|Author||: C. Senthil Kumar|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2021-10-15|
|ISBN 10||: 9780128193921|
|Pages||: 260 pages|
Reliability and Probabilistic Safety Assessment in Multi-Unit Nuclear Power Plants presents a comprehensive framework to integrate the risk contributions from single and multi-unit Nuclear Power Plants and aggregate the risks that may arise due to applicable hazards and operating states. The book combines the key features of multi-unit risk assessment in this one resource, reviewing the practices adopted in various countries around the globe to exemplify the dependencies between units on a site. These dependencies include multi-unit interactions, environmental stresses, the sharing of systems, and the sharing of human resource in a control room, factors which can all introduce an increase potential for heightened accident conditions. This book helps the reader to systematically identify events and evaluation techniques of possible accident outcomes within multi-units. It serves as a ready reference for PSA analysts in identifying a suitable site and the sharing of resources, while carrying out multi-unit risk assessments to ensure the safety of the public and the environment. This book will also be valuable for nuclear researchers, designers and regulators of nuclear power plants, nuclear regulatory agencies, PSA engineers and practising safety professionals. The first reference book to provide a framework for nuclear and PSA researchers and professionals to guide them through the design and operation of multi-unit risk assessments Reviews practices adopted in various regions around the globe to analyse dependencies between units Includes modelling techniques of inter-connections and shared resources, as well as risk aggregation
The book has been developed in conjunction with NERS 462, a course offered every year to seniors and graduate students in the University of Michigan NERS program. The first half of the book covers the principles of risk analysis, the techniques used to develop and update a reliability data base, the reliability of multi-component systems, Markov methods used to analyze the unavailability of systems with repairs, fault trees and event trees used in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), and failure modes of systems. All of this material is general enough that it could be used in non-nuclear applications, although there is an emphasis placed on the analysis of nuclear systems. The second half of the book covers the safety analysis of nuclear energy systems, an analysis of major accidents and incidents that occurred in commercial nuclear plants, applications of PRA techniques to the safety analysis of nuclear power plants (focusing on a major PRA study for five nuclear power plants), practical PRA examples, and emerging techniques in the structure of dynamic event trees and fault trees that can provide a more realistic representation of complex sequences of events. The book concludes with a discussion on passive safety features of advanced nuclear energy systems under development and approaches taken for risk-informed regulations for nuclear plants.
|Author||: National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants,National Research Council,Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies|
|Publisher||: National Academy Press|
|Release Date||: 2014-10-29|
|ISBN 10||: 9780309272537|
|Pages||: 394 pages|
The March 11, 2011, Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami sparked a humanitarian disaster in northeastern Japan. They were responsible for more than 15,900 deaths and 2,600 missing persons as well as physical infrastructure damages exceeding $200 billion. The earthquake and tsunami also initiated a severe nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Three of the six reactors at the plant sustained severe core damage and released hydrogen and radioactive materials. Explosion of the released hydrogen damaged three reactor buildings and impeded onsite emergency response efforts. The accident prompted widespread evacuations of local populations, large economic losses, and the eventual shutdown of all nuclear power plants in Japan. "Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants" is a study of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. This report examines the causes of the crisis, the performance of safety systems at the plant, and the responses of its operators following the earthquake and tsunami. The report then considers the lessons that can be learned and their implications for U.S. safety and storage of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste, commercial nuclear reactor safety and security regulations, and design improvements. "Lessons Learned" makes recommendations to improve plant systems, resources, and operator training to enable effective ad hoc responses to severe accidents. This report's recommendations to incorporate modern risk concepts into safety regulations and improve the nuclear safety culture will help the industry prepare for events that could challenge the design of plant structures and lead to a loss of critical safety functions. In providing a broad-scope, high-level examination of the accident, "Lessons Learned" is meant to complement earlier evaluations by industry and regulators. This in-depth review will be an essential resource for the nuclear power industry, policy makers, and anyone interested in the state of U.S. preparedness and response in the face of crisis situations.
Developed to serve as a text for the System Safety and Reliability Analysis course presented to Nuclear Regulatory Commission personnel and contractors. Codifies and systematizes the fault tree approach, a deductive failure analysis which focuses on one particular undesired event and provides a method for determining the causes of that event.
