rational machines and artificial intelligence

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Rational Machines and Artificial Intelligence
Author : Tshilidzi Marwala
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2021-04-15
ISBN 10 : 0128209445
Pages : 270 pages

Intelligent machines are populating our social, economic and political spaces. These intelligent machines are powered by Artificial Intelligence technologies such as deep learning. They are used in decision making. One element of decision making is the issue of rationality. Regulations such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) require that decisions that are made by these intelligent machines are explainable. Rational Machines and Artificial Intelligence proposes that explainable decisions are good but the explanation must be rational to prevent these decisions from being challenged. Noted author Tshilidzi Marwala studies the concept of machine rationality and compares this to the rationality bounds prescribed by Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon and rationality bounds derived from the work of Nobel Laureates Richard Thaler and Daniel Kahneman. Rational Machines and Artificial Intelligence describes why machine rationality is flexibly bounded due to advances in technology. This effectively means that optimally designed machines are more rational than human beings. Readers will also learn whether machine rationality can be quantified and identify how this can be achieved. Furthermore, the author discusses whether machine rationality is subjective. Finally, the author examines whether a population of intelligent machines collectively make more rational decisions than individual machines. Examples in biomedical engineering, social sciences and the financial sectors are used to illustrate these concepts. Provides an introduction to the key questions and challenges surrounding Rational Machines, including, When do we rely on decisions made by intelligent machines? What do decisions made by intelligent machines mean? Are these decisions rational or fair? Can we quantify these decisions? and Is rationality subjective? Introduces for the first time the concept of rational opportunity costs and the concept of flexibly bounded rationality as a rationality of intelligent machines and the implications of these issues on the reliability of machine decisions Includes coverage of Rational Counterfactuals, group versus individual rationality, and rational markets Discusses the application of Moore’s Law and advancements in Artificial Intelligence, as well as developments in the area of data acquisition and analysis technologies and how they affect the boundaries of intelligent machine rationality

Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Rational Decision Making
Author : Tshilidzi Marwala
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2014-10-20
ISBN 10 : 3319114247
Pages : 168 pages

Develops insights into solving complex problems in engineering, biomedical sciences, social science and economics based on artificial intelligence. Some of the problems studied are in interstate conflict, credit scoring, breast cancer diagnosis, condition monitoring, wine testing, image processing and optical character recognition. The author discusses and applies the concept of flexibly-bounded rationality which prescribes that the bounds in Nobel Laureate Herbert Simon’s bounded rationality theory are flexible due to advanced signal processing techniques, Moore’s Law and artificial intelligence. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Rational Decision Making examines and defines the concepts of causal and correlation machines and applies the transmission theory of causality as a defining factor that distinguishes causality from correlation. It develops the theory of rational counterfactuals which are defined as counterfactuals that are intended to maximize the attainment of a particular goal within the context of a bounded rational decision making process. Furthermore, it studies four methods for dealing with irrelevant information in decision making: Theory of the marginalization of irrelevant information Principal component analysis Independent component analysis Automatic relevance determination method In addition it studies the concept of group decision making and various ways of effecting group decision making within the context of artificial intelligence. Rich in methods of artificial intelligence including rough sets, neural networks, support vector machines, genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization, simulated annealing, incremental learning and fuzzy networks, this book will be welcomed by researchers and students working in these areas.

Artificial Intelligence and Economic Theory: Skynet in the Market
Author : Tshilidzi Marwala,Evan Hurwitz
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-09-18
ISBN 10 : 3319661043
Pages : 204 pages

This book theoretically and practically updates major economic ideas such as demand and supply, rational choice and expectations, bounded rationality, behavioral economics, information asymmetry, pricing, efficient market hypothesis, game theory, mechanism design, portfolio theory, causality and financial engineering in the age of significant advances in man-machine systems. The advent of artificial intelligence has changed many disciplines such as engineering, social science and economics. Artificial intelligence is a computational technique which is inspired by natural intelligence concepts such as the swarming of birds, the working of the brain and the pathfinding of the ants. Artificial Intelligence and Economic Theory: Skynet in the Market analyses the impact of artificial intelligence on economic theories, a subject that has not been studied. It also introduces new economic theories and these are rational counterfactuals and rational opportunity costs. These ideas are applied to diverse areas such as modelling of the stock market, credit scoring, HIV and interstate conflict. Artificial intelligence ideas used in this book include neural networks, particle swarm optimization, simulated annealing, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. It, furthermore, explores ideas in causality including Granger as well as the Pearl causality models.

