Semiconductors and the Information Revolution sets out to explain the development of modern electronic systems and devices from the viewpoint of the semiconductor materials (germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide and many others) which made them possible. It covers the scientific understanding of these materials and its intimate relationship with their technology and many applications. It began with Michael Faraday, took off in a big way with the invention of the transistor at Bell Labs in 1947 and is still burgeoning today. It is a story to match any artistic or engineering achievement of man and this is the first time it has been presented in a style suited to the non-specialist. It is written in a lively, non-mathematical style which brings out the excitement of discovery and the fascinating interplay between the demands of system pull and technological push. It also looks at the nature of some of the personal interactions which helped to shape the modern technological world. An introductory chapter illustrates just how dependent we are on modern electronic systems and explains the significance of semiconductors in their development. It also provides, in as painless a way as possible, a necessary understanding of semiconductor properties in relation to these applications. The second chapter takes up the historical account and ends with some important results emerging from the Second World War – including its effect on the organisation of scientific research. Chapter three describes the world-shaking discovery of the transistor and some of the early struggles to make it commercially viable, including the marketing of the first transistor radio. In chapter four we meet the integrated circuit which gave shape to much of our modern life in the form of the personal computer (and which gave rise to a famously long-running patent war!). Later chapters cover the application of compound semiconductors to light-emitting devices, such as LEDs and lasers, and light detecting devices such as photocells. We learn how these developments led to the invention of the CD player and DVD recorder, how other materials were applied to the development of sophisticated night vision equipment, fibre optical communications systems, solar photovoltaic panels and flat panel displays. Similarly, microwave techniques essential to our modern day love of mobile phoning are seen to depend on clever materials scientists who, not for the first time, "invented" new semiconductors with just the right properties. Altogether, it is an amazing story and one which deserves to be more widely known. Read this book and you will be rewarded with a much deeper understanding and appreciation of the technological revolution which shapes so many aspects of our lives. A historical account of the development of semiconductor physics, devices and applications from the nineteenth century to the present day Coverage of the importance of material quality and its relation to the physics of the devices Presented in a strictly non-mathematical and anecedotal way, to appeal to a wide audience Provides the broad sweep of science history
Publishes in-depth articles on labor subjects, current labor statistics, information about current labor contracts, and book reviews.
|Author||: Apek Mulay|
|Publisher||: Business Expert Press|
|Release Date||: 2016-12-08|
|ISBN 10||: 1631575902|
|Pages||: 150 pages|
Tremendous technological progress in the last half century has exponentially grown productivity as well as increased automation to reduce the costs of operation for businesses. On one hand, ever-growing productivity has reduced requirements for manual labor through automation. But, on other hand, huge unemployment created from reduction of workforce due to automaÂtion, has reduced the consumer purchasing power and is indirectly hurting the Return on Investments (RoI). This brings any further progress of technology to a standstill. For technology to progress both supply and demand have to grow. The supply comes from producÂtivity of workforce and demand comes from their wages. Hence, free markets must ensure that wages automatically catch up with ever-growing productivity, with minimal government inÂtervention. To avoid automation from destroying jobs in an economy, free markets should ensure that working hours of workforce be reduced during the waning phase of economy and increased during its waxing phase.
Silicon photonics uses chip-making techniques to fabricate photonic circuits. The emerging technology is coming to market at a time of momentous change. The need of the Internet content providers to keep scaling their data centers is becoming increasing challenging, the chip industry is facing a future without Moore’s law, while telcos must contend with a looming capacity crunch due to continual traffic growth. Each of these developments is significant in its own right. Collectively, they require new thinking in the design of chips, optical components, and systems. Such change also signals new business opportunities and disruption. Notwithstanding challenges, silicon photonics’ emergence is timely because it is the future of several industries. For the optical industry, the technology will allow designs to be tackled in new ways. For the chip industry, silicon photonics will become the way of scaling post-Moore’s law. New system architectures enabled by silicon photonics will improve large-scale computing and optical communications. Silicon Photonics: Fueling the Next Information Revolution outlines the history and status of silicon photonics. The book discusses the trends driving the datacom and telecom industries, the main but not the only markets for silicon photonics. In particular, developments in optical transport and the data center are discussed as are the challenges. The book details the many roles silicon photonics will play, from wide area networks down to the chip level. Silicon photonics is set to change the optical components and chip industries; this book explains how. Captures the latest research assessing silicon photonics development and prospects Demonstrates how silicon photonics addresses the challenges of managing bandwidth over distance and within systems Explores potential applications of SiP, including servers, datacenters, and Internet of Things
A basic contribution to the discussion of semiconductor electronics, the major technology of our age.
The information revolution would have been radically different, or impossible, without the use of the materials known generically as semiconductors. The properties of these materials, particularly the potential for doping with impurities to create transistors and diodes and controlling the local potential by gates, are essential for microelectronics. Semiconductor Transport is an introductory text on electron transport in semiconductor materials and is written for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The book provides a thorough treatment of modern approaches to the transport properties of semiconductors and their calculation. It also introduces those aspects of solid state physics, which are vitally important for understanding transport in them.
Since 1997 China has devoted considerable resources to ICT development. It now has the world's largest telecommunications market, and its IT industry has been an engine of economic growth;growing two to three times faster than GDP. E-government has achieved significant results and the private sector uses ICT. The 10 year mark is thus a good time to update the policy to reflect the changing needs of China's evolving economy so that it can meet the challenges of industrialisation, urbanisation, upgraded consumption and social mobility. This publication is the resultof an 18 month study by a World Bank team that draws on background papers by Chinese researches, local case studies and experience form other countries.
Not since the advent of the telephone and telegraph in the 19th century has information technology changed daily life so radically. We are in the midst of what Brock calls a second information revolution. Brock traces the complex history of this revolution from its roots in World War II through the bursting bubble of the Internet economy.
How can we best understand the impact of revolutionary technologies on the business cycle, the economy, and society? Why is economics meaningless without history and without an understanding of institutional and technical change? Does the 'new economy' mean the 'end of history'?an we best understand the impact of revolutionary technologies on business organization and the business cycle? These are some of the questions addressed in this authoritative analysis of modern economic growth from the Industrial Revolution to the 'New Economy' of today. Chris Freeman has been one of the foremost researchers on innovation for a long time and his colleague Francisco Louçã is an outstanding historian of economic theory and an analyst of econometric models and methods. Together they chart the history of five technological revolutions: water-powered mechanization, steam-powered mechanization, electrification, motorization, and computerization. They demonstrate the necessity to take account of politics, culture, organizational change, and entrepreneurship, as well as science and technology in the analysis of economic growth. This is an well-informed, highly topical, and persuasive study of interest across all the social sciences.