sex gender and epigenetics

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Bridging Gaps Between Sex and Gender in Neurosciences
Author : Annie Duchesne,Meng-Chuan Lai,Gillian Einstein,Belinda Pletzer,Marina A. Pavlova
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2020-07-14
ISBN 10 : 2889638650
Pages : 329 pages
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The Psychology of Sex and Gender
Author : Jennifer K. Bosson,Camille E. Buckner,Joseph A. Vandello
Publisher : SAGE Publications
Release Date : 2021-01-12
ISBN 10 : 1544394039
Pages : 744 pages
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Meeting the needs of gender science today, The Psychology of Sex and Gender provides students with balanced coverage of men and women that is grounded in psychological science. The dynamic author team of Jennifer K. Bosson, Camille E. Buckner, and Joseph A. Vandello paints a complete, vibrant picture of the field through the presentation of classic and cutting-edge research, historical contexts, examples from pop culture, cross-cultural universality and variation, and coverage of nonbinary identities. In keeping with the growing scholarship of teaching and learning (SOTL), the text encourages students to identify and evaluate their own myths and misconceptions, participate in real-world debates, and pause to think critically along the way. The thoroughly revised Second Edition integrates an expanded focus on diversity and inclusion, enhances pedagogy based on SOTL, and provides the most up-to-date scientific findings in the field.

Sex Control in Aquaculture
Author : Hanping Wang,Francesc Piferrer,Songlin Chen,Zhi-Gang Shen
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2018-11-08
ISBN 10 : 1119127289
Pages : 888 pages
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A comprehensive resource that covers all the aspects of sex control in aquaculture written by internationally-acclaimed scientists Comprehensive in scope, Sex Control in Aquaculture first explains the concepts and rationale for sex control in aquaculture, which serves different purposes. The most important are: to produce monosex stocks to rear only the fastest-growing sex in some species, to prevent precocious or uncontrolled reproduction in other species and to aid in broodstock management. The application of sex ratio manipulation for population control and invasive species management is also included. Next, this book provides detailed and updated information on the underlying genetic, epigenetic, endocrine and environmental mechanisms responsible for the establishment of the sexes, and explains chromosome set manipulation techniques, hybridization and the latest gene knockout approaches. Furthermore, the book offers detailed protocols and key summarizing information on how sex control is practiced worldwide in 35 major aquaculture species or groups, including fish and crustaceans, and puts the focus on its application in the aquaculture industry. With contributions from an international panel of leading scientists, Sex Control in Aquaculture will appeal to a large audience: aquaculture/fisheries professionals and students, scientists or biologists working with basic aspects of fish/shrimp biology, growth and reproductive endocrinology, genetics, molecular biology, evolutionary biology, and R&D managers and administrators. This text explores sex control technologies and monosex production of commercially-farmed fish and crustacean species that are highly in demand for aquaculture, to improve feed utilization efficiency, reduce energy consumption for reproduction and eliminate a series of problems caused by mixed sex rearing. Thus, this book: Contains contributions from an international panel of leading scientists and professionals in the field Provides comprehensive coverage of both established and new technologies to control sex ratios that are becoming more necessary to increase productivity in aquaculture Includes detailed coverage of the most effective sex control techniques used in the world's most important commercially-farmed species Sex Control in Aquaculture is the comprehensive resource for understanding the biological rationale, scientific principles and real-world practices in this exciting and expanding field.

Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health
Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Understanding the Biology of Sex and Gender Differences
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2001-07-02
ISBN 10 : 9780309132978
Pages : 288 pages
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It's obvious why only men develop prostate cancer and why only women get ovarian cancer. But it is not obvious why women are more likely to recover language ability after a stroke than men or why women are more apt to develop autoimmune diseases such as lupus. Sex differences in health throughout the lifespan have been documented. Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health begins to snap the pieces of the puzzle into place so that this knowledge can be used to improve health for both sexes. From behavior and cognition to metabolism and response to chemicals and infectious organisms, this book explores the health impact of sex (being male or female, according to reproductive organs and chromosomes) and gender (one's sense of self as male or female in society). Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health discusses basic biochemical differences in the cells of males and females and health variability between the sexes from conception throughout life. The book identifies key research needs and opportunities and addresses barriers to research. Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health will be important to health policy makers, basic, applied, and clinical researchers, educators, providers, and journalists-while being very accessible to interested lay readers.

