|Author||: Park S. Nobel|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2012-12-02|
|ISBN 10||: 032313761X|
|Pages||: 635 pages|
This text is the successor volume to Biophysical Plant Physiology and Ecology (W.H. Freeman, 1983). The content has been extensively updated based on the growing quantity and quality of plant research, including cell growth and water relations, membrane channels, mechanisms of active transport, and the bioenergetics of chloroplasts and mitochondria. One-third of the figures are new or modified, over 190 new references are incorporated, the appendixes on constants and conversion factors have doubled the number of entries, and the solutions to problems are given for the first time. Many other changes have emanated from the best laboratory for any book, the classroom. · Covers water relations and ion transport for plant cells; diffusion, chemical potential gradients, solute movement in and out of plant cells · Covers interconnection of various energy forms; light, chlorophyll and accessory photosynthesis pigments, ATP and NADPH · Covers forms in which energy and matter enter and leave a plant; energy budget analysis, water vapor and carbon dioxide, water movement from soil to plant to atmosphere
|Author||: Park S. Nobel|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2005-02-07|
|ISBN 10||: 0125200269|
|Pages||: 567 pages|
"Physiology," which is the study of the function of cells, organs, and organisms, derives from the Latin physiologia, which in turn comes from the Greek physi- or physio-, a prefix meaning natural, and logos, meaning reason or thought. Thus physiology suggests natural science and is now a branch of biology dealing with processes and activities that are characteristic of living things. "Physicochemical" relates to physical and chemical properties, and "Environmental" refers to topics such as solar irradiation and wind. "Plant" indicates the main focus of this book, but the approach, equations developed, and appendices apply equalIy welI to animaIs and other organisms. We wilI specificalIy consider water relations, solute transport, photosynthesis, transpiration, respiration, and environmental interactions. A physiologist endeavors to understand such topics in physical and chemical terms; accurate models can then be constructed and responses to the internal and the external environment can be predicted. Elementary chemistry, physics, and mathematics are used to develop concepts that are key to under-standing biology -the intent is to provide a rigorous development, not a compendium of facts. References provide further details, although in some cases the enunciated principIes carry the reader to the forefront of current research. Calculations are used to indicate the physiological consequences of the various equations, and problems at the end of chapters provide further such exercises. Solutions to alI of the problems are provided, and the appendixes have a large tist of values for constants and conversion factors at various temperatures.
|Author||: Park S. Nobel|
|Release Date||: 2005-05-24|
|ISBN 10||: 0080455115|
|Pages||: 540 pages|
The new edition of Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology uses elementary chemistry, physics, and mathematics to explain and develop key concepts in plant physiology. In fundamental ways, all physiological processes that occur in cells, tissues, organs, and organisms obey such relations. Topics include diffusion, membranes, water relations, ion transport, photochemistry, bioenergetics of energy conversion, photosynthesis, environmental influences on plant temperature, and gas exchange for leaves and whole plants. This new edition maintains the unparalleled commitment to clear presentation and improves upon the user friendliness of the previous versions. * All illustrations have been redrawn, many in two-color * New material includes: 14 new figures, 100 new references, 20 new equations and considerable new and revised text * Extensive cross-referencing with a simpler system for chapter sections and subsections * Easy-to-use format including major equations being presented at the beginning of each chapter, and calculations presented outside of the chapter text
Environmental Plant Physiology focuses on the physiology of plant-environment interactions, revealing plants as the key terrestrial intersection of the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere. It provides a contemporary understanding of the topic by focusing on some of humankind's fundamental biological, agricultural and environmental challenges. Its chapters identify thirteen key environmental variables, grouping them into resources, stressors and pollutants, and leading the reader through how they challenge plants and how plants respond at molecular, physiological, whole plant and ecological levels. The importance of taking account of spatial and temporal dimensions of environmental change in order to understand plant function is emphasised. The book uses a mixture of ecological, environmental and agricultural examples throughout in order to provide a holistic view of the topic suitable for a contemporary student audience. Each chapter uses a novel stress response hierarchy to integrate plant responses across spatial and temporal scales in an easily digestible framework.
The functioning of all living systems obeys the laws of physics in fundamental ways. This is true for all physiological processes that occur inside cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. The new edition of Park Nobel's classic text has been revised in an unprecedented fashion, while still remaining user-friendly and clearly presented. Certain to maintain its leading role in teaching general and comparative physiological principles, Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology now establishes a new standard of excellence in teaching advanced physiology.The book covers water relations and ion transport for plant cells, including diffusion, chemical potential gradients, and solute movement in and out of plant cells. It also presents the interconnection of various energy forms, such as light, chlorophyll and accessory photosynthesis pigments, and ATP and NADPH. Additionally, the book describes the forms in which energy and matter enter and leave a plant, for example: energy budget analysis, water vapor and carbon dioxide, and water movement from soil to plant to atmosphere.
This introduction to the features of the atmospheric environment is of particular relevance to plants and describes the physical and physiological principles required for understanding their interaction with the environment.
