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Proton Therapy Physics
Author : Harald Paganetti
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2016-04-19
ISBN 10 : 1439836450
Pages : 704 pages
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Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also examines computerized treatment plan optimization, methods for in vivo dose or beam range verification, the safety of patients and operating personnel, and the biological implications of using protons from a physics perspective. The final chapter illustrates the use of risk models for common tissue complications in treatment optimization. Along with exploring quality assurance issues and biological considerations, this practical guide collects the latest clinical studies on the use of protons in treatment planning and radiation monitoring. Suitable for both newcomers in medical physics and more seasoned specialists in radiation oncology, the book helps readers understand the uncertainties and limitations of precisely shaped dose distribution.

Proton Therapy Physics
Author : Harald Paganetti
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2016-04-19
ISBN 10 : 1439836450
Pages : 704 pages
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Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also examines computerized treatment plan optimization, methods for in vivo dose or beam range verification, the safety of patients and operating personnel, and the biological implications of using protons from a physics perspective. The final chapter illustrates the use of risk models for common tissue complications in treatment optimization. Along with exploring quality assurance issues and biological considerations, this practical guide collects the latest clinical studies on the use of protons in treatment planning and radiation monitoring. Suitable for both newcomers in medical physics and more seasoned specialists in radiation oncology, the book helps readers understand the uncertainties and limitations of precisely shaped dose distribution.

Proton Therapy E-Book
Author : Steven J Frank,X. Ronald Zhu
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2020-05-18
ISBN 10 : 0323733506
Pages : 272 pages
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As proton therapy treatment centers become smaller and more cost-effective, education and training for today’s multi-disciplinary oncology teams are more important than ever before. This state-of-the-art reference brings you fully up to date with all aspects of proton therapy, with guidance you can trust from MD Anderson Cancer Center, the largest and most experienced proton therapy center in the world. Led by Drs. Steven J. Frank and W. Ronald Zhu, Proton Therapy provides a unique opportunity to benefit from the unsurpassed knowledge and expertise of an esteemed team of leaders in the field. Covers all cancers for which proton therapy is used most often, including prostate, head and neck, pediatrics, central nervous system, gastrointestinal, sarcomas, lungs, breast, lymphomas, and gynecologic cancers. Provides up-to-date information on radiobiology, treatment planning and quality assurance, indications for proton therapy, management approaches, and outcomes after proton therapy by disease site. Discusses technologic advances such as spot scanning and treatment planning systems for the management of solid tumors; radiobiology of proton therapy, including DNA damage and repair mechanisms and acute and late effects on normal tissues; and multifield optimized intensity-modulated proton therapy (MFO-IMPT) for optimizing the distribution of linear energy transfer (LET) of proton beams within target volumes and away from critical normal structures. Includes a special section on head and neck cases in the e-book that photographically illustrates the full cycle of proton therapy care.

Proton Therapy Physics, Second Edition
Author : Harald Paganetti
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2018-11-19
ISBN 10 : 1351855751
Pages : 758 pages
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Expanding on the highly successful first edition, this second edition of Proton Therapy Physics has been completely restructured and updated throughout, and includes several new chapters. Suitable for both newcomers in medical physics and more seasoned specialists in radiation oncology, this book provides an in-depth overview of the physics of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered across medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book explores the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. The text then covers dosimetry, including beam delivery, shielding aspects, computer simulations, detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry. Important for daily operations, acceptance testing, commissioning, quality assurance and monitor unit calibrations are outlined. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. Imaging for treatment guidance as well as treatment monitoring is outlined. Finally, the biological implications of using protons from a physics perspective are discussed. This book is an ideal practical guide for physicians, dosimetrists, radiation therapists, and physicists who already have some experience in radiation oncology. It is also an invaluable reference for graduate students in medical physics programs, physicians in their last year of medical school or residency, and those considering a career in medical physics. Features: Updated with the latest technologies and methods in the field, covering all delivery methods of proton therapy, including beam scanning and passive scattering Discusses clinical aspects, such as treatment planning and quality assurance Offers insight on the past, present, and future of proton therapy from a physics perspective

