Ring Current Investigations offers a comprehensive description of ring current dynamics in the Earth’s magnetosphere as part of the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system. In order to help researchers develop a deeper understanding of the fundamental physics of geomagnetic storms, it includes a detailed description of energetic charged particles injection, trapping, and loss. It reviews historical and recent advances in observations, measurements, theory and simulations of the inner magnetosphere and its coupling to the ionosphere and other surrounding plasma populations. In addition, it compares the physics of ring currents at other strongly magnetized planets in the solar system, specifically Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, with the ring current system at Earth. Providing a description of the most important space weather effects driven by inner magnetospheric energetic particles during geomagnetic storms and present capabilities for their nowcast and forecast, Ring Current Investigations is an important reference for researchers in geophysics and space science, especially related to plasma physics, the ionosphere and magnetosphere, solar-terrestrial relations, and spacecraft anomalies. Includes an appendix with links to downloadable video clips, illustrating features of ring current and geomagnetic storm dynamics Provides overview of existing state-of-the-art numerical models and links for open-source code downloads Offers guidance on how to develop numerical models within the context of the present-day understanding
This sixth volume in the ISSI Space Sciences Series is a fully integrated book that gives an authoritative overview of all aspects of the topic in a well-organized form. Leading international scientists from all over the world contributed consistent, cross-referenced articles of high scientific standard.
Explorer was the original American space program and Explorer 1 its first satellite, launched in 1958. Sixty years later, it is the longest continuously running space program in the world, demonstrating to the world how we can explore the cosmos with small spacecraft. Almost a hundred Explorers have already been launched. Explorers have made some of the fundamental discoveries of the Space Age. Explorer 1 discovered Earth’s radiation belts. Later Explorers surveyed the Sun, the X-ray and ultraviolet universes, black holes, magnetars and gamma ray bursts. An Explorer found the remnant of the Big Bang. One Explorer chased and was the first to intercept a comet. The program went through a period of few launches during the crisis of funding for space science in the 1980s. However, with the era of ‘faster, cheaper, better,’ the program was reinvented, and new exiting missions began to take shape, like Swift and the asteroid hunter WISE. Discovering the Cosmos with Small Spacecraft gives an account of each mission and its discoveries. It breaks down the program into its main periods of activity and examines the politics and debate on the role of small spacecraft in space science. It introduces the launchers (Juno, Thor, etc.), the launch centers, the ground centers and key personalities like James Van Allen who helped develop and run the spacecraft’s exciting programs.
|Author||: Lev Dorman|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2009-01-20|
|ISBN 10||: 1402092393|
|Pages||: 770 pages|
The problem of cosmic ray (CR) geomagnetic effects came to the fore at the beg- ning of the 1930s after the famous expeditions by J. Clay onboard ship (Slamat) between the Netherlands and Java using an ionization chamber. Many CR la- tude expeditions were organized by the famous scientists and Nobel Laureates R. Millikan and A. Compton. From the obtained latitude curves it follows that CRs cannot be gamma rays (as many scientists thought at that time), but must be charged particles. From measurements of azimuthally geomagnetic effect at that time it also followed that these charged particles must be mostly positive (see Chapter 1, and for more details on the history of the problem see monographs of Irina Dorman, M1981, M1989). The ?rst explanations of obtained results were based on the simple dipole - proximation of the geomagnetic ?eld and the theory of energetic charged particles moving in dipole magnetic ?elds, developed in 1907 by C. Stormer ̈ to explain the aurora phenomenon. Let us note that it was made about 5 years before V. Hess discovered CRs, and received the Nobel Prize in 1936 together with K. Anderson (for the discovery of CR and positrons in CR).
Scientists in such fields as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biochemistry, biology, and medicine are currently involved in investigations of porphyrins and their numerous analogues and derivatives. Porphyrins are being used as platforms for the study of theoretical principles, as catalysts, as drugs, as electronic devices, and as spectroscopic probes in biology and medicine. The need for an up-to-date and authoritative treatise on the porphyrin system has met with universal acclaim amongst scientists and investigators.
|Author||: COSPAR. Scientific Assembly|
|Publisher||: Elsevier Science & Technology|
|Release Date||: 1997|
|Pages||: 216 pages|
This publication contains 38 of 80 papers on the inner magnetosphere system that were presented at a two-day symposium on this subject at the 31st COSPAR Scientific Assembly held in Birmingham, England.
|Author||: Gerhard Herzberg|
|Release Date||: 1961|
|Pages||: 36 pages|
|Author||: William Bruce Herdle|
|Release Date||: 1975|
|Pages||: 572 pages|
|Author||: Special Committee for the International Years of the Quiet Sun|
|Release Date||: 1968|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
|Author||: William Francis Walkenhorst|
|Release Date||: 1993|
|Pages||: 432 pages|
|Author||: Joseph Z. Stemple|
|Release Date||: 1989|
|Pages||: 448 pages|
|Release Date||: 1962|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
|Author||: Stanford University. Stanford Electronics Laboratories. Solid State Electronics Laboratory|
|Release Date||: 1969|
|Pages||: 51 pages|