This reference presents a comprehensive description of flow through porous media and solutions to pressure diffusion problems in homogenous, layered, and heterogeneous reservoirs. It covers the fundamentals of interpretation techniques for formation tester pressure gradients, and pretests, multiprobe and packer pressure transient tests, including derivative, convolution, and pressure-rate and pressure-pressure deconvolution. Emphasis is placed on the maximum likelihood method that enables one to estimate error variances in pressure data along with the unknown formation parameters. Serves as a training manual for geologists, petrophysicists, and reservoir engineers on formation and pressure transient testing Offers interpretation techniques for immediate application in the field Provides detailed coverage of pretests, multiprobe and packer pressure transient tests, including derivative, convolution, and pressure-rate and pressure-pressure deconvolution
Traditional well logging methods, such as resistivity,acoustic, nuclear and NMR, provide indirect information related tofluid and formation properties. The “formationtester,” offered in wireline and MWD/LWD operations, isdifferent. It collects actual downhole fluid samples forsurface analysis, and through pressure transient analysis, providesdirect measurements for pore pressure, mobility, permeability andanisotropy. These are vital to real-time drilling safety,geosteering, hydraulic fracturing and economic analysis. Methods for formation testing analysis, while commerciallyimportant and accounting for a substantial part of service companyprofits, however, are shrouded in secrecy. Unfortunately,many are poorly constructed, and because details are not available,industry researchers are not able to improve upon them. Thisnew book explains conventional models and develops new, morepowerful algorithms for early-time analysis, and importantly,addresses a critical area in sampling related to “timerequired to pump clean samples” using rigorous multiphaseflow techniques. All of the methods are explained in completedetail. Equations are offered for users to incorporate intheir own models, but convenient, easy-to-use software is availablefor those needing immediate answers. The leading author is a well known petrophysicist, with hands-onexperience at Schlumberger, Halliburton, BP Exploration and othercompanies. His work is used commercially at major oil servicecompanies, and important extensions to his formation testing modelshave been supported by prestigious grants from the United StatesDepartment of Energy. His new collaboration with ChinaNational Offshore Oil Corporation marks an important turningpoint, where advanced simulation models and hardware are evolvingside-by-side to define a new generation of formation testinglogging instruments. The present book provides more thanformulations and solutions: it offers a close look at formationtester development “behind the scenes,” as the ChinaNational Offshore Oil Corporation opens up its research,engineering and manufacturing facilities through a collection ofinteresting photographs to show how formation testing tools aredeveloped from start to finish.
|Author||: Hedong Sun,Chengtai Gao|
|Publisher||: Gulf Professional Publishing|
|Release Date||: 2017-03-15|
|ISBN 10||: 0128128542|
|Pages||: 372 pages|
Well Test Analysis for Multilayered Reservoirs with Formation Crossflow introduces the fundamentals of well test analysis of a multilayered reservoir with formation crossflow. The effects of reservoir parameters on wellbore pressure and flow rate are examined, as is a proper method that has been established to analyze well test data that leads to better determinations on the reservoir parameters for each layer of the reservoir. Focusing on multilayer models for data analysis, this reference explains the reasons for the existence of single-phase crossflow in multilayer reservoirs, exploring methods to establish them and presenting practical applications to utilize and implement for today’s more complex reservoirs. Aiding in better well testing operations and models, this book is a one-stop solution for today’s reservoir and production engineer, helping them understand every layer of their reservoir. Includes real-world examples of well testing through multilayered reservoirs, whether with crossflow or with formation crossflow Provides strong guidance and criteria of research on reservoir dynamic performance, such as physical models and mathematical models Includes a new unsteady crossflow model for vertical interference testing in low-permeability zones Describes interpretation methods for different cases in multilayer reservoirs, including a new model called semipermeable walls for stratified reservoirs, drawdown test procedures and layer-by-layer test procedures that are useful for shales between layers
Pressure Transient Testing presents the fundamentals of pressure-transient test analysis and design in clear, simple language and explains the theoretical bases of commercial well-test-analysis software. Test-analysis techniques are illustrated with complete and clearly written examples. Additional exercises for classroom or individual practice are provided. With its focus on physical processes and mathematical interpretation, this book appeals to all levels of engineers who want to understand how modern approaches work. Pressure transient test analysis is a mature technology in petroleum engineering; even so, it continues to evolve. Because of the developments in this technology since the last SPE textbook devoted to transient testing was published, we concluded that students could benefit from a textbook approach to the subject that includes a representative sampling of the more important fundamentals and applications. We deliberately distinguish between a textbook approach, which stresses understanding through numerous examples and exercises dealing with selected fundamentals and applications, and a monograph approach, which attempts to summarize the state-of-the-art in the technology. Computational methods that transient test analysts use have gone through a revolution since most existing texts on the subject were written. Most calculations are now done with commercial software or by spreadsheets or proprietary software developed by users to meet personal needs and objectives. These advances in software have greatly increased productivity in this technology, but they also have contributed to a "black box" approach to test analysis. In this text, we attempt to explain what's in the box, and we do not include a number of the modern tools that enhance individual engineer productivity. We hope, instead, to provide understanding so that the student can use the commercial software with greater appreciation and so that the student can read monographs and papers on transient testing with greater appreciation for the context of the subject. Accordingly, this text is but an introduction to the vast field of pressure transient test analysis.