Evolution's Rainbow
Author : Joan Roughgarden
Publisher : Univ of California Press
Release Date : 2013-09-14
ISBN 10 : 0520957970
Pages : 496 pages
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In this innovative celebration of diversity and affirmation of individuality in animals and humans, Joan Roughgarden challenges accepted wisdom about gender identity and sexual orientation. A distinguished evolutionary biologist, Roughgarden takes on the medical establishment, the Bible, social science—and even Darwin himself. She leads the reader through a fascinating discussion of diversity in gender and sexuality among fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals, including primates. Evolution's Rainbow explains how this diversity develops from the action of genes and hormones and how people come to differ from each other in all aspects of body and behavior. Roughgarden reconstructs primary science in light of feminist, gay, and transgender criticism and redefines our understanding of sex, gender, and sexuality. Witty, playful, and daring, this book will revolutionize our understanding of sexuality. Roughgarden argues that principal elements of Darwinian sexual selection theory are false and suggests a new theory that emphasizes social inclusion and control of access to resources and mating opportunity. She disputes a range of scientific and medical concepts, including Wilson's genetic determinism of behavior, evolutionary psychology, the existence of a gay gene, the role of parenting in determining gender identity, and Dawkins's "selfish gene" as the driver of natural selection. She dares social science to respect the agency and rationality of diverse people; shows that many cultures across the world and throughout history accommodate people we label today as lesbian, gay, and transgendered; and calls on the Christian religion to acknowledge the Bible's many passages endorsing diversity in gender and sexuality. Evolution's Rainbow concludes with bold recommendations for improving education in biology, psychology, and medicine; for democratizing genetic engineering and medical practice; and for building a public monument to affirm diversity as one of our nation's defining principles.

Biopolitics and Gender
Author : Meredith W Watts Jr
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2012-12-06
ISBN 10 : 1136548912
Pages : 220 pages
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Here is an important book for social scientists interested in the influence of gender on certain types of behavior. Several perspectives are presented on the general topic of biopolitics and gender, including the points of view of brain science, endocrinology, ethology, psychophysiology, and such conventional interests as political attitudes, socialization, participation, social structure, and political hierarchy. The varied and provocative ideas explored in this volume will broaden discussions of gender beyond an exclusive focus on sex links to oppression and discrimination.

Sex Itself
Author : Sarah S. Richardson
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release Date : 2013-12-13
ISBN 10 : 022608471X
Pages : 312 pages
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Human genomes are 99.9 percent identical—with one prominent exception. Instead of a matching pair of X chromosomes, men carry a single X, coupled with a tiny chromosome called the Y. Tracking the emergence of a new and distinctive way of thinking about sex represented by the unalterable, simple, and visually compelling binary of the X and Y chromosomes, Sex Itself examines the interaction between cultural gender norms and genetic theories of sex from the beginning of the twentieth century to the present, postgenomic age. Using methods from history, philosophy, and gender studies of science, Sarah S. Richardson uncovers how gender has helped to shape the research practices, questions asked, theories and models, and descriptive language used in sex chromosome research. From the earliest theories of chromosomal sex determination, to the mid-century hypothesis of the aggressive XYY supermale, to the debate about Y chromosome degeneration, to the recent claim that male and female genomes are more different than those of humans and chimpanzees, Richardson shows how cultural gender conceptions influence the genetic science of sex. Richardson shows how sexual science of the past continues to resonate, in ways both subtle and explicit, in contemporary research on the genetics of sex and gender. With the completion of the Human Genome Project, genes and chromosomes are moving to the center of the biology of sex. Sex Itself offers a compelling argument for the importance of ongoing critical dialogue on how cultural conceptions of gender operate within the science of sex.