Proton Beam Therapy
Author : Santosh Yajnik
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-10-17
ISBN 10 : 146145297X
Pages : 120 pages
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Proton beam therapy is an emerging technology with promise of revolutionizing the treatment of cancer. While nearly half of all patients diagnosed with cancer in the US receive radiation therapy, the majority is delivered via electron accelerators, where photons are used to irradiate cancerous tissue. Because of the physical properties of photon beams, photons may deposit energy along their entire path length through the body. On the other hand, a proton beam directed at a tumor travels in a straight trajectory towards its target, gives off most of its energy at a defined depth called the Bragg peak, and then stops. While photons often deposit more energy within the healthy tissues of the body than within the cancer itself, protons can deposit most of their cancer-killing energy within the area of the tumor. As a result, in the properly selected patients, proton beam therapy has the ability to improve cure rates by increasing the dose delivered to the tumor and simultaneously reduce side-effects by decreasing the dose to surrounding tissue. The benefits of proton beam therapy in delivering a lethal hit to the target while sparing surrounding normal tissues from radiation are becoming applicable to an increasing number of patients and a growing list of conditions. In this book, the author will guide the reader through existing evidence supporting proton beam therapy for pediatric cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, brain tumors, spinal tumors, and several other conditions. The book will discuss which conditions are suitable for treatment with proton beam therapy, how the treatment is delivered, and the current data supporting its use.

Commissioning of Shanghai Advance Proton Therapy
Author : deming li
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2017
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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Shanghai advance proton therapy (SAPT) is a dedicate facility for cancer treatment. The commissioning of the accelerator started at the end of April 2017, and the proton beam has been already transported to the treatment room. This paper shows the commissioning results of synchrotron and transport line.

Proton and Charged Particle Radiotherapy
Author : Thomas F. De Laney,Hanne M. Kooy
Publisher : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Release Date : 2008
ISBN 10 : 9780781765527
Pages : 274 pages
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This volume is the first comprehensive and practical clinical reference on proton and charged particle radiotherapy. The first half of the book explains the treatment delivery systems used, offers detailed guidance on treatment planning techniques, examines key clinical issues in proton radiotherapy, and reviews recent experience with heavier charged particle radiotherapy. The second half of the book offers "how-to" information on treatment of pediatric tumors, lymphomas, and tumors of the central nervous system, eye, skull base, cervical spine, bone and soft tissue, paranasal sinus, nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, oral cavity, salivary glands, prostate, lung, gastrointestinal tract, female reproductive tract, and breast. More than 100 full-color illustrations complement the text.

Proton Therapy
Author : Steven J. Frank,X. Ronald Zhu
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2020-05-07
ISBN 10 : 9780323733496
Pages : 272 pages
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As proton therapy treatment centers become smaller and more cost-effective, education and training for today's multi-disciplinary oncology teams are more important than ever before. This state-of-the-art reference brings you fully up to date with all aspects of proton therapy, with guidance you can trust from MD Anderson Cancer Center, the largest and most experienced proton therapy center in the world. Led by Drs. Steven J. Frank and W. Ronald Zhu, Proton Therapy provides a unique opportunity to benefit from the unsurpassed knowledge and expertise of an esteemed team of leaders in the field. Covers all cancers for which proton therapy is used most often, including prostate, head and neck, pediatrics, central nervous system, gastrointestinal, sarcomas, lungs, breast, lymphomas, and gynecologic cancers. Provides up-to-date information on radiobiology, treatment planning and quality assurance, indications for proton therapy, management approaches, and outcomes after proton therapy by disease site. Discusses technologic advances such as spot scanning and treatment planning systems for the management of solid tumors; radiobiology of proton therapy, including DNA damage and repair mechanisms and acute and late effects on normal tissues; and multifield optimized intensity-modulated proton therapy (MFO-IMPT) for optimizing the distribution of linear energy transfer (LET) of proton beams within target volumes and away from critical normal structures. Includes a special section on head and neck cases in the e-book that photographically illustrates the full cycle of proton therapy care. Enhanced eBook version included with purchase. Your enhanced eBook allows you to access all of the text, figures, and references from the book on a variety of devices.