Causality, Correlation and Artificial Intelligence for Rational Decision Making
Author : Tshilidzi Marwala
Publisher : World Scientific
Release Date : 2015-01-02
ISBN 10 : 9814630888
Pages : 208 pages

Causality has been a subject of study for a long time. Often causality is confused with correlation. Human intuition has evolved such that it has learned to identify causality through correlation. In this book, four main themes are considered and these are causality, correlation, artificial intelligence and decision making. A correlation machine is defined and built using multi-layer perceptron network, principal component analysis, Gaussian Mixture models, genetic algorithms, expectation maximization technique, simulated annealing and particle swarm optimization. Furthermore, a causal machine is defined and built using multi-layer perceptron, radial basis function, Bayesian statistics and Hybrid Monte Carlo methods. Both these machines are used to build a Granger non-linear causality model. In addition, the Neyman–Rubin, Pearl and Granger causal models are studied and are unified. The automatic relevance determination is also applied to extend Granger causality framework to the non-linear domain. The concept of rational decision making is studied, and the theory of flexibly-bounded rationality is used to extend the theory of bounded rationality within the principle of the indivisibility of rationality. The theory of the marginalization of irrationality for decision making is also introduced to deal with satisficing within irrational conditions. The methods proposed are applied in biomedical engineering, condition monitoring and for modelling interstate conflict. Contents:Introduction to Artificial Intelligence based Decision MakingWhat is a Correlation Machine?What is a Causal Machine?Correlation Machines Using Optimization MethodsNeural Networks for Modeling Granger CausalityRubin, Pearl and Granger Causality Models: A Unified ViewCausal, Correlation and Automatic Relevance Determination Machines for Granger CausalityFlexibly-bounded RationalityMarginalization of Irrationality in Decision MakingConclusions and Further Work Readership: Graduate students, researchers and professionals in the field of artificial intelligence. Key Features:It proposes fresh definition of causality and proposes two new theories i.e. flexibly bounded rationality and marginalization of irrationality theory for decision makingIt also applies these techniques to a diverse areas in engineering, political science and biomedical engineeringKeywords:Causality;Correlation;Artificial Intelligence;Rational Decision Making

Do the Right Thing
Author : Stuart Jonathan Russell,Eric Wefald
Publisher : MIT Press
Release Date : 1991
ISBN 10 : 9780262181440
Pages : 200 pages

Like Mooki, the hero of Spike Lee's film "Do the Right Thing," artificially intelligent systems have a hard time knowing what to do in all circumstances. Classical theories of perfect rationality prescribe the "right thing" for any occasion, but no finite agent can compute their prescriptions fast enough. In Do the Right Thing, the authors argue that a new theoretical foundation for artificial intelligence can be constructed in which rationality is a property of "programs" within a finite architecture, and their behavior over time in the task environment, rather than a property of individual decisions. Do the Right Thing suggests that the rich structure that seems to be exhibited by humans, and ought to be exhibited by AI systems, is a necessary result of the pressure for optimal behavior operating within a system of strictly limited resources. It provides an outline for the design of new intelligent systems and describes theoretical and practical tools for bringing about intelligent behavior in finite machines. The tools are applied to game planning and realtime problem solving, with surprising results.

Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence 2017
Author : Vincent C. Müller
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-08-28
ISBN 10 : 3319964488
Pages : 316 pages

This book reports on the results of the third edition of the premier conference in the field of philosophy of artificial intelligence, PT-AI 2017, held on November 4 - 5, 2017 at the University of Leeds, UK. It covers: advanced knowledge on key AI concepts, including complexity, computation, creativity, embodiment, representation and superintelligence; cutting-edge ethical issues, such as the AI impact on human dignity and society, responsibilities and rights of machines, as well as AI threats to humanity and AI safety; and cutting-edge developments in techniques to achieve AI, including machine learning, neural networks, dynamical systems. The book also discusses important applications of AI, including big data analytics, expert systems, cognitive architectures, and robotics. It offers a timely, yet very comprehensive snapshot of what is going on in the field of AI, especially at the interfaces between philosophy, cognitive science, ethics and computing.

