This book contains a total of 21 chapters, each of which was written by experts in the corresponding field. The objective of this book is to provide a comprehensive and updated overview of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypoxia's impacts on human health, as well as current advances and future directions in the detection, recognition, and management of hypoxia-related disorders. This collection of articles provides a clear update in the area of hypoxia research for biomedical researchers, medical students, nurse practitioners, and practicing clinicians in the fields of high altitude biology, cardiovascular biology and medicine, tumor oncology, obstetrics, pediatrics, and orthodontics and for others who may be interested in hypoxia.
|Author||: Cheryl S Rosenfeld|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2015-10-10|
|ISBN 10||: 0128016728|
|Pages||: 560 pages|
The Epigenome and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease synthesizes the existing knowledge on how the in utero environment could be the most important environment in shaping later risk for various diseases or to conversely promote the health of the offspring. The book mines the existing literature from a variety of disciplines from toxicology to nutrition to epigenetics to reveal how contrasting maternal in utero environmental changes might be leading to epigenetic convergence and the resulting deleterious phenotypic and physiological effects in our offspring. It is increasingly becoming apparent that even subtle changes in the mother’s diet, stress, and exposure to low concentrations of toxic chemicals at levels deemed safe by the EPA and FDA, such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC), can dramatically impact the health of our children, possibly leading to metabolic, cardiovascular, immunological, neurobehavioral disorders, and increased risk for cancer to list but a few examples. Informs how everyday choices pregnant women make can impact child development Ties together how in utero environmental changes may be inducing epigenetic changes in the offspring leading to overlapping phenotypes regardless of the initial insult (toxic, nutrition, or stress) Includes a boxed-in area in each chapter for further references and resources to keep up with the field Features video interviews with the authors and other key leaders in the field
|Author||: David Hollar|
|Release Date||: 2016-02-08|
|ISBN 10||: 3319253255|
|Pages||: 386 pages|
This stimulating volume addresses vital questions about gene/environment interactions as they affect cell health from the prenatal period through later life. Beginning with a tour of epigenetic processes in the human body, the book assembles current theoretical and empirical developments across the discipline, among them transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, the effects of maternal nutrition on epigenetic change, and possible links between epigenetics and childhood obesity. Public health and policy aspects of the field are discussed in depth, with the understanding that much can be done to improve our epigenetic health as a species. And in this vein, contributors consider future possibilities, such as the reprogramming of genes to reverse cancer and other diseases. Included in the coverage: The role of environmental epigenetics in perinatal and neonatal development The epigenetic biomarker γH2AX: from bench science to clinical trials What’s the risk? Dental amalgam, mercury exposure, and human health risks throughout the lifespan Post-traumatic stress disorder: neurological, genetic, and epigenetic bases Children’s exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and drugs: long-term outcomes Ethical implications of epigenetics Epigenetics, the Environment, and Children’s Health Across Lifespans brings real-world knowledge and applications of this increasingly important field to public health practitioners, maternal and child health researchers, and environmental health experts.
Pregnancy Disorders and Perinatal Outcomes offers readers insights into knowledge related to maternal habits or disorders that could affect fetal development and lead to disability later in childhood and adulthood. It contains chapters on the role of plac
This landmark publication provides the first definitive account of how and why subtle influences on the fetus and during early life can have such profound consequences for adult health and diseases. Although the epidemiological evidence for this link has long proved compelling, it is only much more recently that the scientific and physiological basis has begun to be studied in depth and fully understood. The compilation, written by many of the world's leading experts in this exciting field, summarizes these scientific and clinical advances.
The handbook synthesizes the comprehensive interdisciplinary research on the psychological and behavioral dimensions of life before, during, and immediately after birth. It examines how experiences during the prenatal period are associated with basic physiological and psychological imprints that last a lifetime and explores the ways in which brain networks reflect these experiences. Chapters offer findings on prenatal development, fetal programming, fetal stress, and epigenetics. In addition, chapters discuss psychotherapy for infants – before, during, and after birth – as well as prevention to promote positive health and well-being outcomes. Topics featured in this handbook include: Contemporary environmental stressors and adverse pregnancy outcomes The psychology of newborn intensive care. Art therapy and its use in treating prenatal trauma. The failures and successes of Cathartic Regression Therapy. Prenatal bonding and its positive effects on postnatal health and well-being. The role of family midwives and early prevention. The cultural meaning of prenatal psychology. The Handbook of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology is an essential resource for researchers, clinicians and related professionals, as well as graduate students in a wide range of interrelated disciplines, including developmental psychology, pediatric and obstetrical medicine, neuroscience, infancy and early child development, obstetrics and gynecology, nursing, social work, and early childhood education.
