|Author||: Loutfy H. Madkour|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2020-06-27|
|ISBN 10||: 0128224967|
|Pages||: 780 pages|
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Nanoparticles, and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress-Induced Cell Death Mechanisms presents the role of ROS‒mediated pathways cellular signaling stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, oxidative damage, nanomaterials, and the mechanisms by which metalloids and nanoparticles induce their toxic effects. The book covers the ecotoxicology of environmental heavy metal ions and free radicals on macromolecules cells organisms, heavy metals‒induced cell responses, oxidative stress, the source of oxidants, and the roles of ROS, oxidative stress and oxidative damage mechanisms. It also examines the nanotoxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity mechanisms of nanomaterials and the effects of nanoparticle interactions. Antioxidant defense therapy and strategies for treatment round out the book, making it an ideal resource for researchers and professional scientists in toxicology, environmental chemistry, environmental science, nanomaterials and the pharmaceutical sciences. Covers the ecotoxicology of environmental heavy metal ions and the interactions between specific heavy metals‒induced cell responses and oxidative stress Provides a better understanding of the mechanism of nanomaterial-induced toxicity as a first defense for hazard prevention Covers recent advances in new nanomedication technologies for the effects of NPs on oxidative stress, ROS and ER stress Discusses the effects of interactions between antioxidant defense therapy, ROS and strategies for treatment
|Author||: Loutfy H. Madkour|
|Release Date||: 2020-03-14|
|ISBN 10||: 9783030372965|
|Pages||: 696 pages|
This book provides insights and tools for better understanding redox biology and medicine and, in the long run, to finding new therapeutic strategies to target dysregulated redox processes in various diseases. It presents the recent advances in new nanomedication technologies of the effects of nanoparticles NPs on oxidative stress, RONS and ER stress. The book comprises 13 chapters covering ecotoxicology, cytotoxicity, nanotoxicity and genotoxicity mechanisms causing by the role and interactions of nanoparticles and free radicals with (RONS) and (ER) stress. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress as a mechanism for NPs induced toxicity has been discussed. The advances of nanotechnology and the effects of nanoparticles on oxidative stress, ROS and ER stress parameters are discussed. Antioxidants, therapeutic options and regulation of the immune responses are explained throughout the book.
With the rapid development of nanotechnology, nanomaterials have been widely applied in many industrial sectors, including medicine, consumer products, and electronics. While such technology has brought benefits and convenience to our daily lives, it may also potentially threaten human health. In some cases, nanomaterials present unexpected risks to both humans and the environment. Assessments of the potential hazards associated with nanotechnology have been emerging, but substantial challenges remain, because the large number of different nanomaterials cannot be effectively evaluated in a timely manner. The development of a good strategy for a nanomaterials hazard assessment not only promotes the more widespread adoption of non-rodent or 3Rs principles, but also makes nanotoxicology testing more ethical, relevant, and cost- and time-efficient. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms by which nanomaterials perturb biological systems is critical for a more comprehensive elucidation of their nanotoxicity, and this will also facilitate the development of prevention and intervention policies against adverse outcomes induced by them. We hope that the articles included in this eBook can provide updated knowledge on nanotoxicology and nanosafety, from the point of view of both toxicology and ecotoxicology.
|Author||: James C. Bonner,Jared M. Brown|
|Publisher||: Springer Nature|
|Release Date||: 2020-01-30|
|ISBN 10||: 3030339629|
|Pages||: 223 pages|
This book covers the latest information related to understanding immune responses to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Many ENMs used in both the consumer and biomedical fields have been reported to elicit adverse immune responses ranging from innate immune responses such as complement activation to changes in adaptive immunity that influence pathogen responses and promote disease states such as asthma. Interaction of Nanomaterials with the Immune System covers the most up to date information on our understanding of immune responses to ENMs across a wide range of topics including innate immunity, allergic immune responses, adaptive provides the reader with (1) up to date understanding of immune responses to ENMs; (2) current testing methods; and (3) appropriate models including alternative testing strategies for evaluating immunotoxicity of ENMs.