A collection of papers presented at the PSAM 7 – ESREL ’04 conference in June 2004, reflecting a wide variety of disciplines, such as principles and theory of reliability and risk analysis, systems modelling and simulation, consequence assessment, human and organisational factors, structural reliability methods, software reliability and safety, insights and lessons from risk studies and management/decision making. This volume covers both well-established practices and open issues in these fields, identifying areas where maturity has been reached and those where more development is needed.
|Author||: Zoltan Kovacs|
|Release Date||: 2014-10-08|
|ISBN 10||: 3319085484|
|Pages||: 306 pages|
The aim of this book is to summarize probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants with WWER440 reactors and demonstrate that the plants are safe enough for producing energy even in light of the Fukushima accident. The book examines level 1 and 2 full power, low power and shutdown PSA, and summarizes the author’s experience gained during the last 35 years in this area. It provides useful examples taken from PSA training courses the author has lectured and organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Such training courses were organised in Argonne National Laboratory (Chicago, IL, USA), Abdus Salaam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Trieste, Italy), Malaysia, Vietnam and Jordan to support experts from developing countries. The role of PSA for the plants is an estimation of the risks in absolute terms and in comparison with other risks of the technical and the natural world. Plant-specific PSAs are being prepared for the plants and being applied for detection of weaknesses, design improvement and backfitting, incident analysis, accident management, emergency preparedness, prioritization of research and development and to support the regulatory activities. There are three levels of PSA, being performed for full power and low power operation and shutdown operating modes of the plants: level 1, 2 and 3 PSA. The nuclear regulatory authorities do not require the level 3 PSA for the plants in the member countries of the European Union. This means that only a limited number of NPPs in Europe have the level 3 PSA available. However, in the light of the Fukushima accident the performance of such analyses is strongly recommended in the future. This book is intended for professionals working in the nuclear industry, researchers and students interested in safety of operational plants.
|Author||: International Atomic Energy Agency|
|Publisher||: International Atomic Energy Agency|
|Release Date||: 2019-07-23|
|ISBN 10||: 9789201026187|
|Pages||: 171 pages|
The technical approach described in this publication builds on the use of a single unit probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and identifies considerations that are needed from the multi-unit perspective. This is the first attempt to expand the current PSA process to take account of multi-unit issues, and has been done by distilling lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident and other multi-unit events, and by reviewing previous PSAs and supporting research that have addressed the risks of multi-unit accidents. The publication provides a roadmap and methodology for performing a multi-unit PSA, proposes a set of site level risk metrics, and presents examples of approaches to resolve specific issues.
|ISBN 10||: 9789991962412|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
|Author||: Luca Podofillini,Bruno Sudret,Bozidar Stojadinovic,Enrico Zio,Wolfgang Kröger|
|Publisher||: CRC Press|
|Release Date||: 2015-09-03|
|ISBN 10||: 1315648415|
|Pages||: 730 pages|
Safety and Reliability of Complex Engineered Systems contains the Proceedings of the 25th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2015, held 7-10 September 2015 in Zurich, Switzerland. It includes about 570 papers accepted for presentation at the conference. These contributions focus on theories and methods in the area of risk, safety and
This book covers seismic probabilistic risk assessment (S-PRA) and related studies which have become more important to increase the safety of nuclear facilities against earthquakes and tsunamis in the face of the many uncertainties after the Fukushima accident. The topics are (1) Active faults and active tectonics important for seismic hazard assessment of nuclear facilities,(2) Seismic source modeling and simulation and modeling techniques indispensable for strong ground motion prediction, and (3) PRA with external hazard and risk communication. The Fukushima accident has showed us the limitations of the deterministic evaluation approach to external events (an earthquake and tsunami) in which there are many uncertainties. Furthermore, public anxiety regarding nuclear safety because of an unexpected threat caused by an earthquake or tsunami is growing. The current policy on the estimation of the design basis of ground motion as well as tsunami height still has not been improved following the Fukushima accident. In particular, the risk concept in a nuclear system regarding seismic motion and a tsunami beyond the design basis is indispensable. Therefore, research and development for PRA enhancing nuclear safety are being actively pursued not only in Japan but also worldwide. This book provides an opportunity for readers to consider the future direction of nuclear safety vis-à-vis natural disasters.