reliability of semiconductor lasers and optoelectronic devices

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Reliability of Semiconductor Lasers and Optoelectronic Devices
Author : Robert Herrick,Osamu Ueda
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2020-12-15
ISBN 10 : 9780128192542
Pages : 300 pages
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Reliability of Semiconductor Lasers and Optoelectronic Devices simplifies complex concepts of optoelectronics reliability through a focus on case studies and structured methods. The book provides a brief look at the fundamentals of laser diodes and presents real world case studies that discuss the principles of reliability and what occurs when rules are broken. In addition, the book comprehensively looks at optoelectronics devices and their reliability principles to avoid the most common failure mechanisms and presents key materials and devices, including silicon photonics, high power laser diodes, VCSELS, InGaN LEDs and Lasers, and AlGaN LEDs, and more. Includes case studies and numerous examples of best practices and common mistakes that impact optoelectronics reliability Reviews key failure mechanisms that impact reliability, including degradation and grown-in defects Provides a look at reliability issues for silicon photonics, VCSELS, InGaN LEDs and lasers, AIGaN LEDs, and more

Reliability and Degradation of Semiconductor Lasers and LEDs
Author : Mitsuo Fukuda
Publisher : Artech House on Demand
Release Date : 1991-01-01
ISBN 10 : 9780890064658
Pages : 343 pages
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This comparative tutorial describes the reasons behind device failures and provides practical information on what can be done to minimize failure-prone designs and enhance device reliability. The text demonstrates how, with such advantages as smaller size, low-cost and simple operation, LEDs are well suited for a wide range of applications - especially in the field of optical fibre communication. This book should prove of interest to engineers and scientists in research, design, manufacturing and development of semiconductor lasers, LEDs and optical transmission systems.