Sex and Gender Differences in Pharmacology
Author : Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-10-02
ISBN 10 : 3642307264
Pages : 602 pages
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This is the very first book to deal with sex and gender differences in drug therapy - an increasingly recognized medical need. It starts with an overview on S/G in clinical syndromes and a documentation of the medical and socioeconomic damage caused by gender specific adverse drug effects. Part I covers S/G differences in pharmacokinetics. Researchers will be satisfied by the detailed discussion of the mechanisms of S/G differences in drug effects that represents cutting edge science and includes interaction of drugs with sex hormones, genomic and epigenetic mechanisms. It also covers S/G in drug development, in animal models and clinical development and S/G in drug prescriptions. Part II targets S/G differences in drug effects in cardiovascular, pulmonary, CNS, neuromuscular, neuropsychiatric and metabolic diseases, in cancer, inflammation, and rheumatic diseases, in bacterial and retroviral infections, thrombosis, embolism. New drugs will be discussed.

Sex Differences in the Central Nervous System
Author : Rebecca M. Shansky
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-09-14
ISBN 10 : 0128021985
Pages : 428 pages
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Sex Differences in the Central Nervous System offers a comprehensive examination of the current state of sex differences research, from both the basic science and clinical research perspectives. Given the current NIH directive that funded preclinical research must consider both females and males, this topic is of interest to an increasing percentage of the neuroscience research population. The volume serves as an invaluable resource, offering coverage of a wide range of topics: sex differences in cognition, learning, and memory, sex hormone signaling mechanisms, neuroimmune interactions, epigenetics, social behavior, neurologic disease, psychological disorders, and stress. Discussions of research in both animal models and human patient populations are included. Details how sex hormones have widespread effects on the nervous system and influence the way males and females function Assists readers in determining how sex impacts their research and practice, and assists in determining how to adjust research programs to incorporate sex influences Includes discussions of research in both animal models and human patient populations, and at various developmental stages Features revised and updated chapters by leaders in the field around the globe—the broadest, most expert coverage available

Epigenetic Landscapes
Author : Susan Merrill Squier
Publisher : Duke University Press
Release Date : 2017-11-03
ISBN 10 : 0822372606
Pages : 280 pages
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Devised in the 1940s by the biologist C. H. Waddington, the epigenetic landscape is a metaphor for how gene regulation modulates cellular development. As a scientific model, it fell out of use in the late 1960s but returned at the beginning of the twenty-first century with the advent of big-data genomic research because of its utility among scientists across the life sciences to think more creatively about and to discuss genetics. In Epigenetic Landscapes Susan Merrill Squier follows the model’s cultural trail, from its first visualization by the artist John Piper to its use beyond science. Squier examines three cases in which the metaphor has been imaginatively deployed to illustrate complex systems that link scientific and cultural practices: graphic medicine, landscape architecture, and bioArt. Challenging reductive understandings of epigenetics, Squier boldly reclaims the broader significance of the epigenetic landscape as a figure at the nexus of art, design, and science.

The Strategy of the Genes
Author : C.H. Waddington
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2014-04-29
ISBN 10 : 1317657543
Pages : 274 pages
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First published in 1957, this essential classic work bridged the gap between analytical and theoretical biology, thus setting the insights of the former in a context which more sensitively reflects the ambiguities surrounding many of its core concepts and objectives. Specifically, these five essays are concerned with some of the major problems of classical biology: the precise character of biological organisation, the processes which generate it, and the specifics of evolution. With regard to these issues, some thinkers suggest that biological organisms are not merely distinguishable from inanimate ‘things’ in terms of complexity, but are in fact radically different qualitatively: they exemplify some constitutive principle which is not elsewhere manifested. It is the desire to bring such ideas into conformity with our understanding of analytical biology which unifies these essays. They explore the contours of a conceptual framework sufficiently wide to embrace all aspects of living systems.

