photo electroactive nonvolatile memories for data storage and neuromorphic computing

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Photo-Electroactive Non-Volatile Memories for Data Storage and Neuromorphic Computing
Author : Su-Ting Han,Ye Zhou
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2020-05-26
ISBN 10 : 0128226064
Pages : 352 pages

Photo-Electroactive Non-Volatile Memories for Data Storage and Neuromorphic Computing summarizes advances in the development of photo-electroactive memories and neuromorphic computing systems, suggests possible solutions to the challenges of device design, and evaluates the prospects for commercial applications. Sections covers developments in electro-photoactive memory, and photonic neuromorphic and in-memory computing, including discussions on design concepts, operation principles and basic storage mechanism of optoelectronic memory devices, potential materials from organic molecules, semiconductor quantum dots to two-dimensional materials with desirable electrical and optical properties, device challenges, and possible strategies. This comprehensive, accessible and up-to-date book will be of particular interest to graduate students and researchers in solid-state electronics. It is an invaluable systematic introduction to the memory characteristics, operation principles and storage mechanisms of the latest reported electro-photoactive memory devices. Reviews the most promising materials to enable emerging computing memory and data storage devices, including one- and two-dimensional materials, metal oxides, semiconductors, organic materials, and more Discusses fundamental mechanisms and design strategies for two- and three-terminal device structures Addresses device challenges and strategies to enable translation of optical and optoelectronic technologies

Resistive Switching
Author : Daniele Ielmini,Rainer Waser
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2015-12-28
ISBN 10 : 3527680942
Pages : 784 pages

With its comprehensive coverage, this reference introduces readers to the wide topic of resistance switching, providing the knowledge, tools, and methods needed to understand, characterize and apply resistive switching memories. Starting with those materials that display resistive switching behavior, the book explains the basics of resistive switching as well as switching mechanisms and models. An in-depth discussion of memory reliability is followed by chapters on memory cell structures and architectures, while a section on logic gates rounds off the text. An invaluable self-contained book for materials scientists, electrical engineers and physicists dealing with memory research and development.

Advances in Memristors, Memristive Devices and Systems
Author : Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan,Christos Volos
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-02-15
ISBN 10 : 3319517244
Pages : 511 pages

This book reports on the latest advances in and applications of memristors, memristive devices and systems. It gathers 20 contributed chapters by subject experts, including pioneers in the field such as Leon Chua (UC Berkeley, USA) and R.S. Williams (HP Labs, USA), who are specialized in the various topics addressed in this book, and covers broad areas of memristors and memristive devices such as: memristor emulators, oscillators, chaotic and hyperchaotic memristive systems, control of memristive systems, memristor-based min-max circuits, canonic memristors, memristive-based neuromorphic applications, implementation of memristor-based chaotic oscillators, inverse memristors, linear memristor devices, delayed memristive systems, flux-controlled memristive emulators, etc. Throughout the book, special emphasis is given to papers offering practical solutions and design, modeling, and implementation insights to address current research problems in memristors, memristive devices and systems. As such, it offers a valuable reference book on memristors and memristive devices for graduate students and researchers with a basic knowledge of electrical and control systems engineering.

Neuro-inspired Computing Using Resistive Synaptic Devices
Author : Shimeng Yu
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-05-04
ISBN 10 : 9783319543123
Pages : 269 pages

This book summarizes the recent breakthroughs in hardware implementation of neuro-inspired computing using resistive synaptic devices. The authors describe how two-terminal solid-state resistive memories can emulate synaptic weights in a neural network. Readers will benefit from state-of-the-art summaries of resistive synaptic devices, from the individual cell characteristics to the large-scale array integration. This book also discusses peripheral neuron circuits design challenges and design strategies. Finally, the authors describe the impact of device non-ideal properties (e.g. noise, variation, yield) and their impact on the learning performance at the system-level, using a device-algorithm co-design methodology.