Artificial Knowing
Author : Alison Adam
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2006-07-13
ISBN 10 : 1134793561
Pages : 216 pages

Artificial Knowing challenges the masculine slant in the Artificial Intelligence (AI) view of the world. Alison Adam admirably fills the large gap in science and technology studies by showing us that gender bias is inscribed in AI-based computer systems. Her treatment of feminist epistemology, focusing on the ideas of the knowing subject, the nature of knowledge, rationality and language, are bound to make a significant and powerful contribution to AI studies. Drawing from theories by Donna Haraway and Sherry Turkle, and using tools of feminist epistemology, Adam provides a sustained critique of AI which interestingly re-enforces many of the traditional criticisms of the AI project. Artificial Knowing is an esential read for those interested in gender studies, science and technology studies, and philosophical debates in AI.

Artificial Intelligence
Author : Stuart Russell,Peter Norvig
Publisher : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Release Date : 2016-09-10
ISBN 10 : 9781537600314
Pages : 626 pages

Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach offers the most comprehensive, up-to-date introduction to the theory and practice of artificial intelligence. Number one in its field, this textbook is ideal for one or two-semester, undergraduate or graduate-level courses in Artificial Intelligence.

A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence
Author : Michael Wooldridge
Publisher : Flatiron Books
Release Date : 2021-01-19
ISBN 10 : 1250770734
Pages : 272 pages

From Oxford's leading AI researcher comes a fun and accessible tour through the history and future of one of the most cutting edge and misunderstood field in science: Artificial Intelligence The somewhat ill-defined long-term aim of AI is to build machines that are conscious, self-aware, and sentient; machines capable of the kind of intelligent autonomous action that currently only people are capable of. As an AI researcher with 25 years of experience, professor Mike Wooldridge has learned to be obsessively cautious about such claims, while still promoting an intense optimism about the future of the field. There have been genuine scientific breakthroughs that have made AI systems possible in the past decade that the founders of the field would have hailed as miraculous. Driverless cars and automated translation tools are just two examples of AI technologies that have become a practical, everyday reality in the past few years, and which will have a huge impact on our world. While the dream of conscious machines remains, Professor Wooldridge believes, a distant prospect, the floodgates for AI have opened. Wooldridge's A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence is an exciting romp through the history of this groundbreaking field--a one-stop-shop for AI's past, present, and world-changing future.

Ways of Thinking
Author : L Mérö
Publisher : World Scientific
Release Date : 1990-11-14
ISBN 10 : 9814506842
Pages : 260 pages

This book goes right into the the causes and reasons of the diversity of ways of thinking. It is about the tricks of how our thinking works and about the efforts and failures of artificial intelligence. It discusses what can and cannot be expected of `intelligent' computers, and provides an insight into the deeper layers of the mechanism of our thinking.-An enjoyable piece of reading, this thought-provoking book is also an exciting mental adventure for those with little or no computer competence at all. Contents:The Diversity of Thinking:Logical ThinkingCommon SensePuzzles and ScienceWays of Thinking in Different CulturesLevels of ThinkingThe Building Blocks of Thinking:Cognitive SchemataThe Magic Number SevenSome Tens of Thousands of SchemataSome Tens of Thousands of What?A Challenge for ProgrammersFrom Beginners to GrandmastersProfession — Language — Way of ThinkingArtificial Intelligence at Candidate Master LevelThe Strength of Diversity:The Limits of RationalityHigh-Level Cognitive SchemataMystical ThinkingThe Trick of EvolutionAlternating the Reference SystemsBibliographySourcesIndex Readership: Computer scientists, psychologists, mathematicians and general. Review: “This is a recommended reading for everybody who is interested in basic problems and relations of computer science and human cognition.” T Vámos (Hungarian Acad. Sci.) “This very readable and highly enjoyable book explores the arguments and issues underlying the debate about the efficacy of artificial intelligence. The book will be of great interest, not only to computer scientists, mathematicians, engineers, psychologists, philosophers, biologists, and other experts in the field, but also the person without any background in computer science ... I only hope that I have conveyed, a little of the flavour of his truly enjoyable and thought-provoking book.” Eugene Clark Journal of Law and Information Science (Australia) “… this book provides some very enjoyable and thought provoking reading …”Tommy Dreyfus Educational Studies in Mathematics