Sex Differences in Neurology and Psychiatry
Author : N.A
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2020-09-30
ISBN 10 : 0444641246
Pages : 476 pages
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Sex Differences in Neurology and Psychiatry, Volume 175, addresses this important issue by viewing major neurological and psychiatric conditions through the lens of sexual dimorphism, providing an entirely novel approach to understanding vulnerability factors, as well as potential new treatment strategies in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. The handbook comprises four major sections: (1) Introduction to sex differences in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, (2) Description of the impact of genetic, epigenetic, sex hormonal and other environmental effects on cerebral sex dimorphism, (3) Review of sex differences in neurologic disorders, and (4) Review of sex differences in psychiatric disorders. Explores sex differences in human neuroanatomy and neurophysiology Offers a pathway toward a gender-specific treatment of neurologic and psychiatric disorders Provides an overview of the genetics of sex hormones, human brain structure, and function, as well as the epigenetics, environment and social context

The Evolution of Sex
Author : Ronald Ted Smith,John Maynard Smith
Publisher : CUP Archive
Release Date : 1978-08-24
ISBN 10 : 9780521293020
Pages : 222 pages
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In this account, Professor Maynard Smith considers the question of why organisms reproduce sexually and considers the selective forces responsible.

The Plasticity of Sex
Author : Marianne J. Legato
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2020-05-19
ISBN 10 : 0128159693
Pages : 318 pages
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The Plasticity of Sex: The Molecular Biology and Clinical Features of Genomic Sex, Gender Identity and Sexual Behavior provides a comprehensive view on the development of human sexuality. As there has been a crescendo of interest over the past several decades about the nature and diversity of human sexuality, this reference brings the evidence-based research into one place. The emergence of issues surrounding gender identity, genital ambivalence and the transition from one sex to another is striking, with the public and treating physicians alike clamoring for an evidence-based, comprehensive treatment of human sexuality and all its variations. This is a must-have reference for biomedical researchers in endocrinology, neuroscience, development biology, medical students, residents, and practicing physicians from all medical areas. Discusses the role of biology in gender identity from research in genetics, endocrinology and neuroscience Addresses important health disparities and how to address them when treating the transgender patient Reviews evidence-based information on the biological basis and impact of environmental and hormonal factors at different life stages Outlines schema for treating variations in the sexuality and sexual function of the individual patient

Epigenetics in Biology and Medicine
Author : Manel Esteller
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2008-09-17
ISBN 10 : 9781420007077
Pages : 312 pages
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Anomalous epigenetic patterns touch many areas of study including biomedical, scientific, and industrial. With perspectives from international experts, this resource offers an all-inclusive overview of epigenetics, which bridge DNA information and function by regulating gene expression without modifying the DNA sequence itself. Epigenetics, in its

The Oxford Handbook of Evolution, Biology, and Society
Author : Rosemary Hopcroft,Rosemary L. Hopcroft
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2018
ISBN 10 : 0190299320
Pages : 688 pages
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Evolution, biology, and society is a catch-all phrase encompassing any scholarly work that utilizes evolutionary theory and/or biological or behavioral genetic methods in the study of the human social group, and The Oxford Handbook of Evolution, Biology, and Society contains an much needed overview of research in the area by sociologists and other social scientists. The examined topics cover a wide variety of issues, including the origins of social solidarity; religious beliefs; sex differences; gender inequality; determinants of human happiness; the nature of social stratification and inequality and its effects; identity, status, and other group processes; race, ethnicity, and race discrimination; fertility and family processes; crime and deviance; and cultural and social change. The scholars whose work is presented in this volume come from a variety of disciplines in addition to sociology, including psychology, political science, and criminology. Yet, as the essays in this volume demonstrate, the potential of theory and methods from biology for illuminating social phenomena is clear, and sociologists stand to gain from learning more about them and using them in their own work. The theory focuses on evolution by natural selection, the primary paradigm of the biological sciences, while the methods include the statistical analyses sociologists are familiar with, as well as other methods that they may not be familiar with, such as behavioral genetic methods, methods for including genetic factors in statistical analyses, gene-wide association studies, candidate gene studies, and methods for testing levels of hormones and other biochemicals in blood and saliva and including these factors in analyses. This work will be of interest to any sociologist with an interest in exploring the interaction of biological and sociological processes. As an introduction to the field it is useful for teaching upper-level or graduate students in sociology or a related social science.