|Author||: Giovanni Laviola,Simone Macrì|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2013-01-31|
|ISBN 10||: 1461456053|
|Pages||: 281 pages|
Since the very early stages of life, we all experience some form of stress. Stressors can be mild to severe and can range from unsuccessfully longing for maternal milk in infancy, to recklessly wiggling on a motorbike to be on time to watch the NBA finals on TV, to breaking up a relationship. All those events that we call “stress” have the capability of perturbing a given state of psychological and physiological equilibrium and moving it to a different level. The transition from crawling to walking has to be considered a form of stress as much as losing a job. It is through a continuous cross-talk between environmental stressors and individual adaptations that we build our personalities and our ways to cope with daily hassles. External challenges should not necessarily be regarded as “bad”, but instead seen as constructive forces forming our ability to navigate a changing world. What is stress good for? What is stress bad for? When and why do we need to be “stressed”? Should we worry about stress? When does stress equate to “normality”? When does it turn into pathology? We hope with this book to provide some answers to these fundamental questions.
|Author||: Paola Casanello|
|Release Date||: 2017|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Most of the worldwide deaths in patients with non-communicable diseases are due to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, which are determined by a mix of environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors, and by their interactions. The aetiology of most cardiovascular diseases has been partially linked with in utero adverse conditions that may increase the risk of developing diseases later in life, known as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Perinatal hypoxia can program the fetal and postnatal developmental patterns, resulting in permanent modifications of cells, organs and systems function. In spite of the vast evidence obtained from human and animal studies linking development under adverse intrauterine conditions with increased cardiovascular risk, still few is known about the specific effects of intrauterine oxygen deficiency and the related pathogenic mechanisms. Currently, the most accepted processes that program cellular function are epigenetic mechanisms which determine gene expression in a cell-specific fashion. In this chapter we will review the current literature regarding the perinatal exposure to chronic hypoxia and Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR) in humans and animals and how this impinges the cardiovascular physiology through epigenetic, biochemical, morphologic and pathophysiologic modifications that translate into diseases blasting at postnatal life.
|Author||: Richard J. Martin,Avroy A. Fanaroff,Michele C. Walsh|
|Publisher||: Elsevier Health Sciences|
|Release Date||: 2010-10-04|
|ISBN 10||: 0323081118|
|Pages||: 2008 pages|
Fanaroff and Martin’s Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine covers everything you need to improve the quality of life and long-term outcomes of your patients. Drs. Richard J. Martin, Avroy A. Fanaroff, and Michele C. Walsh, along with a multi-disciplinary team of contributors guide you through the sweeping developments in diagnosis and treatment of the mother fetus, and neonate. The completely updated 9th edition keeps you current on the late preterm infant, the fetal origins of adult disease, neonatal anemia, genetic disorders, and more. Get comprehensive guidance on treating patients through a dual focus on neonatology and perinatology. See nuances and details in over 800 illustrations that depict disorders in the clinical setting and explain complex information. Find the information you need easily with indexing in both volumes that provides quick access to specific guidance. Spot genetic problems early and advise parents of concerns thanks to completely new section on this topic. Tackle the health problems associated with preterm births through a new chapter on The Late Preterm Infant. Understand the fetal origins of adult disease through a new chapter that focuses on conditions that originate in the womb. Stay current on the developments and research surrounding neonatal anemia from the entirely new chapter on Blood and Hematopoietic System highlights. Obtain more global perspectives and best practices from an increased number of international contributions in this edition.