Carbon-Based Smart Materials
Author : Constantinos A. Charitidis,Elias P. Koumoulos,Dimitrios A. Dragatogiannis
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release Date : 2020-04-20
ISBN 10 : 3110479133
Pages : 194 pages

Presents technologies and key concepts to produce suitable smart materials and intelligent structures for sensing, information and communication technology, biomedical applications (drug delivery, hyperthermia therapy), self-healing, flexible memories and construction technologies. Novel developments of environmental friendly, cost-effective and scalable production processes are discussed by experts in the field.

Frontiers of Materials Research
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Physics and Astronomy,National Materials and Manufacturing Board,Committee on Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2019-09-12
ISBN 10 : 0309483875
Pages : 294 pages

Modern materials science builds on knowledge from physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, computer and data science, and engineering sciences to enable us to understand, control, and expand the material world. Although it is anchored in inquiry-based fundamental science, materials research is strongly focused on discovering and producing reliable and economically viable materials, from super alloys to polymer composites, that are used in a vast array of products essential to today's societies and economies. Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey is aimed at documenting the status and promising future directions of materials research in the United States in the context of similar efforts worldwide. This third decadal survey in materials research reviews the progress and achievements in materials research and changes in the materials research landscape over the last decade; research opportunities for investment for the period 2020-2030; impacts that materials research has had and is expected to have on emerging technologies, national needs, and science; and challenges the enterprise may face over the next decade.

Internet of Things in Smart Technologies for Sustainable Urban Development
Author : G. R. Kanagachidambaresan,R. Maheswar,V. Manikandan,K. Ramakrishnan
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2020-05-12
ISBN 10 : 3030343286
Pages : 248 pages

This book provides solution for challenges facing engineers in urban environments looking towards smart development and IoT. The authors address the challenges faced in developing smart applications along with the solutions. Topics addressed include reliability, security and financial issues in relation to all the smart and sustainable development solutions discussed. The solutions they provide are affordable, resistive to threats, and provide high reliability. The book pertains to researchers, academics, professionals, and students. Provides solutions to urban sustainable development problems facing engineers in developing and developed countries Discusses results with industrial problems and current issues in smart city development Includes solutions that are reliable, secure and financially sound

Integrated Multiferroic Heterostructures and Applications
Author : Ming Liu,Ziyao Zhou
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2019-05-06
ISBN 10 : 3527341773
Pages : 264 pages

Written by well-known experts in the field, this first systematic overview of multiferroic heterostructures summarizes the latest developments, first presenting the fundamental mechanisms, including multiferroic materials synthesis, structures and mechanisms, before going on to look at device applications. The resulting text offers insight and understanding for scientists and students new to this area.

Ionic Polymer Metal Composites for Sensors and Actuators
Author : Inamuddin,Abdullah M. Asiri
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2019-06-04
ISBN 10 : 3030137287
Pages : 207 pages

This book discusses the fundamental of bending actuation with a focus on ionic metal composites. It describes the applications of ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators, from conventional robotic systems to compliant micro robotic systems used to handle the miniature and fragile components during robotic micro assembly. It also presents mathematical modelings of actuators for engineering, biomedical, medical and environmental systems. The fundamental relation of IPMC actuators to the biomimetic systems are also included.

Interfacing Bioelectronics and Biomedical Sensing
Author : Hung Cao,Todd Coleman,Tzung K. Hsiai,Ali Khademhosseini
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2020-02-13
ISBN 10 : 3030344673
Pages : 234 pages

This book addresses the fundamental challenges underlying bioelectronics and tissue interface for clinical investigation. Appropriate for biomedical engineers and researchers, the authors cover topics ranging from retinal implants to restore vision, implantable circuits for neural implants, and intravascular electrochemical impedance to detect unstable plaques. In addition to these chapters, the authors also document the approaches and issues of multi-scale physiological assessment and monitoring in both humans and animal models for health monitoring and biological investigations; novel biomaterials such as conductive and biodegradable polymers to be used in biomedical devices; and the optimization of wireless power transfer via inductive coupling for batteryless and wireless implantable medical devices. In addition to engineers and researchers, this book is also an ideal supplementary or reference book for a number of courses in biomedical engineering programs, such as bioinstrumentation, MEMS/BioMEMS, bioelectronics and sensors, and more. Analyzes and discusses the electrode-tissue interfaces for optimization of biomedical devices. Introduces novel biomaterials to be used in next-generation biomedical devices. Discusses high-frequency transducers for biomedical applications.