The Physics of Three Dimensional Radiation Therapy
Author : S. Webb
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 1993-01-01
ISBN 10 : 9781420050363
Pages : 388 pages
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The Physics of Three Dimensional Radiation Therapy presents a broad study of the use of three-dimensional techniques in radiation therapy. These techniques are used to specify the target volume precisely and deliver radiation with precision to minimize damage to surrounding healthy tissue. The book discusses multimodality computed tomography, complex treatment planning software, advanced collimation techniques, proton radiotherapy, megavoltage imaging, and stereotactic radiosurgery. A review of the literature, numerous questions, and many illustrations make this book suitable for teaching a course. The themes covered in this book are developed and expanded in Webb's The Physics of Conformal Radiotherapy and the two may be used together or in successive semesters for teaching purposes.

Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy
Author : C-M Charlie Ma,Tony Lomax
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2012-10-09
ISBN 10 : 1439816077
Pages : 250 pages
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Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art technologies, major challenges, and the future outlook of proton and carbon ion therapy. It presents a thorough introduction for those new to the field while providing a helpful, up-to-date reference for readers already using the therapy in clinical settings.

Radiotherapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma
Author : Lena Specht,Joachim Yahalom
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2010-09-10
ISBN 10 : 9783540789444
Pages : 214 pages
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This book deals in detail with all aspects of the best practice in modern radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma. It provides the background and rationale for the inclusion of radiotherapy in today’s combined-modality approach, including special clinical situations such as Hodgkin lymphoma in children, in the pregnant patient, and in the elderly. Radiotherapy planning using state-of-the-art imaging, target definition, planning software, and treatment equipment is expounded in detail. Acute and long-term side effects of radiotherapy are analyzed, and the implications for modern radiotherapy approaches in Hodgkin lymphoma are explained.

Prostate Cancer Meets the Proton Beam
Author : Fuller Jones
Publisher : Lulu.com
Release Date : 2008-05-28
ISBN 10 : 0615192432
Pages : 176 pages
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Proton Beam Therapy is an advanced cancer treatment based on the elegant physics of the proton. It is not well known, because there are currently only five hospitals in the U.S. that have the complex equipment to administer it. Protons have been used for cancer treatment in the U. S. since 1990 with success comparable to all other options, but with minimal side effects. This treatment is FDA approved and may be used for prostate and many other cancers if not metastasized. This book provides the author's experiences in dealing with the shock of cancer diagnosis, and in searching for a treatment. The book contains valuable information about becoming an informed patient. It includes a synopsis of the major treatment alternatives, and a detailed description of proton beam therapy. Robert J. Marckini, author of "You Can Beat Prostate Cancer..." says: " Prostate Cancer Meets The Proton Beam is a nuts-and-bolts journal for the prostate cancer victim, as well as his spouse and family members."

Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy
Author : C-M Charlie Ma,Tony Lomax
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2012-10-09
ISBN 10 : 1439816077
Pages : 250 pages
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Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art technologies, major challenges, and the future outlook of proton and carbon ion therapy. It presents a thorough introduction for those new to the field while providing a helpful, up-to-date reference for readers already using the therapy in clinical settings.

Proton Beam Radiotherapy
Author : Koji Tsuboi,Takeji Sakae,Ariungerel Gerelchuluun
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2020-01-24
ISBN 10 : 9811374546
Pages : 235 pages
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This book offers a comprehensive, practical guide to understanding the physical and biological characteristics of proton beam radiotherapy. The application of proton beams to the treatment of solid cancers has expanded exponentially over the last decade due to their physical properties, which make it possible to administer higher doses of radiation to lesions with only a minimum dose to the surrounding healthy tissues. Accordingly, understanding the basic aspects of proton beam radiotherapy is a primary concern not only for medical physicists and radiation biologists, but also for all physicians involved in cancer treatment using proton beams. The major aspects discussed include the technique’s development background, the generation and delivery system for proton beams, physical characteristics, biological consequences, dosimetry, and future prospects in both medical physics and radiation biology in terms of effective cancer treatment. Gathering contributions from experts who provide clear and detailed information on the basics of proton beams, the book will greatly benefit not only radiological technicians, medical physicists, and physicians, but also scientists in cancer radiotherapy.

