Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations, 2e describes the principles of water relations within soils, followed by the uptake of water and its subsequent movement throughout and from the plant body. This is presented as a progressive series of physical and biological interrelations, even though each topic is treated in detail on its own. The book also describes equipment used to measure water in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. At the end of each chapter is a biography of a scientist whose principles are discussed in the chapter. In addition to new information on the concept of celestial time, this new edition also includes new chapters on methods to determine sap flow in plants dual-probe heat-pulse technique to monitor water in the root zone. Provides the necessary understanding to address advancing problems in water availability for meeting ecological requirements at local, regional and global scales Covers plant anatomy: an essential component to understanding soil and plant water relations
Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations combines biology and physics to show how water moves through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. This text explores the instrumentation and the methods used to measure the status of water in soil and plants. Principles are clearly presented with the aid of diagrams, anatomical figures, and images of instrumentation. The methods on instrumentation can be used by researchers, consultants, and the military to monitor soil degradation, including measurements of soil compaction, repellency, oxygen diffusion rate, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Intended for graduate students in plant and soil science programs, this book also serves as a useful reference for agronomists, plant ecologists, and agricultural engineers. * Principles are presented in an easy-to-understand style * Heavily illustrated with more than 200 figures; diagrams are professionally drawn * Anatomical figures show root, stem, leaf, and stomata * Figures of instruments show how they work * Book is carefully referenced, giving sources for all information * Struggles and accomplishments of scientists who developed the theories are given in short biographies.
Water Relations of Plants and Soils, successor to the seminal 1983 book by Paul Kramer, covers the entire field of water relations using current concepts and consistent terminology. Emphasis is on the interdependence of processes, including rate of water absorption, rate of transpiration, resistance to water flow into roots, soil factors affecting water availability. New trends in the field, such as the consideration of roots (rather than leaves) as the primary sensors of water stress, are examined in detail. Key Features * Addresses the role of water in the whole range of plant activities * Describes molecular mechanisms of water action in the context of whole plants * Synthesizes recent scientific findings * Relates current concepts to agriculture and ecology * Provides a summary of methods
In many regions of the world, water is scarce. This causes a problem in plant production, as plants rely on water stored in the soil to meet their needs; thus it is the principal factor limiting crop production.Water Dynamics in Plant Production describes the basic scientific principles of water transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, explains the linkage between transpirational water use and dry matter production and presents various agronomic strategies to adapt to climate water shortage.
Between 1958 and 2008, the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere increased from 316 to 385 ppm. Continued increases in CO2 concentration will significantly affect long-term climate change, including variations in agricultural yields. Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2. It describes specific results from pioneering experiments performed over a seven-year period in the Evapotranspiration Laboratory at Kansas State University, along with experiments appearing in peer-reviewed journal articles. Select articles from the literature serve as examples in the text. For each paper discussed, the author includes the common and scientific name of the plant under investigation. For each experiment, the author provides the type of soil used (if given in the original article) and general conditions of the experiment. All references are carefully documented so that readers can easily find the original source. The first chapter of the book deals with drought, the three types of photosynthesis, and how water moves through the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum. With a focus on soil, the next several chapters discuss the composition of the soil atmosphere, the interaction of elevated CO2 with physical factors that affect root growth, variable oxygen concentration of soil, and when the atmosphere above soil is elevated with CO2. The author goes on to examine the use of carbon isotope ratios in plant science; the effects of elevated CO2 on plant water, osmotic, and turgor potentials; and stomata under elevated CO2, including stomatal conductance and density. The text also explains the effects of elevated CO2 on transpiration and evapotranspiration, explores historical aspects of water use efficiency, compares C3 and C4 plants under elevated CO2, and details the advantages of C4 photosynthesis. The concluding chapters cover plant anatomy, the effects of elevated CO2 on phenology, and measures of plant growth. How have plants responded to increased levels of atmospheric CO2? Are some plants reacting better than others? Drawing on a host of scientific studies, this text explores how rising levels of CO2 in the atmosphere have impacted water in plants and soils.
An abridged, student-oriented edition of Hillel's earlier published Environmental Soil Physics, Introduction to Environmental Soil Physics is a more succinct elucidation of the physical principles and processes governing the behavior of soil and the vital role it plays in both natural and managed ecosystems. The textbook is self-contained and self-explanatory, with numerous illustrations and sample problems. Based on sound fundamental theory, the textbook leads to a practical consideration of soil as a living system in nature and illustrates the influences of human activity upon soil structure and function. Students, as well as other readers, will better understand the importance of soils and the pivotal possition they occupy with respect to careful and knowledgeable conservation. Written in an engaging and clear style, posing and resolving issues relevant to the terrestrial environment Explores the gamut of the interactions among the phases in the soil and the dynamic interconnection of the soil with the subterranean and atmospheric domains Reveals the salient ideas, approaches, and methods of environmental soil physics Includes numerous illustrative exercises, which are explicitly solved Designed to serve for classroom and laboratory instruction, for self-study, and for reference Oriented toward practical problems in ecology, field-scale hydrology, agronomy, and civil engineering Differs from earlier texts in its wider scope and holistic environmental conception
Water Relations of Plants attempts to explain the importance of water through a description of the factors that control the plant water balance and how they affect the physiological processes that determine the quantity and quality of growth. Organized into 13 chapters, this book first discusses the functions and properties of water and the plant cell water relations. Subsequent chapters focus on measurement and control of soil water, as well as growth and functions of root. This book also looks into the water absorption, the ascent of sap, the transpiration, and the water stress and its effects on plant processes and growth. This book will be useful for students, teachers, and investigators in both basic and applied plant science, as well as for botanists, agronomists, foresters, horticulturists, soil scientists, and even laymen with an interest in plant water relations.
Designed for undergraduate and graduate students, this book covers important soil physical properties, critical physical processes involving energy and mass transport, movement and retention of water and solutes through soil profile, soil temperature regimes and aeration, and plant-water relations. It includes new concepts and numerical examples fo
To write a handbook of methods is surely to invite criticism, as has already been said several times. On the other hand, there is a great need for methodological manuals in all fields of science. It was therefore decided to compile this book, written in good faith to help scientists, teachers and students who will, it is hoped, use it and judge it good. To be useful to the reader, such a manual must provide a broad review of the methods available and describe them in sufficient detail to permit preliminary selection and judgement. It has to give - at least for selected methods - a suffi ciently detailed description of the equipment and procedure as to be to some extent self-contained. It must assume a critical standpoint as regards the theoretical basis of the methods, the significance of results, and their errors and limitations. It must also furnish examples, pertinent numerical tables, and very complete references. All this and much more is expected of a good manual of methods.
This text presents the principles of mineral nutrition in the light of current advances. For this second edition more emphasis has been placed on root water relations and functions of micronutrients as well as external and internal factors on root growth and the root-soil interface.
Provides an essential introduction to modeling terrestrial ecosystems in Earth system models for graduate students and researchers.