Production Processes of Renewable Aviation Fuel: Present Technologies and Future Trends presents the available production processes for renewable aviation fuel, including the application of intensification and energy integration strategies. Despite biofuels have gained a lot of interest in the last years, renewable aviation fuel is one of the less studied. In the last ten years, there has been an incredible growth in the number of patents and articles related with its production processes. Several transformation pathways have been proposed, and new ones have been outlined. The book contains the main information about the production processes of renewable aviation fuel, considering international standards, available technologies, and recent scientific contributions. It also outlines the motivation for the development of renewable aviation fuel, and its main processing pathways from the different renewable raw materials. In addition, the application of intensification and energy integration strategies is presented, along with the identified future trends in this area Includes the motivation for the development of renewable aviation fuel and applicable standards Describes the processing pathways from biomass to produce renewable aviation fuel Presents the application of intensification and energy integration strategies for the production of renewable aviation fuel The future trends in the production processes of renewable aviation fuel are discussed
Biofuels for Aviation: Feedstocks, Technology and Implementation presents the issues surrounding the research and use of biofuels for aviation, such as policy, markets, certification and performance requirements, life cycle assessment, and the economic and technical barriers to their full implementation. Readers involved in bioenergy and aviation sectors—research, planning, or policy making activities—will benefit from this thorough overview. The aviation industry’s commitment to reducing GHG emissions along with increasing oil prices have sparked the need for renewable and affordable energy sources tailored to this sector’s very specific needs. As jet engines cannot be readily electrified, turning to biofuels is the most viable option. However, aviation is a type of transportation for which traditional biofuels, such as bioethanol and biodiesel, do not fulfill key fuel requirements. Therefore, different solutions to this situation are being researched and tested around the globe, which makes navigating this scenario particularly challenging. This book guides readers through this intricate subject, bringing them up to speed with its current status and future prospects both from the academic and the industry point of view. Science and technology chapters delve into the technical aspects of the currently tested and the most promising technology in development, as well as their respective feedstocks and the use of additives as a way of adapting them to meet certain specifications. Conversion processes such as hydrotreatment, synthetic biology, pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction and Fisher-Tropsch are explored and their results are assessed for current and future viability. Presents the current status of biofuels for the aviation sector, including technologies that are currently in use and the most promising future technologies, their production processes and viability Explains the requirements for certification and performance of aviation fuels and how that can be achieved by biofuels Explores the economic and policy issues, as well as life cycle assessment, a comparative techno-economic analysis of promising technologies and a roadmap to the future Explores conversion processes such as hydrotreatment, synthetic biology, pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction and Fisher-Tropsch
|Author||: Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet,Gade Pandu Rangaiah|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2020-10-26|
|ISBN 10||: 1119580277|
|Pages||: 544 pages|
A comprehensive overview of current developments and applications in biofuels production Process Systems Engineering for Biofuels Development brings together the latest and most cutting-edge research on the production of biofuels. As the first book specifically devoted to process systems engineering for the production of biofuels, Process Systems Engineering for Biofuels Development covers theoretical, computational and experimental issues in biofuels process engineering. Written for researchers and postgraduate students working on biomass conversion and sustainable process design, as well as industrial practitioners and engineers involved in process design, modeling and optimization, this book is an indispensable guide to the newest developments in areas including: Enzyme-catalyzed biodiesel production Process analysis of biodiesel production (including kinetic modeling, simulation and optimization) The use of ultrasonification in biodiesel production Thermochemical processes for biomass transformation to biofuels Production of alternative biofuels In addition to the comprehensive overview of the subject of biofuels found in the Introduction of the book, the authors of various chapters have provided extensive discussions of the production and separation of biofuels via novel applications and techniques.
The aviation sector is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world, at 2% of the human-induced total. The sector's transition to sustainable, renewable fuels, therefore, is crucial to meet the international climate targets set forth in the 2015 Paris Agreement. This brief examines how the expansion of biofuels for jet aircraft can reduce emissions substantially compared to fossil-based jet fuel.
|Author||: Claudia Gutiérrez-Antonio,Fernando Israel Gómez-Castro,Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández,Abel Briones-Ramírez|
|Publisher||: Elsevier Inc. Chapters|
|Release Date||: 2013-06-10|
|ISBN 10||: 0128085010|
|Pages||: 1088 pages|
Aviation sector contributes with 2% of the total CO2 emissions due to human activities. Moreover, predictions estimate that air traffic will duplicate in the next 20 years, with the corresponding increasing in CO2 emissions. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) has established four strategies to reduce CO2 emissions; one strategy is the development of aviation fuel from renewable feedstocks, known as biojet fuel. In 2009 UOP Honeywell received a patent for its process to produce aviation fuel from renewable feedstocks. The process considers the transformation of vegetable oil through hydrogenating, deoxygenating, isomerizing and selective hydrocracking to generate propane and hydrocarbons fuels. The resulting aviation fuel is very similar to the fossil one, with the only difference that the first one does not contain aromatic compounds. Due to this, the ASTM standard established the use of biojet fuel in mixtures with fossil jet fuel with up to 50% of the bio-fuel. Also, it is important to remark that in this moment the process of UOP Honeywell is the only one certified for the production of aviation fuel from renewable feedstocks. In this work we propose a model for the production of biojet fuel, obtaining an estimation of the conversion of the reactions of the process of UOP Honeywell. Also, the optimization of the purification stage is performed using a multiobjective genetic algorithm with constraints, which is coupled to Aspen Plus process simulator, in order to generate results considering the complete models of the process. Results show a high conversion of the vegetable oil (castor oil) to biofuels (biojet fuel and green diesel); also, energy can be generated in the process as result of the conditioning of the stream that is fed to the distillation train.
