In the rubber industry, one of the most widely practiced processes is the reinforcement of rubber by particulate fillers, especially carbon black and silica. This process is of such importance that more than 99% of rubber products contain fillers, and the research and development of fillers have become the most widely researched area in rubber science and technology. This book covers the most important theoretical and practical aspects of rubber reinforcement, such as filler basic properties and their characterization methods, the effect of fillers in polymers, the processability of compounds, and the properties of filled vulcanizates. Special chapters deal with applications of fillers in tires and industrial rubber goods and the reinforcement of silicone rubbers. Testing methods and their principles, applications, and limitations are reviewed, with emphasis on the surface activity, widely accepted as the "third dimension" of filler characterization, after particle size and structure. This has not been described in depth in other books on rubber reinforcement. The effects of fillers on rubber and their mechanisms, which are important links between filler properties and the performance of rubber goods, are explained. A guide for selecting the most appropriate reinforcing systems for specific applications is provided, taking into account processabilities and properties of filled compounds and performance of rubber products. With solutions to many practical problems related to rubber research and compounding, this book serves as a valuable companion to engineers and product developers in the rubber industry, material scientists, and teachers and students in material science and rubber courses.
This book presents the most recent description of rubber reinforcement, focusing on the network-like structure formation of nanofiller in the rubber matrix under the presence of bound rubber. The resultant filler network is visualized by electron tomography applied to rubber. In the case of natural rubber, the self-reinforcement effect is uniquely functioning, and new template crystallization is suggested. Here, the crystallites are also believed to arrange themselves in a network-like manner. These results are of great use, particularly for engineers, in designing rubber reinforcement.
This is an overview of particulate filler production and use. Each filler type has different properties and these in turn are influenced by the particle size, shape and surface chemistry. Filler characteristics are discussed from costs to particle morphology. Practical aspects of filler grading are described and the principal filler types are outlined. Filler surface modification is an important topic. The main types of modifying agent and their uses are described, from fatty acids to functionalised polymers. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database gives useful references for further reading.
Progress in Rubber Nanocomposites provides an up-to-date review on the latest advances and developments in the field of rubber nanocomposites. It is intended to serve as a one-stop reference resource to showcase important research accomplishments in the area of rubber nanocomposites, with particular emphasis on the use of nanofillers. Chapters discuss major progress in the field and provide scope for further developments that will have an impact in the industrial research area. Global leaders and researchers from industry, academia, government, and private research institutions contribute valuable information. A one-stop reference relating to the processing and characterization of rubber nanocomposites Presents the morphological, thermal, and mechanical properties that are discussed in detail Contains key highlights in the form of dedicated chapters on interphase characterization, applications, and computer simulation
The combination of its unique morphology, physical properties, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness make natural rubber an appealing constituent for many materials and applications. Natural Rubber Materials covers the synthesis, characterization and applications of natural rubber based blends, interpenetrating polymer networks, composites and nanocomposites. With contributions from established international experts in the field, volume 1 covers different types of natural rubber-based blends and IPNs, whilst volume 2 focuses on natural rubber-based composites and nanocomposites. This is the first book to consolidate the current state of the art information on natural rubber based materials providing a "one stop" reference resource for professionals, researchers, industrial practitioners, graduate students, and senior undergraduates in the fields of polymer science and engineering, materials science, surface science, bioengineering and chemical engineering.
Recent developments in the modelling of rubber are collated in this volume, including not only stress-strain behaviour and the use of the large strain finite element method for simulation, but also fatigue, fracture, filler reinforcement, dynamic properties and the effects of ageing.
This is an updated version of the book first published in 1995. The use of particulate fillers in polymers has a long history, and they continue to play a very important role today. In the relatively short time since the publication of the first edition of this book, much has changed and all the chapters have been updated and revised, and a completely new chapter covering the latest developments in nano-filler technology is included. The aim of this book is to provide a guide to the fundamentals of the use of particulate fillers, which is accessible to people from the many different industries and disciplines who have an interest in the subject. Chapters cover: Selection and Use of Particulate Fillers Types of Particulate Filler Filler Surfaces and their Characterisation Surface Modification and Surface Modifiers Preparation and Mixture Characterisation of Mineral Filler Polymer Compounds Particulate Fillers as Flame Retardants Particulate Fillers in Elastomers Particulate Fillers in Thermoplastics Particulate Fillers in Thermosets Composites Using Nano-Fillers