Epigenetics in Society
Author : Windsor Epigenetics Study Group
Publisher : University of Windsor
Release Date : 2015-10-26
ISBN 10 : 0920233724
Pages : 327 pages
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This is a book written by students of diverse disciplines, and intended for students and educated lay people. We intend this book to serve several functions. First, we want to make the field of epigenetics accessible to lay readers. Second, and more importantly, we want to excite further interest and concern regarding the social, ethical, legal, health, and policy implications that this field will have for all arenas of our lives. Third, we want to arm our readers with knowledge and wariness so that they can understand and critique the nuanced debates that will inevitably arise when costs and benefits must be weighed: while the effects of epigenetics upon us as individuals may be subtle, the demographic implications and costs are huge.

Designing and Conducting Gender, Sex, and Health Research
Author : John L. Oliffe,Lorraine Greaves
Publisher : SAGE
Release Date : 2011-04-18
ISBN 10 : 1452236550
Pages : 280 pages
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This book provides the first resource dedicated to critically examining gender and sex in study designs, methods, and analysis in health research. In order to produce ethical, accurate, and effective research findings it is vital to integrate both sex (biological characteristics) and gender (socially constructed factors) into any health study. This book draws attention to some of the methodological complexities in this enterprise and offers ways to thoughtfully address these by drawing on empirical examples across a range of topics and disciplines.

Genes, Brain Function, and Behavior
Author : Douglas Wahlsten
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-03-14
ISBN 10 : 012812833X
Pages : 299 pages
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Genes, Brain Function, and Behavior offers a concise description of the nervous system that processes sensory input and initiates motor movements. It reviews how behaviors are defined and measured, and how experts decide when a behavior is perturbed and in need of treatment. Behavioral disorders that are clearly related to a defect in a specific gene are reviewed, and the challenges of understanding complex traits such as intelligence, autism and schizophrenia that involve numerous genes and environmental factors are explored. New methods of altering genes offer hope for treating or even preventing difficulties that arise in our genes. This book explains what genes are, what they do in the nervous system, and how this impacts both brain function and behavior. Presents essential background, facts, and terminology about genes, brain function, and behavior Builds clear explanations on this solid foundation while minimizing technical jargon Explores in depth several single-gene and chromosomal neurological disorders Derives lessons from these clear examples and highlights key lessons in boxes Examines the intricacies of complex traits that involve multiple genetic and environmental factors by applying lessons from simpler disorders Explains diagnosis and definition Includes a companion website with Powerpoint slides and images for each chapter for instructors and links to resources

Sex Determination in Vertebrates
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-04-16
ISBN 10 : 0128115041
Pages : 394 pages
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Sex Determination, Volume 134, the latest release in the Current Topics in Developmental Biology series, contains current reviews in the field of vertebrate sex determination. It covers molecular pathways of sex determination in genetic and environmental species and encompasses both sex determination of somatic lineages and commitment of germ cells to male or female fate. Chapters in this new release cover, amongst other topics, Mapping the Sox9 Enhancer Elements, Epigenetic Regulation of Sex Determination, Evolution and Management of Sex Chromosomes, Regulation of Germ Cell Sex Identity in Medaka, Control of Sex Determination in Zebrafish, Sexually Dimorphic Germ Cell Identity in Mammals, and more. Contains reviews written by leading experts in each field Includes informative figures that illustrate principle points that are useful for teaching Written in a style that is clear and simple