This book provides a detailed overview of aspects related to the overall provision chain for biokerosene as part of the global civil aviation business. Starting with a review of the current market situation for aviation fuels and airplanes and their demands, it then presents in-depth descriptions of classical and especially new types of non-edible biomass feedstock suitable for biokerosene provision. Subsequent chapters discuss those fuel provision processes that are already available and those still under development based on various biomass feedstock materials, and present e.g. an overview of the current state of the art in the production of a liquid biomass-based fuel fulfilling the specifications for kerosene. Further, given the growing interest of the aviation industry and airlines in biofuels for aviation, the experiences of an air-carrier are presented. In closing, the book provides a market outlook for biokerosene. Addressing a broad range of aspects related to the pros and cons of biokerosene as a renewable fuel for aviation, the book offers a unique resource.
Biomass-derived jet (biojet) fuel has become a key element in the aviation industry's strategy to reduce operating costs and environmental impacts. Researchers from the oil-refining industry, the aviation industry, government, biofuel companies, agricultural organizations, and academia are working toward developing commercially viable and sustainable processes that produce long-lasting renewable jet fuels with low production costs and low greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, jet fuels must meet ASTM International specifications and potentially be a 100% drop-in replacement for the current petroleum jet fuel. The combustion characteristics and engine tests demonstrate the benefits of running the aviation gas turbine with biojet fuels. In this study, the current technologies for producing renewable jet fuels, categorized by alcohols-to-jet, oil-to-jet, syngas-to-jet, and sugar-to-jet pathways, are reviewed. The main challenges for each technology pathway, including feedstock availability, conceptual process design, process economics, life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, and commercial readiness, are discussed. Although the feedstock price and availability and energy intensity of the process are significant barriers, biomass-derived jet fuel has the potential to replace a significant portion of conventional jet fuel required to meet commercial and military demand.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Committee on Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increasing Biofuels Production|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2012-01-29|
|ISBN 10||: 0309187516|
|Pages||: 416 pages|
In the United States, we have come to depend on plentiful and inexpensive energy to support our economy and lifestyles. In recent years, many questions have been raised regarding the sustainability of our current pattern of high consumption of nonrenewable energy and its environmental consequences. Further, because the United States imports about 55 percent of the nation's consumption of crude oil, there are additional concerns about the security of supply. Hence, efforts are being made to find alternatives to our current pathway, including greater energy efficiency and use of energy sources that could lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions such as nuclear and renewable sources, including solar, wind, geothermal, and biofuels. The United States has a long history with biofuels and the nation is on a course charted to achieve a substantial increase in biofuels. Renewable Fuel Standard evaluates the economic and environmental consequences of increasing biofuels production as a result of Renewable Fuels Standard, as amended by EISA (RFS2). The report describes biofuels produced in 2010 and those projected to be produced and consumed by 2022, reviews model projections and other estimates of the relative impact on the prices of land, and discusses the potential environmental harm and benefits of biofuels production and the barriers to achieving the RFS2 consumption mandate. Policy makers, investors, leaders in the transportation sector, and others with concerns for the environment, economy, and energy security can rely on the recommendations provided in this report.
|Author||: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board,Committee on Propulsion and Energy Systems to Reduce Commercial Aviation Carbon Emissions|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2016-09-09|
|ISBN 10||: 0309440963|
|Pages||: 122 pages|
The primary human activities that release carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere are the combustion of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and oil) to generate electricity, the provision of energy for transportation, and as a consequence of some industrial processes. Although aviation CO2 emissions only make up approximately 2.0 to 2.5 percent of total global annual CO2 emissions, research to reduce CO2 emissions is urgent because (1) such reductions may be legislated even as commercial air travel grows, (2) because it takes new technology a long time to propagate into and through the aviation fleet, and (3) because of the ongoing impact of global CO2 emissions. Commercial Aircraft Propulsion and Energy Systems Research develops a national research agenda for reducing CO2 emissions from commercial aviation. This report focuses on propulsion and energy technologies for reducing carbon emissions from large, commercial aircraftâ€" single-aisle and twin-aisle aircraft that carry 100 or more passengersâ€"because such aircraft account for more than 90 percent of global emissions from commercial aircraft. Moreover, while smaller aircraft also emit CO2, they make only a minor contribution to global emissions, and many technologies that reduce CO2 emissions for large aircraft also apply to smaller aircraft. As commercial aviation continues to grow in terms of revenue-passenger miles and cargo ton miles, CO2 emissions are expected to increase. To reduce the contribution of aviation to climate change, it is essential to improve the effectiveness of ongoing efforts to reduce emissions and initiate research into new approaches.
|Author||: Armand L.C. de Mestral,P. Paul Fitzgerald,Md. Tanveer Ahmad|
|Publisher||: Cambridge University Press|
|Release Date||: 2018-09-06|
|ISBN 10||: 1107153115|
|Pages||: 400 pages|
The international community has succeeded in developing rules to limit greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere from international civil aviation. This book examines the development of international law and policy in an area that has remained largely outside the general framework of international environmental law.
The edited volume presents the progress of first and second generation biofuel production technology in selected countries. Possibility of producing alternative fuels containing biocomponents and selected research methods of biofuels exploitation characteristics (also aviation fuels) was characterized. The book shows also some aspects of the environmental impact of the production and biofuels using, and describes perspectives of biofuel production technology development. It provides the review of biorefinery processes with a particular focus on pretreatment methods of selected primary and secondary raw materials. The discussion includes also a possibility of sustainable development of presented advanced biorefinery processes.