Semiconductor Laser Engineering, Reliability and Diagnostics
Author : Peter W. Epperlein
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2013-03-18
ISBN 10 : 1119990335
Pages : 522 pages
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This reference book provides a fully integrated novel approach to the development of high-power, single-transverse mode, edge-emitting diode lasers by addressing the complementary topics of device engineering, reliability engineering and device diagnostics in the same book, and thus closes the gap in the current book literature. Diode laser fundamentals are discussed, followed by an elaborate discussion of problem-oriented design guidelines and techniques, and by a systematic treatment of the origins of laser degradation and a thorough exploration of the engineering means to enhance the optical strength of the laser. Stability criteria of critical laser characteristics and key laser robustness factors are discussed along with clear design considerations in the context of reliability engineering approaches and models, and typical programs for reliability tests and laser product qualifications. Novel, advanced diagnostic methods are reviewed to discuss, for the first time in detail in book literature, performance- and reliability-impacting factors such as temperature, stress and material instabilities. Further key features include: practical design guidelines that consider also reliability related effects, key laser robustness factors, basic laser fabrication and packaging issues; detailed discussion of diagnostic investigations of diode lasers, the fundamentals of the applied approaches and techniques, many of them pioneered by the author to be fit-for-purpose and novel in the application; systematic insight into laser degradation modes such as catastrophic optical damage, and a wide range of technologies to increase the optical strength of diode lasers; coverage of basic concepts and techniques of laser reliability engineering with details on a standard commercial high power laser reliability test program. Semiconductor Laser Engineering, Reliability and Diagnostics reflects the extensive expertise of the author in the diode laser field both as a top scientific researcher as well as a key developer of high-power highly reliable devices. With invaluable practical advice, this new reference book is suited to practising researchers in diode laser technologies, and to postgraduate engineering students. Dr. Peter W. Epperlein is Technology Consultant with his own semiconductor technology consulting business Pwe-PhotonicsElectronics-IssueResolution in the UK. He looks back at a thirty years career in cutting edge photonics and electronics industries with focus on emerging technologies, both in global and start-up companies, including IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Agilent Technologies, Philips/NXP, Essient Photonics and IBM/JDSU Laser Enterprise. He holds Pre-Dipl. (B.Sc.), Dipl. Phys. (M.Sc.) and Dr. rer. nat. (Ph.D.) degrees in physics, magna cum laude, from the University of Stuttgart, Germany. Dr. Epperlein is an internationally recognized expert in compound semiconductor and diode laser technologies. He has accomplished R&D in many device areas such as semiconductor lasers, LEDs, optical modulators, quantum well devices, resonant tunneling devices, FETs, and superconducting tunnel junctions and integrated circuits. His pioneering work on sophisticated diagnostic research has led to many world’s first reports and has been adopted by other researchers in academia and industry. He authored more than seventy peer-reviewed journal papers, published more than ten invention disclosures in the IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, has served as reviewer of numerous proposals for publication in technical journals, and has won five IBM Research Division Awards. His key achievements include the design and fabrication of high-power, highly reliable, single mode diode lasers. Book Reviews “Semiconductor Laser Engineering, Reliability and Diagnostics: A Practical Approach to High Power and Single Mode Devices”. By Peter W. Epperlein Prof. em. Dr. Heinz Jäckel, High Speed Electronics and Photonics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zürich, Switzerland The book “Semiconductor Laser Engineering, Reliability and Diagnostics” by Dr. P.W. Epperlein is a landmark in the recent literature on semiconductor lasers because it fills a longstanding gap between many excellent books on laser theory and the complex and challenging endeavor to fabricate these devices reproducibly and reliably in an industrial, real world environment. Having worked myself in the early research and development of high power semiconductor lasers, I appreciate the competent, complete and skillful presentation of these three highly interrelated topics, where small effects have dramatic consequences on the success of a final product, on the ultimate performance and on the stringent reliability requirements, which are the name of the game. As the title suggests the author addresses three tightly interwoven and critical topics of state-of-the-art power laser research. The three parts are: device and mode stability engineering (chapter 1, 2), reliability mechanisms and reliability assessment strategies (chapter 3, 4, 5, 6) and finally material and device diagnostics (chapter 7, 8, 9) all treated with a strong focus on the implementation. This emphasis on the complex practical aspects for a large-scale power laser fabrication is a true highlight of the book. The subtle interplay between laser design, reliability strategies, advanced failure analysis and characterization techniques are elaborated in a very rigorous and scientific way using a very clear and easy to read representation of the complex interrelation of the three major topics. I will abstain from trying to provide a complete account of all the topics but mainly concentrate on the numerous highlights. The first part 1 “Laser Engineering” is divided in two chapters on basic electronic-optical, structural, material and resonator laser engineering on the one side, and on single mode control and stability at very high, still reliable power-levels with the trade-off between mirror damage, single mode stability on the other side. To round up the picture less well-known concepts and the state-of-the-art of large-area lasers, which can be forced into single-mode operation, are reviewed carefully. The subtle and complex interplay, which is challenging to optimize for a design for reliability and low stress as a major boundary condition is crucial for the design. The section gives a rather complete and well-referenced account of all relevant aspects, relations and trade-offs for understanding the rest of the book. The completeness of the presentation on power laser diode design based on basic physical and plausible arguments is mainly based on analytic mathematical relations as well as experiments providing a new and well-balanced addition for the power diode laser literature in particular. Modern 2D self-consistent electro-optical laser modeling including carrier hole burning and thermal effects – this is important because the weak optical guiding and gain-discrimination depend critically on rather small quantities and effects, which are difficult to optimize experimentally – is used in the book for simulation results, but is not treated separately. The novel and really original, “gap-filling” bulk of the book is elaborated by the author in a very clear way in the following four chapters in the part 2 “Laser Reliability” on laser degradation physics and mirror design and passivation at high power, followed then by two very application oriented chapters on reliability design engineering and practical reliability strategies and implementation procedures. This original combination of integral design and reliability aspects – which are mostly neglected in standard literature – is certainly a major plus of this book. I liked this second section as a whole, because it provides excellent insights in degradation physics on a high level and combines it in an interesting and skillful way with the less “glamorous” (unfortunately) but highly relevant reliability science and testing strategies, which is particularly important for devices operating at extreme optical stresses with challenging lifetime requirements in a real word environment. Finally, the last part 3 “Laser Diagnostics” comprising three chapters, is devoted mainly to advanced experimental diagnostics techniques for material integrity, mechanical stress, deep level defects, various dynamic laser degradation effects, surface- and interface quality, and most importantly heating and disordering of mirrors and mirror coatings. The topics of characterization techniques comprising micro-Raman- and micro-thermoreflectance-probing, 2K photoluminescence spectroscopy, micro-electroluminescence and photoluminescence scanning, and deep-level-transient spectroscopy have been pioneered by the author for the specific applications over many years guaranteeing many competent and well represented insights. These techniques are brilliantly discussed and the information distributed in many articles by the author has been successfully unified in a book form. In my personal judgment and liking, I consider the parts 2 and 3 on reliability and diagnostics as the most valuable and true novel contribution of the book, which in combination with the extremely well-covered laser design of part 1 clearly fill the gap in the current diode laser literature, which in this detail has certainly been neglected in the past. In summary, I can highly recommend this excellent, well-organized and clearly written book to readers who are already familiar with basic diode laser theory and who are active in the academic and industrial fabrication and characterization of semiconductor lasers. Due to its completeness, it also serves as an excellent reference of the current state-of-the-art in reliability engineering and device and material diagnostics. Needless to mention that the quality of the book, its representations and methodical structure meet the highest expectation and are certainly a tribute from the long and broad experience of the author in academic laser science and the industrial commercialization of high power diode lasers. In my opinion, this book was a pleasure to read and due to its quality and relevance deserves a large audience in the power diode laser community! Prof. em. Dr. Heinz Jäckel, High Speed Electronics and Photonics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH Zürich, Switzerland June 16, 2013 ========================================== “Semiconductor Laser Engineering, Reliability and Diagnostics:

Optical Semiconductor Devices
Author : Mitsuo Fukuda
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 1998-12-24
ISBN 10 : 9780471149590
Pages : 440 pages
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This book is devoted to optical semiconductor devices and their numerous applications in telecommunications, optoelectronics, and consumer electronics-areas where signal processing or the transmission of signals across fiber optic cables is paramount. It introduces a new generation of devices that includes optical modulators, quantum well (QW) lasers, and photodiodes and explores new applications of more established devices such as semiconductor lasers, light-emitting diodes, and photodiodes. Mitsuo Fukuda examines the material properties, operation principles, fabrication, packaging, reliability, and applications of each device and offers a unique industrial perspective, discussing everything engineers and scientists need to know at different phases of research, development, and production. This guide to the state-of-the-art of optical semiconductor devices: * Helps you choose the right device for a given application. * Covers important performance data such as temperature and optical feedback noise in lasers. * Highlights epitaxial growth techniques and fabrication for each device. * Features one hundred figures and an extensive bibliography. * Provides a clear and concise treatment, unencumbered by excessive theory Optical Semiconductor Devices is an essential resource for engineers and researchers in telecommunications and optoelectronics, equipment designers and manufacturers, and graduate students and scholars interested in this rapidly evolving field.

Reliability Characterisation of Electrical and Electronic Systems
Author : Jonathan Swingler
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-12-24
ISBN 10 : 1782422250
Pages : 274 pages
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This book takes a holistic approach to reliability engineering for electrical and electronic systems by looking at the failure mechanisms, testing methods, failure analysis, characterisation techniques and prediction models that can be used to increase reliability for a range of devices. The text describes the reliability behavior of electrical and electronic systems. It takes an empirical scientific approach to reliability engineering to facilitate a greater understanding of operating conditions, failure mechanisms and the need for testing for a more realistic characterisation. After introducing the fundamentals and background to reliability theory, the text moves on to describe the methods of reliability analysis and charactersation across a wide range of applications. Takes a holistic approach to reliability engineering Looks at the failure mechanisms, testing methods, failure analysis, characterisation techniques and prediction models that can be used to increase reliability Facilitates a greater understanding of operating conditions, failure mechanisms and the need for testing for a more realistic characterisation

Packaging of High Power Semiconductor Lasers
Author : Xingsheng Liu,Wei Zhao,Lingling Xiong,Hui Liu
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2014-07-14
ISBN 10 : 1461492637
Pages : 402 pages
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This book introduces high power semiconductor laser packaging design. The challenges of the design and various packaging and testing techniques are detailed by the authors. New technologies and current applications are described in detail.