CHIPS 2020 VOL. 2
Author : Bernd Höfflinger
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2015-09-19
ISBN 10 : 3319220934
Pages : 319 pages

The release of this second volume of CHIPS 2020 coincides with the 50th anniversary of Moore’s Law, a critical year marked by the end of the nanometer roadmap and by a significantly reduced annual rise in chip performance. At the same time, we are witnessing a data explosion in the Internet, which is consuming 40% more electrical power every year, leading to fears of a major blackout of the Internet by 2020. The messages of the first CHIPS 2020, published in 2012, concerned the realization of quantum steps for improving the energy efficiency of all chip functions. With this second volume, we review these messages and amplify upon the most promising directions: ultra-low-voltage electronics, nanoscale monolithic 3D integration, relevant-data, brain- and human-vision-inspired processing, and energy harvesting for chip autonomy. The team of authors, enlarged by more world leaders in low-power, monolithic 3D, video, and Silicon brains, presents new vistas in nanoelectronics, promising Moore-like exponential growth sustainable through to the 2030s.

Environmental Applications of Instrumental Chemical Analysis
Author : Mahmood Barbooti
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2015-04-15
ISBN 10 : 1482262649
Pages : 604 pages

This book is a comprehensive review of the instrumental analytical methods and their use in environmental monitoring site assessment and remediation follow-up operations. The increased concern about environmental issues such as water pollution, air pollution, accumulation of pollutants in food, global climate change, and effective remediation processes necessitate the precise determination of various types of chemicals in environmental samples. In general, all stages of environmental work start with the evaluation of organic and inorganic environmental samples. This important book furnishes the fundamentals of instrumental chemical analysis methods to various environmental applications and also covers recent developments in instrumental chemical methods. Covering a wide variety of topics in the field, the book: • Presents an introduction to environmental chemistry • Presents the fundamentals of instrumental chemical analysis methods that are used mostly in the environmental work. • Examines instrumental methods of analysis including UV/Vis, FTIR, atomic absorption, induced coupled plasma emission, electrochemical methods like potentiometry, voltametry, coulometry, and chromatographic methods such as GC and HPLC • Presents newly introduced chromatographic methodologies such as ion electrophoresis, and combinations of chromatography with pyrolysis methods are given • Discusses selected methods for the determinations of various pollutants in water, air, and land Readers will gain a general review of modern instrumental method of chemical analysis that is useful in environmental work and will learn how to select methods for analyzing certain samples. Analytical instrumentation and its underlying principles are presented, along with the types of sample for which each instrument is best suited. Some noninstrumental techniques, such as colorimetric detection tubes for gases and immnosassays, are also discussed.

Advanced Mechatronics and MEMS Devices II
Author : Dan Zhang,Bin Wei
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2016-10-18
ISBN 10 : 3319321803
Pages : 718 pages

This book introduces the state-of-the-art technologies in mechatronics, robotics, and MEMS devices in order to improve their methodologies. It provides a follow-up to "Advanced Mechatronics and MEMS Devices" (2013) with an exploration of the most up-to-date technologies and their applications, shown through examples that give readers insights and lessons learned from actual projects. Researchers on mechatronics, robotics, and MEMS as well as graduate students in mechanical engineering will find chapters on: Fundamental design and working principles on MEMS accelerometers Innovative mobile technologies Force/tactile sensors development Control schemes for reconfigurable robotic systems Inertial microfluidics Piezoelectric force sensors and dynamic calibration techniques ...And more. Authors explore applications in the areas of agriculture, biomedicine, advanced manufacturing, and space. Micro-assembly for current and future industries is also considered, as well as the design and development of micro and intelligent manufacturing.

