researchers on mineralogic thermodynamics, on the application of thermochemistry to planetary phase equilibria (including meteorites), and on kinetics of geochemical reactions.
This volume is a compilation of data on the properties of glasses. The authors have critically examined and correlated the most reliable data on the properties of multicomponent commercial silicate glasses, vitreous silica, and binary and ternary laboratory glasses. Thermodynamic, thermal, mechanical, electrical, and transport properties are covered. Measurement methods and appropriate theories are also discussed.
Physical Chemistry of Magmas investigates the properties, structure, and phase relationships of silicate melts with invited contributions from an international team of experts. Data and some rules for estimating the properties and structures of melts, as well as the implications of the physical chemistry of silicate liquids to igneous petrology are presented. The second section then focuses on phase relationships, with particular attention on the application of experimental and theoretical petrology to modeling the origin of certain magmas.
This handbook provides comprehensive treatment of the current state of glass science from the leading experts in the field. Opening with an enlightening contribution on the history of glass, the volume is then divided into eight parts. The first part covers fundamental properties, from the current understanding of the thermodynamics of the amorphous state, kinetics, and linear and nonlinear optical properties through colors, photosensitivity, and chemical durability. The second part provides dedicated chapters on each individual glass type, covering traditional systems like silicates and other oxide systems, as well as novel hybrid amorphous materials and spin glasses. The third part features detailed descriptions of modern characterization techniques for understanding this complex state of matter. The fourth part covers modeling, from first-principles calculations through molecular dynamics simulations, and statistical modeling. The fifth part presents a range of laboratory and industrial glass processing methods. The remaining parts cover a wide and representative range of applications areas from optics and photonics through environment, energy, architecture, and sensing. Written by the leading international experts in the field, the Springer Handbook of Glass represents an invaluable resource for graduate students through academic and industry researchers working in photonics, optoelectronics, materials science, energy, architecture, and more.