Principles and Practice of Radiation Therapy - E-Book
Author : Charles M. Washington,Dennis T. Leaver
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2015-03-10
ISBN 10 : 0323287816
Pages : 928 pages
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The only radiation therapy text written by radiation therapists, Principles and Practice of Radiation Therapy, 4th Edition helps you understand cancer management and improve clinical techniques for delivering doses of radiation. A problem-based approach makes it easy to apply principles to treatment planning and delivery. New to this edition are updates on current equipment, procedures, and treatment planning. Written by radiation therapy experts Charles Washington and Dennis Leaver, this comprehensive text will be useful throughout your radiation therapy courses and beyond. Comprehensive coverage of radiation therapy includes a clear introduction and overview plus complete information on physics, simulation, and treatment planning. Spotlights and shaded boxes identify the most important concepts. End-of-chapter questions provide a useful review. Chapter objectives, key terms, outlines, and summaries make it easier to prioritize, understand, and retain key information. Key terms are bolded and defined at first mention in the text, and included in the glossary for easy reference. UPDATED chemotherapy section, expansion of What Causes Cancer, and inclusions of additional cancer biology terms and principles provide the essential information needed for clinical success. UPDATED coverage of post-image manipulation techniques includes new material on Cone beam utilization, MR imaging, image guided therapy, and kV imaging. NEW section on radiation safety and misadministration of treatment beams addresses the most up-to-date practice requirements. Content updates also include new ASRT Practice Standards and AHA Patient Care Partnership Standards, keeping you current with practice requirements. UPDATED full-color insert is expanded to 32 pages, and displays images from newer modalities.

Quality and Safety in Radiotherapy
Author : Todd Pawlicki,Peter Dunscombe,Arno J. Mundt,Pierre Scalliet
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2010-12-20
ISBN 10 : 9781439804377
Pages : 643 pages
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The first text to focus solely on quality and safety in radiotherapy, this work encompasses not only traditional, more technically oriented, quality assurance activities, but also general approaches of quality and safety. It includes contributions from experts both inside and outside the field to present a global view. The task of assuring quality is no longer viewed solely as a technical, equipment-dependent endeavor. Instead, it is now recognized as depending on both the processes and the people delivering the service. Divided into seven broad categories, the text covers: Quality Management and Improvement includes discussions about lean thinking, process control, and access to services. Patient Safety and Managing Error looks at reactive and prospective error management techniques. Methods to Assure and Improve Quality deals broadly with techniques to monitor, assure, and improve quality. People and Quality focuses on human factors, changing roles, staffing, and training. Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy addresses the general issues of quality assurance with descriptions of the key systems used to plan and treat patients and includes specific recommendations on the types and frequencies of certain tests. Quality Control: Equipment and Quality Control: Patient-Specific provides explicit details of quality control relating to equipment and patient-specific issues. Recently, a transformation of quality and safety in radiotherapy has begun to take place. Among the key drivers of this transformation have been new industrial and systems engineering approaches that have come to the forefront in recent years following revelations of system failures. This book provides an approach to quality that is long needed, one that deals with both human and technical aspects that must be the part of any overall quality improvement program.

Leibel and Phillips Textbook of Radiation Oncology - E-Book
Author : Richard Hoppe,Theodore L. Phillips,Mack Roach
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2010-09-09
ISBN 10 : 1437737757
Pages : 1664 pages
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Stay on top of the latest scientific and therapeutic advances with the new edition of Leibel and Phillips Textbook of Radiation Oncology. Dr. Theodore L. Phillips, in collaboration with two new authors, Drs. Richard Hoppe and Mack Roach, offers a multidisciplinary look at the presentation of uniform treatment philosophies for cancer patients emphasizing the "treat for cure" philosophy. You can also explore the implementation of new imaging techniques to locate and treat tumors, new molecularly targeted therapies, and new types of treatment delivery. Supplement your reading with online access to the complete contents of the book, a downloadable image library, and more at expertconsult.com. Gather step-by-step techniques for assessing and implementing radiotherapeutic options with this comprehensive, full-color, clinically oriented text. Review the basic principles behind the selection and application of radiation as a treatment modality, including radiobiology, radiation physics, immobilization and simulation, high dose rate, and more. Use new imaging techniques to anatomically locate tumors before and during treatment. Apply multidisciplinary treatments with advice from experts in medical, surgical, and radiation oncology. Explore new treatment options such as proton therapy, which can facilitate precise tumor-targeting and reduce damage to healthy tissue and organs. Stay on the edge of technology with new chapters on IGRT, DNA damage and repair, and molecularly targeted therapies.