This book provides an overview of the design and physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles developed for biomedical applications such as targeting and detection of pathologies, nanovectorization of drugs, radiosensitization, metal detection, and nanocomposite implants. The considerations necessary when developing a new nanomedicine are also developed, including toxicological investigation, biodistribution, and efficacy. This book provides an accurate and current representation of the field by addressing the promises and hurdles of nanomedicine via 20 different pertinent studies. Covering a wide range of areas, this book is an excellent partner for physico-chemists, doctors, pharmacologists, and biochemists working on nanosciences dedicated to medicine, both in industry and in academia.
This edited book, Nanomaterials - Toxicity and Risk Assessment, is a collection of current research and information on numerous advances on the toxicity and hazardous effects of nanomaterials, including theoretical and experimental approaches as well as nanotechnology applications in the field of medicine, pharmacology, and the manufacture of nanoscale materials. Based on the large number of nanomaterial applications, a careful understanding of the associated systemic and local toxicity is critically required.
The current book entitled Free Radicals, Antioxidants, and Diseases gives an idea of detecting free radicals in vivo by newer techniques and provides insights into the roles played by various antioxidants in combating diseases caused by oxidative stress. The chapters included in this volume showcase new investigation in this field by the research groups around the world.
In this book, scientists pioneering the field have compiled a series of focused chapters to highlight the relevance of the BCL‐2 family of proteins in apoptosis, physiology and disease. An important focus of this volume is considering the potential TH ERA PEUT IC benefits of targeting apoptosis pathways in the context of human disease. Readers interested in understanding how a cell handles stress and the consequences of dysregulation of this process for human disease will find this book very valuable. It attempts to describe a fascinating area of research where physiology and biomedicine converge at different levels, revealing a trip from the molecular regulation of apoptosis to the impact of this process to the physiology of a whole organism.
This volume presents state-of-the-art information on each of the arms of the unfolded protein response (UPR), how their activation/repression are regulated, integrated, and coordinated, how UPR components affect cancer cell biology and responsiveness to therapeutic interventions, and how UPR components/activities offer potentially novel targets for drug discovery, repurposing, and development. The volume will provide the most recent information on the signaling and regulation of the UPR, explore examples of how the UPR and/or specific components contribute to cancer biology, and identify and explore specific examples of potently new actionable targets for drug discovery and development from within the UPR and its regulation. Unique to the volume will be a specific focus on the UPR and its role in cancer biology, as well as a discussion of the role of the UPR in drug responses and resistance in cancer.
|Release Date||: 2014-05-23|
|ISBN 10||: 0124166571|
|Pages||: 536 pages|
Volume 542 of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This new volume covers research methods providing a theoretical overview on metabolic alterations of cancer cells and a series of protocols that can be employed to study oncometabolism, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Malignant cells exhibit metabolic changes when compared to their normal counterparts, owing to both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Although such a metabolic rewiring has recently been indicated as "yet another" general hallmark of cancer, accumulating evidence suggests that the metabolic alterations of each neoplasm rather represent a molecular signature that intimately accompanies, and hence cannot be severed from, all facets of malignant transformation. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers research methods in biomineralization science Provides theoretical overview on metabolic alterations of cancer cells, and a series of protocols that can be employed to study oncometabolism, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo
Exposure to particles in industry and mining and from accidental anthropogenic sources constitutes an ongoing threat. Most recently nanoparticles arising from advances in technology are exposing a wider population to pathogenic stimuli. The effects of inhaled particles are no longer confined to the lung as nanoparticles have the potential to translocate to the bloodstream, the brain, and other target sites. The new questions posed by nanoparticles underscore the importance of interdisciplinary research and exchange and highlight the need for new collaborations among disciplines in medicine, toxicology, chemistry, and material sciences. Particle Toxicology brings together the state of the science in particle physico-chemistry, cell biology, and toxicology in a single volume. While organized around the classical toxicology paradigm of exposure - dose - response, the book is unique in its emphasis on mechanistic toxicology. Preparing the reader with a brief historical overview and a conceptual framework for particle research, the book provides reviews on the mechanisms and properties of pathogenic particles and their effects on target cells at various sites in the body. The text describes how adverse effects are a consequence of deposition, translocation, and the complex issue of “dose” dominates. Contributions from leading researchers address particle-associated pro-inflammatory effects and inflammatory signaling, cellular and extracellular oxidative and nitrosative stress, particulate interactions in the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems, as well as genotoxic effects. Exemplar particles include quartz, asbestos, particulate material and nanoparticles. The book also covers mathematical modeling and human studies as avenues for future research. Responding to the evolving trend of consumer applications for particulate matter, Particle Toxicology provides the comprehensive resource for current knowledge from which to develop new concepts to understanding particle actions, measurement, testing, and pathogenic exposure to fine and ultrafine particles.
