Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and optimization is analyzed. The relation between the mixture molecular properties, the selection of the thermodynamic model and the process technology that could be applied are discussed. A classification of mixtures, separation process, thermodynamic models and technologies is presented to guide the engineer in the world of separation processes. The phase condition required for a given reacting system is studied at subcritical and supercritical conditions. The four cardinal points of phase equilibrium engineering are: the chemical plant or process, the laboratory, the modeling of phase equilibria and the simulator. The harmonization of all these components to obtain a better design or operation is the ultimate goal of phase equilibrium engineering. Methodologies are discussed using relevant industrial examples The molecular nature and composition of the process mixture is given a key role in process decisions Phase equilibrium diagrams are used as a drawing board for process implementation
This chapter starts with the analysis of the distillation path of binary mixtures on the general phase behavior P–T diagram of binary mixtures. The univariant lines of these diagrams limit the region of vapor–liquid equilibria where binary distillation can be applied. On this basis, the conditions under which distillation is possible for types I, II, IV, and V of binary mixtures are discussed. Furthermore, in this chapter, the principles of fractional distillation, as well as the computational procedures, are discussed. The thermodynamic modeling of a train of distillation columns to separate the components of an ethane-cracked gas mixture is used to develop a strategy for an equation of state parameter tuning. This strategy is based on the analysis of the distillation column phase equilibrium sensitivity and leads to an unique matrix of equation of state dominant binary parameters for the whole fractionation train. The chapter ends with a list of phase equilibrium engineering guidelines to make a realistic design/simulation of distillation columns.
This chapter illustrates the wide variety of binary fluid phase equilibrium diagrams that can be obtained using models based on equations of state (EOS). It also highlights the need for paying attention to the predicted binary key lines, such as the critical and the liquid–liquid–vapor equilibrium lines, when fitting binary interaction parameters of an EOS model. In addition, efficient algorithms for the EOS-based automated computation of complete Univariant Lines Phase Equilibrium Diagrams and of complete restricted binary phase equilibrium diagrams, such as isoplethic, isothermal, or isobaric diagrams, are described.
Phase Equilibria in Chemical Engineering is devoted to the thermodynamic basis and practical aspects of the calculation of equilibrium conditions of multiple phases that are pertinent to chemical engineering processes. Efforts have been made throughout the book to provide guidance to adequate theory and practice. The book begins with a long chapter on equations of state, since it is intimately bound up with the development of thermodynamics. Following material on basic thermodynamics and nonidealities in terms of fugacities and activities, individual chapters are devoted to equilibria primarily between pairs of phases. A few topics that do not fit into these categories and for which the state of the art is not yet developed quantitatively have been relegated to a separate chapter. The chapter on chemical equilibria is pertinent since many processes involve simultaneous chemical and phase equilibria. Also included are chapters on the evaluation of enthalpy and entropy changes of nonideal substances and mixtures, and on experimental methods. This book is intended as a reference and self-study as well as a textbook either for full courses in phase equilibria or as a supplement to related courses in the chemical engineering curriculum. Practicing engineers concerned with separation technology and process design also may find the book useful.
Phase Equilibrium in Mixtures deals with phase equilibrium and the methods of correlating, checking, and predicting phase data. Topics covered range from latent heat and vapor pressure to dilute solutions, ideal and near-ideal solutions, and consistency tests. Molecular considerations and their use for the prediction and correlation of data are also discussed. Comprised of nine chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the role of thermodynamics and the criteria for equilibrium between phases, along with fugacity and the thermodynamic functions of mixing. The discussion then turns to some of the phase phenomena which may be encountered in chemical engineering practice; methods of correlating and extending vapor pressure data and practical techniques for calculating latent heats from these data; the behavior of dilute solutions both at low and high pressures for reacting and non-reacting systems; and the behavior of ideal and near-ideal solutions. The remaining chapters explore non-ideal solutions at normal pressures; practical methods for testing the thermodynamic consistency of phase data; and the extent to which the broad aspects of phase behavior may be interpreted in the light of simple molecular considerations. This book is intended primarily for graduate chemical engineers but should also be of interest to those graduates in physics or chemistry who need to use phase equilibrium data.