Artificial Intelligence with Python
Author : Prateek Joshi
Publisher : Packt Publishing Ltd
Release Date : 2017-01-27
ISBN 10 : 1786469677
Pages : 446 pages

Build real-world Artificial Intelligence applications with Python to intelligently interact with the world around you About This Book Step into the amazing world of intelligent apps using this comprehensive guide Enter the world of Artificial Intelligence, explore it, and create your own applications Work through simple yet insightful examples that will get you up and running with Artificial Intelligence in no time Who This Book Is For This book is for Python developers who want to build real-world Artificial Intelligence applications. This book is friendly to Python beginners, but being familiar with Python would be useful to play around with the code. It will also be useful for experienced Python programmers who are looking to use Artificial Intelligence techniques in their existing technology stacks. What You Will Learn Realize different classification and regression techniques Understand the concept of clustering and how to use it to automatically segment data See how to build an intelligent recommender system Understand logic programming and how to use it Build automatic speech recognition systems Understand the basics of heuristic search and genetic programming Develop games using Artificial Intelligence Learn how reinforcement learning works Discover how to build intelligent applications centered on images, text, and time series data See how to use deep learning algorithms and build applications based on it In Detail Artificial Intelligence is becoming increasingly relevant in the modern world where everything is driven by technology and data. It is used extensively across many fields such as search engines, image recognition, robotics, finance, and so on. We will explore various real-world scenarios in this book and you'll learn about various algorithms that can be used to build Artificial Intelligence applications. During the course of this book, you will find out how to make informed decisions about what algorithms to use in a given context. Starting from the basics of Artificial Intelligence, you will learn how to develop various building blocks using different data mining techniques. You will see how to implement different algorithms to get the best possible results, and will understand how to apply them to real-world scenarios. If you want to add an intelligence layer to any application that's based on images, text, stock market, or some other form of data, this exciting book on Artificial Intelligence will definitely be your guide! Style and approach This highly practical book will show you how to implement Artificial Intelligence. The book provides multiple examples enabling you to create smart applications to meet the needs of your organization. In every chapter, we explain an algorithm, implement it, and then build a smart application.

Machine Learning for Healthcare
Author : Rashmi Agrawal,Jyotir Moy Chatterjee,Abhishek Kumar,Pramod Singh Rathore,Dac-Nhuong Le
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2020-12-09
ISBN 10 : 1000221881
Pages : 204 pages

Machine Learning for Healthcare: Handling and Managing Data provides in-depth information about handling and managing healthcare data through machine learning methods. This book expresses the long-standing challenges in healthcare informatics and provides rational explanations of how to deal with them. Machine Learning for Healthcare: Handling and Managing Data provides techniques on how to apply machine learning within your organization and evaluate the efficacy, suitability, and efficiency of machine learning applications. These are illustrated in a case study which examines how chronic disease is being redefined through patient-led data learning and the Internet of Things. This text offers a guided tour of machine learning algorithms, architecture design, and applications of learning in healthcare. Readers will discover the ethical implications of machine learning in healthcare and the future of machine learning in population and patient health optimization. This book can also help assist in the creation of a machine learning model, performance evaluation, and the operationalization of its outcomes within organizations. It may appeal to computer science/information technology professionals and researchers working in the area of machine learning, and is especially applicable to the healthcare sector. The features of this book include: A unique and complete focus on applications of machine learning in the healthcare sector. An examination of how data analysis can be done using healthcare data and bioinformatics. An investigation of how healthcare companies can leverage the tapestry of big data to discover new business values. An exploration of the concepts of machine learning, along with recent research developments in healthcare sectors.