Interest in the role of extracellular vesicles (microvesicles and exosomes) is expanding rapidly. It is now apparent that far from being merely cellular debris, these vesicles play a key role in cell-to-cell communication and signaling. Moreover, they are significantly elevated in a number of diseases. This raises the question of their direct role in pathogenesis as well as their possible use as biomarkers. This book stems from the first international meeting on "Microvesicles and Nanovesicles in Health and Disease" held at Magdalen College, Oxford, in 2010. The purpose of the meeting was to bring together, for the first time, a range of experts from around the world to discuss the latest advances in this field. Key to the study of these vesicles is the availability of methodologies for their measurement in biological fluids. A major section of the meeting focused on a range of exciting new technologies which have been developed for this purpose. The presentations at this meeting form the basis of this book, which will appeal to basic scientists, clinicians, and those developing technology for the measurement of extracellular vesicles.
Apoptosis is an essential biochemical process in cell turnover, development, and chemical-induced cell death. Current knowledge and ongoing research of apoptosis highlight our understanding in designing the therapeutic approaches for several diseases. This book covers four main sections: "Apoptosis and Necrosis," "Apoptosis Inducers," "Proteasome and Signaling Pathways in Apoptosis," and "Radiation-Based Apoptosis." The first section implicitly describes the differences between apoptosis and necrosis processes. The following section elaborates the small molecule-induced apoptosis. Then, the third section deals with proteasome and signaling pathways and finally, resistance to chemotherapy and electromagnetic radiation is covered in the last section. Overall, the book deals with pathways for manipulating apoptosis and provides a unique perspective to the scientists.
This book is a collection of selected and relevant research, concerning the developments within the Cell Death field of study. Each contribution comes as a separate chapter complete in itself but directly related to the books topics and objectives. The target audience comprises scholars and specialists in the field.
|Author||: Jose Antonio Morales-Gonzalez|
|Publisher||: BoD – Books on Demand|
|Release Date||: 2013-05-22|
|ISBN 10||: 953511123X|
|Pages||: 514 pages|
This work responds to the need to find, in a sole document, the affect of oxidative stress at different levels, as well as treatment with antioxidants to revert and diminish the damage. Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases - a Role for Antioxidants is written for health professionals by researchers at diverse educative institutions (Mexico, Brazil, USA, Spain, Australia, and Slovenia). I would like to underscore that of the 19 chapters, 14 are by Mexican researchers, which demonstrates the commitment of Mexican institutions to academic life and to the prevention and treatment of chronic degenerative diseases.
This book provides a contemporary resource on one of the major players in retinal diseases – the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE). Throughout the book, the physiological and the pathological function of the RPE are covered on equal terms, to help readers to understand the RPE as a whole. Moreover, the development of RPE in diagnostics and therapy are covered, as well as some practical knowledge about RPE experimental models. Retinal Pigment Epithelium in Health and Disease highlights new findings of RPE research and includes the state-of-the-art knowledge of each RPE topic presented. This important feature sets this book apart from other publications, with the chapters following a design which leads from the general to the specific, to give a precise collection of the facts known. The chapters are written by well-known experts that are currently active in the field as consultants, basic scientists, and group leaders, providing expert guidance on the current aspects and future outlooks of this topic.