O.L. LANGE, P.S. NOBEL, C.B. OSMOND, and H. ZIEGLER Growth, development and reproductive success of individual plants depend on the interaction, within tolerance limits, of the factors in the physical, chemical and biological environment. The first two volumes of this series addressed fea tures of the physical environment (Vol. 12A) and the special responses of land plants as they relate to water use and carbon dioxide assimilation (Vol. 12B). In this volume we consider specific aspects of the chemical and biological envi ronment, and whereas the previous volumes were primarily concerned with the atmospheric interactions, our emphasis here shifts very much to the soil. This complex medium for plant growth was briefly reviewed in Chapter 17, Volume 12A. Since it is difficult to determine the precise physical and chemical interactions in the soil, it is even more difficult to determine the important biological interactions among organisms. Nevertheless there is growing aware ness of the significance of these interactions and their effects on physiological processes in the individual plant.
Cells and difusion. Cell structure. Diffusion. Membrane structure. Membrane permeability. Cell walls. Problems. Water. Physical properties. Chemical potential. Central vacuole and chloroplasts. Water potential and plant cells. Chemical potential of ions. Fluxes and diffusion potentials. Active transport. Principles of irreversible thermodynamics. Solute movement across membranes. Light. Wavelength and energy. Absorption of light by molecules. De-excitation. Absorption spectra and action spectra. Photochemistry of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll -- Chemistry and spectra. Other photosynthetic pigments. Electron flow. Bioenergetics. Gibbs free energy. Biological energy currencies. Chloroplast bioenergetics. Energy flow in the biosphere. Temperature. Energy budget -- radiation. Wind -- heat conduction and convection. Latent heat -- transpiration. Soil. Further examples of energy budgets. Leaves and fluxes. Resistances and conductances -- transpiration. Water vapor fluxes accompanying transpiration. CO2 conductances and resistances. CO2 fluxes accompanying photosyntesis. Water use efficiency. Plants and fluxes. Gas fluxes above the leaf canopy. Gas fluxes within plant communities. Soil. Water movement in the xylem and phloem. The soil-plant-atmosphere continuum.
This book provides current information on synthesis of plant hormones, how their concentrations are regulated, and how they modulate various plant processes. It details how plants sense and tolerate such factors as drought, salinity, and cold temperature, factors that limit plant productivity on earth. It also explains how plants sense two other environmental signals, light and gravity, and modify their developmental patterns in response to those signals. This book takes the reader from basic concepts to the most up-to-date thinking on these topics. * Provides clear synthesis and review of hormonal and environmental regulation of plant growth and development * Contains more than 600 illustrations supplementary information on techniques and/or related topics of interest * Single-authored text provides uniformity of presentation and integration of the subject matter * References listed alphabetically in each section
This book focuses on the fundamentals of plant physiology for undergraduate and graduate students. It consists of 34 chapters divided into five major units. Unit I discusses the unique mechanisms of water and ion transport, while Unit II describes the various metabolic events essential for plant development that result from plants’ ability to capture photons from sunlight, to convert inorganic forms of nutrition to organic forms and to synthesize high energy molecules, such as ATP. Light signal perception and transduction works in perfect coordination with a wide variety of plant growth regulators in regulating various plant developmental processes, and these aspects are explored in Unit III. Unit IV investigates plants’ various structural and biochemical adaptive mechanisms to enable them to survive under a wide variety of abiotic stress conditions (salt, temperature, flooding, drought), pathogen and herbivore attack (biotic interactions). Lastly, Unit V addresses the large number of secondary metabolites produced by plants that are medicinally important for mankind and their applications in biotechnology and agriculture. Each topic is supported by illustrations, tables and information boxes, and a glossary of important terms in plant physiology is provided at the end.
"There is nothing in the world like this book. It should be in every library and on the bookshelves of all those interested in cacti. The book will be an important resource for plant physiology, agronomy, and horticulture classes at both the undergraduate and graduate level."—Bruce Smith, Brigham Young University "Cacti: Biology and Uses is a landmark publication of one of the world's most unique group of plants. Park Nobel, a leading authority on succulent plants, has assembled a collection of contributions that spans a wide range of issues extending from basic systematics, anatomy, physiology and ecology to considerations of conservation and human uses of this diverse group of plants. This nicely-produced and well-illustrated volume provides a resource that will be of great use to a wide range of scientists, practitioners, and enthusiasts of this plant group."—Harold Mooney, Paul S. Achilles Professor of Environmental Biology, Stanford University
Herbicides make a spectacular contribution to modern crop production. Yet, for the development of more effective and safer agrochemicals, it is essential to understand how these compounds work in plants and their surroundings. This expanded and fully revised second edition of Herbicides and Plant Physiology provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of how modern herbicides interact with target plants, and how they are used to manage crop production. In addition, the text: Provides a current account of the importance of weeds to crop yield and quality; Describes how new herbicides are discovered and developed; Examines precise sites of herbicide action and mechanisms of herbicide selectivity and resistance; Reviews commercial and biotechnological applications, including genetically engineered herbicide resistance in crops; Suggests new areas for future herbicide development; Includes many specially prepared illustrations. As a summary of diverse research information, this second edition of Herbicides and Plant Physiology is a valuable reference for students and researchers in plant physiology, crop production/protection, plant biochemistry, biotechnology and agriculture. All libraries in universities, agricultural colleges and research establishments where these subjects are studied and taught will need copies of this excellent book on their shelves.