Nutritional Epigenomics offers a comprehensive overview of nutritional epigenomics as a mode of study, along with nutrition’s role in the epigenomic regulation of disease, health and developmental processes. Here, an expert team of international contributors introduces readers to nutritional epigenomic regulators of gene expression, our diet’s role in epigenomic regulation of disease and disease inheritance, caloric restriction and exercise as they relate to recent epigenomic findings, and the influence of nutritional epigenomics over circadian rhythms, aging and longevity, and fetal health and development, among other processes. Disease specific chapters address metabolic disease (obesity and diabetes), cancer, and neurodegeneration, among other disorders. Diet-gut microbiome interactions in the epigenomic regulation of disease are also discussed, as is the role of micronutrients and milk miRNAs in epigenetic regulation. Finally, chapter authors examine ongoing discussions of race and ethnicity in the social-epigenomic regulation of health and disease. Empowers the reader to employ nutritional epigenomics approaches in their own research Discusses the latest topics in nutritional epigenomics in the regulation of aging, circadian rhythm, inheritance and fetal development, as well as metabolism and disease Offers a full grounding in epigenetic reprogramming and nutritional intervention in the treatment and prevention of disease, as informed by population-based studies
Perinatal Programming addresses the environment-dependent setting of fundamental life functions and dispositions for diseases in developmental periods during pregnancy and in early infancy. It provides a new view of the origins of health and diseases. To realize these associations may enable us to prevent diseases for the long term. This book reviews actual state-of-the-art knowledge in the perinatal programming field. The authors are internationally known scientists of this research area.
|Author||: Statistics Germaine M. Buck Louis Director and Senior Investigator of the Division of Epidemiology, and Prevention Research (DESPR) Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD) National Institutes of Health (NIH),Biostatistics Robert W. Platt Associate Professor Departments of Pediatrics and of Epidemiology, and Occupational Health McGill University|
|Publisher||: Oxford University Press, USA|
|Release Date||: 2011-03-23|
|ISBN 10||: 0199857741|
|Pages||: 360 pages|
Population growth and global health disparities for many reproductive and perinatal outcomes are but a few of the pressing issues facing public health today. Despite growing interest in the field, formal training in reproductive and perinatal epidemiology remains limited, with few available textbooks aimed at providing an overview of the field. In response to this need, faculty from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD) and CIHR's Institute of Human Development, Child and Youth Health (IHDCYH) developed an intensive, competitive, Summer Institute in Reproductive and Perinatal Epidemiology. The curriculum of this Summer Institute has been developed into a textbook to provide students and researchers with a working knowledge of the substantive and methodologic issues underlying reproductive and perinatal epidemiology. Reproductive and Perinatal Epidemiology offers a core curriculum that addresses the epidemiology of major reproductive and perinatal outcomes. From human fecundity to birth and neonatal outcomes, the subject is approached from as international a perspective as possible, and the unique methodologic issues underlying each outcome are discussed. Developed by leading researchers in collaboration with their students in response to their needs and concerns, this is the definitive textbook on the subject.
This volume is based on a highly successful conference dedicated to “Perinatal brain damage:from pathogenesis to neuroprotection ”. Neonatologists, paediatricians, paediatric neurologists, obstetricians, basic researchers involved in neurosciences, as well as rehabilitation professionals, will be interested by this ensuing publication. The volume covers pathogenic aspects of brain lesions occurring in the fetal and neonatal period, and addresses the issues of diagnostic workup and treatment.The most authoritative basic researchers, clinicians, and specialists in the field of neuroimaging, provide chapters on recent clinical advances. A subject of particular importance is the neurological vulnerability of the preterm infant, which also touches on ethical aspects of the care of high-risk preterm babies and those born from multiple pregnancies. A particularly original session focuses on cerebral white matter and the many issues related to this crucial part of the developing brain. Experts also deal with cerebral visual impairment, motor development, cognitive function, and the mechanisms underlying the neuronal plasticity of the infant’s brain. Concepts of neuroprotection are also outlined, based on pharmacological agents tested on experimental animals and the best drugs used to treat neonatal convulsions.
|Author||: Joanne Nicholson,Giovanni de Girolamo,Beate Schrank|
|Publisher||: Frontiers Media SA|
|Release Date||: 2020-01-17|
|ISBN 10||: 2889633837|
|Pages||: 293 pages|
This volume will explore the epidemiology and the basic mechanisms of each of these prenatal phenomena, in an attempt to explain the role of the prenatal environment in promoting postnatal weight gain. This information will contribute to resolving the nature-nurture controversy. This information provides guidance to clinical practitioners involved in both prenatal and postnatal care. This volume further stimulates research into underlying mechanisms and prevention and treatment of this phenomenon.