|Author||: Tarek Ahmed|
|Publisher||: Gulf Professional Publishing|
|Release Date||: 2009-08-27|
|ISBN 10||: 9781856179027|
|Pages||: 300 pages|
Working Guide to Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibria Calculations offers a practical guide for calculations of vapor-phase equilibria. The book begins by introducing basic concepts such as vapor pressure, vapor pressure charts, equilibrium ratios, and flash calculations. It then presents methods for predicting the equilibrium ratios of hydrocarbon mixtures: Wilson's correlation, Standing's correlation, convergence pressure method, and Whitson and Torp correlation. The book describes techniques to determine equilibrium ratios of the plus fraction, including Campbell's method, Winn's method, and Katz's method. The remaining chapters cover the solution of phase equilibrium problems in reservoir and process engineering; developments in the field of empirical cubic equations of state (EOS) and their applications in petroleum engineering; and the splitting of the plus fraction for EOS calculations. Includes explanations of formulas Step by step calculations Provides examples and solutions
|Author||: Camila Gambini Pereira|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2018-10-17|
|ISBN 10||: 0128115572|
|Pages||: 682 pages|
Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in Food Engineering is the definitive book on thermodynamics of equilibrium applied to food engineering. Food is a complex matrix consisting of different groups of compounds divided into macronutrients (lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins), and micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals). The quality characteristics of food products associated with the sensorial, physical and microbiological attributes are directly related to the thermodynamic properties of specific compounds and complexes that are formed during processing or by the action of diverse interventions, such as the environment, biochemical reactions, and others. In addition, in obtaining bioactive substances using separation processes, the knowledge of phase equilibria of food systems is essential to provide an efficient separation, with a low cost in the process and high selectivity in the recovery of the desired component. This book combines theory and application of phase equilibria data of systems containing food compounds to help food engineers and researchers to solve complex problems found in food processing. It provides support to researchers from academia and industry to better understand the behavior of food materials in the face of processing effects, and to develop ways to improve the quality of the food products. Presents the fundamentals of phase equilibria in the food industry Describes both classic and advanced models, including cubic equations of state and activity coefficient Encompasses distillation, solid-liquid extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, crystallization and supercritical fluid extraction Explores equilibrium in advanced systems, including colloidal, electrolyte and protein systems
|Author||: Saka Hiroyasu|
|Publisher||: World Scientific|
|Release Date||: 2020-01-08|
|ISBN 10||: 9811203725|
|Pages||: 188 pages|
Phase diagrams are a MUST for materials scientists and engineers (MSEs). However, understanding phase diagrams is a difficult task for most MSEs. The audience of this book are young MSEs who start learning phase diagrams and are supposed to become specialists and those who were trained in fields other than materials science and engineering but are involved in research and/or development of materials after they are employed.Ternary phase diagrams presented in Chapter 4 are far more complex than binary phase diagrams. For this reason, ternary phase diagrams are nowadays less and less taught. However, in ceramics and semiconductors ternary phase diagrams become more and more important. Recent software provides necessary information to handle ternary phase diagrams. However, needless to say, without fundamental knowledge of ternary phase diagrams it is impossible to understand ternary phase diagrams correctly. In this book ternary phase diagrams are presented in a completely original way, with many diagrams illustrated in full color.In this book the essence of phase diagrams is presented in a user-friendly manner. This book is expected to be a Bible for MSEs.
Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, third edition retains the characteristics that made this introductory text a success in prior editions. It is still a book that emphasizes material and energy balances and maintains a practical orientation throughout. No more math is included than is required to understand the concepts presented. To meet the demands of today's market, the author has included many problems suitable for solution by computer. Two brand new chapters are included. The first, on mixing, augments the book's coverage of practical issues encountered in this field. The second, on computational fluid dynamics (CFD), shows students the connection between hand and computational fluid dynamics.
The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram classes, how to recognize them and identify their characteristic features presents rational nomenclature of binary fluid phase diagrams includes problems and solutions for self-testing, exercises or seminars
|Author||: Arthur D. Pelton|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2018-09-19|
|ISBN 10||: 0128016698|
|Pages||: 401 pages|
Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions provides readers with an understanding of thermodynamics and phase equilibria that is required to make full and efficient use of these tools. The book systematically discusses phase diagrams of all types, the thermodynamics behind them, their calculations from thermodynamic databases, and the structural models of solutions used in the development of these databases. Featuring examples from a wide range of systems including metals, salts, ceramics, refractories, and concentrated aqueous solutions, Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions is a vital resource for researchers and developers in materials science, metallurgy, combustion and energy, corrosion engineering, environmental engineering, geology, glass technology, nuclear engineering, and other fields of inorganic chemical and materials science and engineering. Additionally, experts involved in developing thermodynamic databases will find a comprehensive reference text of current solution models. Presents a rigorous and complete development of thermodynamics for readers who already have a basic understanding of chemical thermodynamics Provides an in-depth understanding of phase equilibria Includes information that can be used as a text for graduate courses on thermodynamics and phase diagrams, or on solution modeling Covers several types of phase diagrams (paraequilibrium, solidus projections, first-melting projections, Scheil diagrams, enthalpy diagrams), and more
|Author||: N. Saunders,A.P. Miodownik|
|Release Date||: 1998-06-09|
|ISBN 10||: 9780080528434|
|Pages||: 478 pages|
This monograph acts as a benchmark to current achievements in the field of Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry, often called CALPHAD which is an acronym for Computer CALculation of PHAse Diagrams. It also acts as a guide to both the basic background of the subject area and the cutting edge of the topic, combining comprehensive discussions of the underlying physical principles of the CALPHAD method with detailed descriptions of their application to real complex multi-component materials. Approaches which combine both thermodynamic and kinetic models to interpret non-equilibrium phase transformations are also reviewed.