Head and Neck Cancer
Author : Jacques Bernier
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2011-06-15
ISBN 10 : 9781441994646
Pages : 709 pages
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In recent years, great advances in translational research have led to new paradigms in the treatment of cancers of the head and neck. Written by leading international physicians and investigators, this innovative multi-disciplinary book presents the most up-to-date research and clinical approaches. Coverage is given to progress in a variety of clinical settings, including programs of organ and function preservation, curative treatments, unresectable disease, adjuvant treatments in high-risk patients, and recurrent/metastatic disease. Complementary to the techniques of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic treatments, the authors present data on epidemiology, molecular pathology, normal tissue complications, rehabilitation, palliative care, and treatment in the elderly. State-of-the-art functional imaging is elucidated; and the latest developments in high precision techniques in irradiation, sequencing of chemo- and radiotherapy, as well as the integration of biomolecular therapies into cytotoxic treatments are explored.

Khan's The Physics of Radiation Therapy
Author : Faiz M. Khan,John P. Gibbons
Publisher : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Release Date : 2014-04-03
ISBN 10 : 1469881268
Pages : 624 pages
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Expand your understanding of the physics and practical clinical applications of advanced radiation therapy technologies with Khan's The Physics of Radiation Therapy, 5th edition, the book that set the standard in the field. This classic full-color text helps the entire radiation therapy team—radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists—develop a thorough understanding of 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), high dose-rate remote afterloaders (HDR), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT), and proton beam therapy, as well as the physical concepts underlying treatment planning, treatment delivery, and dosimetry. In preparing this new Fifth Edition, Dr. Kahn and new co-author Dr. John Gibbons made chapter-by-chapter revisions in the light of the latest developments in the field, adding new discussions, a new chapter, and new color illustrations throughout. Now even more precise and relevant, this edition is ideal as a reference book for practitioners, a textbook for students, and a constant companion for those preparing for their board exams. Features Stay on top of the latest advances in the field with new sections and/or discussions of Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT), Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT), and the Failure Mode Event Analysis (FMEA) approach to quality assurance. Deepen your knowledge of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) through a completely new chapter that covers SBRT in greater detail. Expand your visual understanding with new full color illustrations that reflect current practice and depict new procedures. Access the authoritative information you need fast through the new companion website which features fully searchable text and an image bank for greater convenience in studying and teaching. This is the tablet version which does not include access to the supplemental content mentioned in the text.

MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT OF ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS DURING PROTON THERAPY TREATMENTS IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS
Author : Sabina Vennarini
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2017
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages
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IntroductionProton therapy (PT) is increasingly being used for pediatric tumors. This is mainly due to the advantages with respect to conventional therapy in terms of organs at risks (OAR) sparing. It is known that PT is more sensitive to anatomical/density modifications. Aim of this study is to present our experience in monitoring and managing anatomical variations in cranial and spinal pediatric lesions.Materials and MethodsFive cases, with different histology and location, were studied:1 Skull base chordoma, 1 supratentorial glial neoplasm with hygroma, 1 craniopharyngioma with cystic component, 1 glial tumor of the posterior cranial fossa with vermian residue and 1 atypical meningioma with residual disease in close proximity with the cervical cord. Each patient underwent several CT and MR scans over the treatment course. The following MR sequences were acquired: T2 (study of the cystic and hygromatous component), 3D Flair (study of the edemigenous component), 3D T1 (OAR anatomical definition), DWI (study of cellularity).MR imaging was used to outline target and OAR on the control CTs, then the nominal plan was re-calculated on the CT. In case of target under dosage or OAR constraints violation a re-planning occurred in order to recover the initial dose prescription/constraints .ResultsA total of 9 CT and 15 MR were acquired in this study. Only in 1 case the re-planning was needed due to the increase of the cystic component in a craniopharyngioma.ConclusionsMonitoring and management of anatomical variations via repeat imaging is feasible in pediatric patients and in some cases it was used to trigger replanning.