This book examines the toxicological and health implications of environmental epigenetics and provides knowledge through an interdisciplinary approach. Included in this volume are chapters outlining various environmental risk factors such as phthalates and dietary components, life states such as pregnancy and ageing, hormonal and metabolic considerations and specific disease risks such as cancer cardiovascular diseases and other non-communicable diseases. Environmental Epigenetics imparts integrative knowledge of the science of epigenetics and the issues raised in environmental epidemiology. This book is intended to serve both as a reference compendium on environmental epigenetics for scientists in academia, industry and laboratories and as a textbook for graduate level environmental health courses. Environmental Epigenetics imparts integrative knowledge of the science of epigenetics and the issues raised in environmental epidemiology. This book is intended to serve both as a reference compendium on environmental epigenetics for scientists in academia, industry and laboratories and as a textbook for graduate level environmental health courses.
Fetal & Neonatal Physiology provides neonatologist fellows and physicians with the essential information they need to effectively diagnose, treat, and manage sick and premature infants. Fully comprehensive, this resource continues to serve as an excellent reference tool, focusing on the basic science needed for exam preparation and the key information required for full-time practice. The 5th edition is the most substantially updated and revised edition ever. In the 5 years since the last edition published, there have been thousands of publications on various aspects of development of health and disease; Fetal and Neonatal Physiology synthesizes this knowledge into definitive guidance for today's busy practitioner. Offers definitive guidance on how to effectively manage the many health problems seen in newborn and premature infants. Chapters devoted to clinical correlation help explain the implications of fetal and neonatal physiology. Allows you to apply the latest insights on genetic therapy, intrauterine infections, brain protection and neuroimaging, and much more. Features a fantastic new 4-color design with 1,000 illustrations, 170+ chapters, and over 350 contributors. 16 new chapters cover such hot topics as Epigenetics; Placental Function in Intrauterine Growth Restriction; Regulation of Pulmonary Circulation; The Developing Microbiome of the Fetus and Newborn; Hereditary Contribution to Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Mechanistic Aspects of Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Cerebellar Development; Pathophysiology of Neonatal Sepsis; Pathophysiology of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn; Pathophysiology of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome; Pathophysiology of Ventilator Dependent Infants; Pathophysiology of Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury; Pathophysiology of Neonatal White Matter Injury; Pathophysiology of Meningitis; Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia; and Pathophysiology of Chorioamnionitis. New Pathophysiology of Neonatal Diseases section highlights every process associated with a disease or injury, all in one place. In-depth information, combined with end-of-chapter summaries, enables deep or quick use of the text.
The twelve articles included offer a comprehensive up-to-date overview of the most relevant research and treatment considerations in this neglected field. A brief, though very interesting introduction to the history of psychiatry of motherhood is followed by the discussion of the old question if perinatal disorders are specific entities and if they should have a specific place in our classification systems. This book is aimed primarily at clinicians, teachers and researchers from the fields of psychiatry (adult as well as child and adolescent psychiatry), obstetrics and gynaecology, paediatrics, psychology, psychotherapy, neurobiology and psychoneuroendocrinology as well as their students and learners.
The field of neuroendocrinology has extended from the initial interest in the hypothalamic control of pituitary secretion to embrace multiple reciprocal interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and endocrine systems in the coordination of homeostasis and various physiological responses from adaptation to disease. Most recently, epigenetic mechanisms were recognized for their role in the development of the neuroendocrine axes as well as in the mediation of gene-environment interactions in stress-related psychiatry disorders.
Transgenerational Epigenetics provides a comprehensive analysis of the inheritance of epigenetic phenomena between generations. Recent research points to the existence of biological phenomena that are controlled not through gene mutations, but rather through reversible and heritable epigenetic processes. Epidemiological studies have suggested that environmental factors may be heritable. In fact, environmental factors often play a role in transgenerational epigenetics, which may have selective or adverse effects on the offspring. This epigenetic information can be transferred through a number of mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modifications or RNA and the effects can persist for multiple generations. This book examines the evolution of epigenetic inheritance, its expression in animal and plant models, and how human diseases, such as metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases, appear to be affected by transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. It discusses clinical interventions in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance that may be on the horizon to help prevent diseases before the offspring are born, or to reduce the severity of diseases at the very earliest stages of development in utero, and current controversies in this area of study, as well as future directions for research. Focused discussion of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular diseases and longevity, which appear most affected by reversible and heritable epigenetic processes Encompasses both foundational and clinical aspects including discussions of preventative in utero therapies Covers history, future outlook, disease management and current controversies