Recent years have witnessed an avalanche of new knowledge implicating free radicals in virtually every aspect of biology and medicine. It is now axiomatic that the regulated accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to organismal health and well-being and that ROS serve as signaling molecules involved in cell growth, differentiation, gene regulation, replicative senescence and apoptosis. This book is an interdisciplinary text broken up into three consecutive volumes on the biochemistry and cellular/molecular biology of free radicals, transition metals, oxidants and antioxidants, and the role of oxidative stress in human health and disease.
|Author||: Patrizia Agostinis,Samali Afshin|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2012-08-13|
|ISBN 10||: 9400743513|
|Pages||: 452 pages|
The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is an organelle with extraordinary signaling and homeostatic functions. It is the organelle responsible for protein folding, maturation, quality control and trafficking of proteins destined for the plasma membrane or for secretion into the extracellular environment. Failure, overloading or malfunctioning of any of the signaling or quality control mechanisms occurring in the ER may provoke a stress condition known as ‘ER stress’. Accumulating evidence indicates that ER stress may dramatically perturb interactions between the cell and its environment, and contribute to the development of human diseases, ranging from metabolic diseases and cancer to neurodegenerative diseases, or impact therapeutic outcome. This book primarily focuses on the pathophysiology of ER stress. It introduces the molecular bases of ER stress, the emerging relevance of the ER-mitochondria cross-talk, the signaling pathways engaged and cellular responses to ER stress, including the adaptive Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), autophagy as well as cell death. Next the book addresses the role of ER stress in physiology and in the etiology of relevant pathological conditions, like carcinogenesis and inflammation, neurodegeneration and metabolic disease. The last chapter describes how ER stress pathways can be targeted for therapeutic benefit. Altogether, this book will provide the reader with an exhaustive view of ER stress biology and the latest insights in the role of ER stress in relevant human diseases.
Plants have to manage a series of environmental stresses throughout their entire lifespan. Among these, abiotic stress is the most detrimental; one that is responsible for nearly 50% of crop yield reduction and appears to be a potential threat to global food security in coming decades. Plant growth and development reduces drastically due to adverse effects of abiotic stresses. It has been estimated that crop can exhibit only 30% of their genetic potentiality under abiotic stress condition. So, this is a fundamental need to understand the stress responses to facilitate breeders to develop stress resistant and stress tolerant cultivars along with good management practices to withstand abiotic stresses. Also, a holistic approach to understanding the molecular and biochemical interactions of plants is important to implement the knowledge of resistance mechanisms under abiotic stresses. Agronomic practices like selecting cultivars that is tolerant to wide range of climatic condition, planting date, irrigation scheduling, fertilizer management could be some of the effective short-term adaptive tools to fight against abiotic stresses. In addition, “system biology” and “omics approaches” in recent studies offer a long-term opportunity at the molecular level in dealing with abiotic stresses. The genetic approach, for example, selection and identification of major conditioning genes by linkage mapping and quantitative trait loci (QTL), production of mutant genes and transgenic introduction of novel genes, has imparted some tolerant characteristics in crop varieties from their wild ancestors. Recently research has revealed the interactions between micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and plant stress responses exposed to salinity, freezing stress and dehydration. Accordingly transgenic approaches to generate stress-tolerant plant are one of the most interesting researches to date. This book presents the recent development of agronomic and molecular approaches in conferring plant abiotic stress tolerance in an organized way. The present volume will be of great interest among research students and teaching community, and can also be used as reference material by professional researchers.
|Author||: Plamen Petkov,Dumitru Tsiulyanu,Wilhelm Kulisch,Cyril Popov|
|Release Date||: 2015-02-05|
|ISBN 10||: 9401796971|
|Pages||: 533 pages|
The preparation and characterization of various nano-scaled materials and their applications in diverse security and safety- related fields. Readers are provided with a broad overview on the topic as it combines articles addressing the preparation and characterization of different nano-scaled materials (metals, oxides, glasses, polymers, carbon-based, etc.). The contributions derive from the lectures and contributions of the NATO Advanced Study Institute meeting “Nanoscience Advances in CBRN Agents Detection, Information and Energy Security” held in Sozopol, Bulgaria, 29 May - 6 June, 2014. In addition, it presents an interdisciplinary approach, utilizing Nanoscience and Nanotechnology research from different disciplines including; physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science and biology. A major advantage of this book, which represents the knowledge of experts from 20 countries, is the combination of longer papers introducing the basic knowledge on a certain topic, and brief contributions highlighting specific applications in different security areas.