Optimizing the Air Force Acquisition Strategy of Secure and Reliable Electronic Components
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Air Force Studies Board,Committee on Optimizing the Air Force Acquisition Strategy of Secure and Reliable Electronic Components: A Workshop
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2016-09-12
ISBN 10 : 0309445183
Pages : 62 pages
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In 2012, the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), section 818, outlined new requirements for industry to serve as the lead in averting counterfeits in the defense supply chain. Subsequently, the House Armed Services Committee, in its report on the Fiscal Year 2016 NDAA, noted that the pending sale of IBM's microprocessor fabrication facilities to Global Foundries created uncertainty about future access of the United States to trusted state-of-the-art microelectronic components and directed the Comptroller General to assess the Department of Defense's (DoD's) actions and measures to address this threat. In this context, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop to facilitate an open dialogue with leading industry, academic, and government experts to (1) define the current technological and policy challenges with maintaining a reliable and secure source of microelectronic components; (2) review the current state of acquisition processes within the Air Force for acquiring reliable and secure microelectronic components; and (3) explore options for possible business models within the national security complex that would be relevant for the Air Force acquisition community. This publication summarizes the results of the workshop.

Semiconductor Optoelectronic Device Manufacturing and Applications
Author : David Chen,Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers
Publisher : Society of Photo Optical
Release Date : 2001
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 352 pages
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Reliability and Radiation Effects in Compound Semiconductors
Author : Allan Johnston
Publisher : World Scientific
Release Date : 2010
ISBN 10 : 9814277118
Pages : 376 pages
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This book focuses on reliability and radiation effects in compound semiconductors, which have evolved rapidly during the last 15 years. It starts with first principles, and shows how advances in device design and manufacturing have suppressed many of the older reliability mechanisms. It is the first book that comprehensively covers reliability and radiation effects in optoelectronic as well as microelectronic devices. It contrasts reliability mechanisms of compound semiconductors with those of silicon-based devices, and shows that the reliability of many compound semiconductors has improved to the level where they can be used for ten years or more with low failure rates.

Fabrication, Testing, and Reliability of Semiconductor Lasers
Author : N.A
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 1997
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Optoelectronic Integration: Physics, Technology and Applications
Author : Osamu Wada
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-11-27
ISBN 10 : 1461526868
Pages : 458 pages
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As we approach the end of the present century, the elementary particles of light (photons) are seen to be competing increasingly with the elementary particles of charge (electrons/holes) in the task of transmitting and processing the insatiable amounts of infonnation needed by society. The massive enhancements in electronic signal processing that have taken place since the discovery of the transistor, elegantly demonstrate how we have learned to make use of the strong interactions that exist between assemblages of electrons and holes, disposed in suitably designed geometries, and replicated on an increasingly fine scale. On the other hand, photons interact extremely weakly amongst themselves and all-photonic active circuit elements, where photons control photons, are presently very difficult to realise, particularly in small volumes. Fortunately rapid developments in the design and understanding of semiconductor injection lasers coupled with newly recognized quantum phenomena, that arise when device dimensions become comparable with electronic wavelengths, have clearly demonstrated how efficient and fast the interaction between electrons and photons can be. This latter situation has therefore provided a strong incentive to devise and study monolithic integrated circuits which involve both electrons and photons in their operation. As chapter I notes, it is barely fifteen years ago since the first demonstration of simple optoelectronic integrated circuits were realised using m-V compound semiconductors; these combined either a laser/driver or photodetector/preamplifier combination.

Testing, Packaging, and Reliability of Semiconductor Lasers V
Author : Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers
Publisher : Society of Photo Optical
Release Date : 2000
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 320 pages
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Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices for Lightwave Communication
Author : Joachim Piprek
Publisher : Society of Photo Optical
Release Date : 2003
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 296 pages
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Optoelectronic Devices
Author : Joachim Piprek
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2006-01-26
ISBN 10 : 9780387272566
Pages : 452 pages
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Optoelectronic devices transform electrical signals into optical signals (and vice versa) by utilizing the interaction of electrons and light. Advanced software tools for the design and analysis of such devices have been developed in recent years. However, the large variety of materials, devices, physical mechanisms, and modeling approaches often makes it difficult to select appropriate theoretical models or software packages. This book presents a review of devices and advanced simulation approaches written by leading researchers and software developers. It is intended for scientists and device engineers in optoelectronics who are interested in using advanced software tools. Each chapter includes the theoretical background as well as practical simulation results that help the reader to better understand internal device physics. Real-world devices such as edge-emitting or surface-emitting laser diodes, light-emitting diodes, solar cells, photodetectors, and integrated optoelectronic circuits are investigated. The software packages described in the book are available to the public, on a commercial or noncommercial basis, so that the interested reader is quickly able to perform similar simulations.