The book comprises two parts: Pressure and Flow Well Testing (Part I) and Temperature Well Testing (Part II), and contains numerous authors’ developments. Due to the similarity in Darcy’s and Fourier’s laws the same differential diffusivity equation describes the transient flow of incompressible fluid in porous medium and heat conduction in solids. Therefore it is reasonable to assume that the techniques and data processing procedures of pressure well tests can be applied to temperature well tests. The book presents new methods to determine the formation of permeability and skin factors from tests conducted in simulated wells, designing interference well tests, processing constant bottom-hole pressure tests, estimation of the formation temperature and geothermal gradients from temperature surveys and logs, in-situ determination of the formation thermal conductivity and contact thermal resistance of boreholes, temperature regime of boreholes (cementing of production liners), and the recovery of thermal equilibrium in deep and superdeep wells. Processing and analysis of pressure and geothermal data are shown on numerous field examples from different regions of the world. The book is intended for students, engineers, and researchers in the field of hydrocarbon geophysics and geology, groundwater searching and exploitation, and subsurface environment examination. It will be also useful for specialists studying pressure and temperature in parametric deep and superdeep wells.
"Gas Well Testing Handbook deals execusively with the theory and practice of gas well testing, including pressure transient analysis technique, analytical methods required to interpret well behavior, evaluating reservoir quality, reservoir simulation, and production forecasts. A highly practical volume, this book is written for drilling engineers, well logging engineers, reservoir engineers, engineering students, geologists, and geophysicists."--BOOK JACKET
|Author||: HuiNong Zhuang|
|Release Date||: 2012-12-31|
|ISBN 10||: 0123977851|
|Pages||: 728 pages|
Data accumulation, analysis, and interpretation technology are critical in hydrocarbon exploration and extraction to maximize petroleum recovery and development. Dynamic Well Testing in Petroleum Exploration and Development presents modern petroleum exploration and well testing interpretation methods, emphasizing their application and development under special geological and development conditions in oil and gas fields. More than 100 case studies and 250 illustrations—many in full color—aid in the retention of key concepts. Extensive analysis of pressure data acquired from well testing through advanced interpretation software can be tailored to specific reservoir environments. This timely, state-of-the-art reference will be of particular interest to petroleum geoscientists and engineers working for oil and gas companies worldwide. Includes graphs that can be used as templates to accurately plot hydrocarbon reservoir data accumulation, analysis, and interpretation Field-practical case studies break information down into real-world examples which can be put into practice—not found in other books on well testing Illustrations—many in full color—help you retain key concepts
Geothermal Well Test Analysis: Fundamentals, Applications and Advanced Techniques provides a comprehensive review of the geothermal pressure transient analysis methodology and its similarities and differences with petroleum and groundwater well test analysis. Also discussed are the different tests undertaken in geothermal wells during completion testing, output/production testing, and the interpretation of data. In addition, the book focuses on pressure transient analysis by numerical simulation and inverse methods, also covering the familiar pressure derivative plot. Finally, non-standard geothermal pressure transient behaviors are analyzed and interpreted by numerical techniques for cases beyond the limit of existing analytical techniques. Provides a guide on the analysis of well test data in geothermal wells, including pressure transient analysis, completion testing and output testing Presents practical information on how to avoid common issues with data collection in geothermal wells Uses SI units, converting existing equations and models found in literature to this unit system instead of oilfield units
Oil Well Testing Handbook is a valuable addition to any reservoir engineer's library, containing the basics of well testing methods as well as all of the latest developments in the field. Not only are "evergreen" subjects, such as layered reservoirs, naturally fractured reservoirs, and wellbore effects, covered in depth, but newer developments, such as well testing for horizontal wells, are covered in full chapters. Covers real-life examples and cases The most up-to-date information on oil well testing available The perfect reference for the engineer or textbook for the petroleum engineering student
Petroleum engineers face the daily challenges of designing and testing wells. Finding the right technical data guide for conducting these tasks can be daunting, and so renowned petroleum engineer George Stewart has written the comprehensive volume Well Test Design & Analysis, filled with advanced information unparalleled on a variety of wellbore topics. From ascertaining accurate reservoir descriptions, to the intricacies of designing a horizontal well program, the author covers every topic in detail. The volume includes a CD containing chapters 16 - 20.
This book on well test analysis, and the use of advanced interpretation models is volume 3 in the series Handbook of Petroleum Exploration and Production. The chapters in the book are: Principles of Transient Testing, Analysis Methods, Wellbore Conditions, Effect of Reservoir Heterogeneities on Well Responses, Effect of Reservoir Boundaries on Well Responses, Multiple Well Testing, Application to Gas Reservoirs, Application to Multiphase Reservoirs, Special Tests, Practical Aspects of Well Test Interpretation.
All too often, senior reservoir managers have found that their junior staff lack an adequate understanding of reservoir management techniques and best practices needed to optimize the development of oil and gas fields. Written by an expert professional/educator, Integrated Reservoir Asset Management introduces the reader to the processes and modeling paradigms needed to develop the skills to increase reservoir output and profitability and decrease guesswork. One of the only references to recognize the technical diversity of modern reservoir management teams, Fanchi seamlessly brings together concepts and terminology, creating an interdisciplinary approach for solving everyday problems. The book starts with an overview of reservoir management, fluids, geological principles used to characterization, and two key reservoir parameters (porosity and permeability). This is followed by an uncomplicated review of multi-phase fluid flow equations, an overview of the reservoir flow modeling process and fluid displacement concepts. All exercises and case studies are based on the authors 30 years of experience and appear at the conclusion of each chapter with hints in addition of full solutions. In addition, the book will be accompanied by a website featuring supplementary case studies and modeling exercises which is supported by an author generated computer program. Straightforward methods for characterizing subsurface environments Effortlessly gain and understanding of rock-fluid interaction relationships An uncomplicated overview of both engineering and scientific processes Exercises at the end of each chapter to demonstrate correct application Modeling tools and additional exercise are included on a companion website