Nonregular Nanosystems
Author : Yuri Shunin,Stefano Bellucci,Alytis Gruodis,Tamara Lobanova-Shunina
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-11-27
ISBN 10 : 3319691678
Pages : 406 pages

This book presents a systemic view of nanophenomena in terms of disordered condensed media with characteristics arising at various hierarchical levels from nanoagents/nanoparticles through multiple technological interfaces to the creation of micro- or mesostructures with essential nanodimensional effects. These properties can be seen in various schemes for the functionalization of nanocarbon systems, namely, CNTs, GNRs, GNFs, carbon-based nanoaerogels, nanofoams, and so on, where nonregularities characterize surface nanointeractions and various nanointerconnects, resulting in both predictable and unpredictable effects. Beginning with nanosensing and finishing with other forms of functionalized nanomaterials, these effects will define the prospective qualities of future consumer nanoproducts and nanodevices. This book covers all aspects of nonregular nanosystems arising from the fundamental properties of disordered nanosized media, from electronic structure, surface nanophysics, and allotropic forms of carbon such as graphene and fullerenes including defect characterization, to spintronics and 3D device principles. Nonregular Nanosystems will be of interest to students and specialists in various fields of nanotechnology and nanoscience, experts on surface nanophysics and nanochemistry, as well as managers dealing with marketing of nanoproducts and consumer behavior research.

The Global Technology Revolution 2020, In-Depth Analyses: Bio/Nano/Materials/Information Trends, Drivers, Barriers, and Social Implications
Author : Richard Silberglitt,Philip S. Anton,David R. Howell,Anny Wong,Natalie Gassman
Publisher : Rand Corporation
Release Date : 2002-08-30
ISBN 10 : 9780833041142
Pages : 314 pages

In 2020, areas of particular importance for technology trends will include biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials technology, and information technology. This report, the companion document to The Global Technology Revolution 2020, Executive Summary (Silberglitt et al., MG-475-NIC, 2006), assesses in detail a sample of 29 countries with respect to their ability to acquire and implement 16 key technology applications.

Author : Robert K. Shepherd
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2016-08-29
ISBN 10 : 111881603X
Pages : 360 pages

Technological advances have greatly increased the potential for, and practicability of, using medical neurotechnologies to revolutionize how a wide array of neurological and nervous system diseases and dysfunctions are treated. These technologies have the potential to help reduce the impact of symptoms in neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s Disease and depression as well as help regain lost function caused by spinal cord damage or nerve damage. Medical Neurobionics is a concise overview of the biological underpinnings of neurotechnologies, the development process for these technologies, and the practical application of these advances in clinical settings. Medical Neurobionics is divided into three sections. The first section focuses specifically on providing a sound foundational understanding of the biological mechanisms that support the development of neurotechnologies. The second section looks at the efforts being carried out to develop new and exciting bioengineering advances. The book then closes with chapters that discuss practical clinical application and explore the ethical questions that surround neurobionics. A timely work that provides readers with a useful introduction to the field, Medical Neurobionics will be an essential book for neuroscientists, neuroengineers, biomedical researchers, and industry personnel.

Transition Metal Oxide Thin Film based Chromogenics and Devices
Author : Ashrit Pandurang
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2017-06-01
ISBN 10 : 0081017480
Pages : 416 pages