Oxide Reliability
Author : D. J. Dumin
Publisher : World Scientific
Release Date : 2002
ISBN 10 : 9789810248420
Pages : 270 pages
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Presents in summary the state of our knowledge of oxide reliability.

Optoelectronic Semiconductor Devices
Author : David Wood
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 1994
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 564 pages
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Optoelectronic Semiconductor Devices is a comprehensive new textbook offering a complete blend of theory and practice. Starting with basic semiconductor theory it moves on through a discussion of light emitters and detectors and then to their actual manufacture. Features of the book include full coverage of basic semiconductors and semiconductor lasers not seen in most optoelectronic textbooks of this level; treatment of all types of detectors, not just pin and avalanche diodes; details of materials and fabrication; and extensive references, conceptual and numerical problems and worked examples. Optoelectronic Semiconductor Devices can be used by undergraduate and postgraduate students in departments of physics or electrical engineering.

Micro- and Opto-Electronic Materials and Structures: Physics, Mechanics, Design, Reliability, Packaging
Author : Ephraim Suhir,Y.C. Lee,C.P. Wong
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2007-05-26
ISBN 10 : 0387329897
Pages : 1460 pages
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This handbook provides the most comprehensive, up-to-date and easy-to-apply information on the physics, mechanics, reliability and packaging of micro- and opto-electronic materials. It details their assemblies, structures and systems, and each chapter contains a summary of the state-of-the-art in a particular field. The book provides practical recommendations on how to apply current knowledge and technology to design and manufacture. It further describes how to operate a viable, reliable and cost-effective electronic component or photonic device, and how to make such a device into a successful commercial product.

Photonic Materials, Devices and Reliability
Author : Aris Christou
Publisher : RIAC
Release Date : 2006-01-01
ISBN 10 : 1933904046
Pages : 329 pages
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Theory of Optical Processes in Semiconductors
Author : Prasanta Kumar Basu,P. K. Basu
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2003
ISBN 10 : 0198526202
Pages : 464 pages
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This book describes the intrinsic optical processes occurring in semiconductor bulk and engineered semiconductor structures such as quantum wells, quantum wires, quantum dots, and superlattices. The topic has gained attention as all optoelectronic devices used in fibre-optic communication and optical computers are made of semiconductors and their engineered structures.

Advanced Materials for Integrated Optical Waveguides
Author : Xingcun Colin Tong Ph.D
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-10-17
ISBN 10 : 3319015508
Pages : 552 pages
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This book provides a comprehensive introduction to integrated optical waveguides for information technology and data communications. Integrated coverage ranges from advanced materials, fabrication, and characterization techniques to guidelines for design and simulation. A concluding chapter offers perspectives on likely future trends and challenges. The dramatic scaling down of feature sizes has driven exponential improvements in semiconductor productivity and performance in the past several decades. However, with the potential of gigascale integration, size reduction is approaching a physical limitation due to the negative impact on resistance and inductance of metal interconnects with current copper-trace based technology. Integrated optics provides a potentially lower-cost, higher performance alternative to electronics in optical communication systems. Optical interconnects, in which light can be generated, guided, modulated, amplified, and detected, can provide greater bandwidth, lower power consumption, decreased interconnect delays, resistance to electromagnetic interference, and reduced crosstalk when integrated into standard electronic circuits. Integrated waveguide optics represents a truly multidisciplinary field of science and engineering, with continued growth requiring new developments in modeling, further advances in materials science, and innovations in integration platforms. In addition, the processing and fabrication of these new devices must be optimized in conjunction with the development of accurate and precise characterization and testing methods. Students and professionals in materials science and engineering will find Advanced Materials for Integrated Optical Waveguides to be an invaluable reference for meeting these research and development goals.