Transition Metal Oxide Thin Film based Chromogenics and Devices discusses the recent experimental and theoretical developments in the field of chromogenics based on the transitional metal oxide (TMO) thin films. Understanding the relationship between the switching properties of TMO materials and their nanostructure is of paramount importance in developing efficient chromogenic devices. The tailoring of these switching behaviors is afforded detailed coverage in this book alongside in-depth discussion of a range of chromogenic materials and devices, including photochromics, thermochromics, and electrochromics. The book covers both the theoretical aspects of TMO thin film based chromogenics and their engineering applications in device construction. Academics and professionals in the field of materials science and optics will find this book to be a key resource, whether their focus is low-dimension materials, light-materials interaction, or device development. Enables researchers to keep up with recent developments in thin film based chromogenics Provides detailed coverage of the switching mechanism of the various transitional metal oxide thin films to assist readers in developing more efficient devices Offers in-depth discussion of a range of chromogenic materials and devices, including thermochromics, photochromics and electrochromics

Memristors for Neuromorphic Circuits and Artificial Intelligence Applications
Author : Jordi Suñé
Publisher : MDPI
Release Date : 2020-04-09
ISBN 10 : 3039285769
Pages : 244 pages

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has found many applications in the past decade due to the ever increasing computing power. Artificial Neural Networks are inspired in the brain structure and consist in the interconnection of artificial neurons through artificial synapses. Training these systems requires huge amounts of data and, after the network is trained, it can recognize unforeseen data and provide useful information. The so-called Spiking Neural Networks behave similarly to how the brain functions and are very energy efficient. Up to this moment, both spiking and conventional neural networks have been implemented in software programs running on conventional computing units. However, this approach requires high computing power, a large physical space and is energy inefficient. Thus, there is an increasing interest in developing AI tools directly implemented in hardware. The first hardware demonstrations have been based on CMOS circuits for neurons and specific communication protocols for synapses. However, to further increase training speed and energy efficiency while decreasing system size, the combination of CMOS neurons with memristor synapses is being explored. The memristor is a resistor with memory which behaves similarly to biological synapses. This book explores the state-of-the-art of neuromorphic circuits implementing neural networks with memristors for AI applications.

Author : Ashim Kumar Bain,Prem Chand
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2017-01-27
ISBN 10 : 3527805338
Pages : 328 pages

Combining both fundamental principles and real-life applications in a single volume, this book discusses the latest research results in ferroelectrics, including many new ferroelectric materials for the latest technologies, such as capacitors, transducers and memories. The first two chapters introduce dielectrics and microscopic materials properties, while the following chapter discusses pyroelectricity and piezoelectricity. The larger part of the text is devoted to ferroelectricity and ferroelectric ceramics, with not only their fundamentals but also applications discussed. The book concludes with a look at the future for laser printed materials and applications. With over 600 references to recent publications on piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials, this is an invaluable reference for physicists, materials scientists and engineers.

Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology
Author : Yoshio Nishi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-06-24
ISBN 10 : 0857098098
Pages : 532 pages

New solutions are needed for future scaling down of nonvolatile memory. Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology provides an overview of developing technologies and explores their strengths and weaknesses. After an overview of the current market, part one introduces improvements in flash technologies, including developments in 3D NAND flash technologies and flash memory for ultra-high density storage devices. Part two looks at the advantages of designing phase change memory and resistive random access memory technologies. It looks in particular at the fabrication, properties, and performance of nanowire phase change memory technologies. Later chapters also consider modeling of both metal oxide and resistive random access memory switching mechanisms, as well as conductive bridge random access memory technologies. Finally, part three looks to the future of alternative technologies. The areas covered include molecular, polymer, and hybrid organic memory devices, and a variety of random access memory devices such as nano-electromechanical, ferroelectric, and spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive devices. Advances in Non-volatile Memory and Storage Technology is a key resource for postgraduate students and academic researchers in physics, materials science, and electrical engineering. It is a valuable tool for research and development managers concerned with electronics, semiconductors, nanotechnology, solid-state memories, magnetic materials, organic materials, and portable electronic devices. Provides an overview of developing nonvolatile memory and storage technologies and explores their strengths and weaknesses Examines improvements to flash technology, charge trapping, and resistive random access memory Discusses emerging devices such as those based on polymer and molecular electronics, and nanoelectromechanical random access memory (RAM)