Organic Ferroelectric Materials and Applications aims to bring an up-to date account of the field with discussion of recent findings. The goal of the book is to provide an interdisciplinary resource for scientists from both academia and industry on the science and applications of molecular organic piezo- and ferroelectric materials. The book addresses the fundamental science of ferroelectric polymers, crystals, supramolecular networks, liquid crystalline polymers, and other key and emerging materials systems. It then touches on important processing and characterization methods and provides an overview of current and emerging applications of organic piezoelectrics and ferroelectrics for electronics, materials development, sensors, transducers, energy harvesting, and biomedical technologies. Organic Ferroelectric Materials and Applications is suitable for those in academia and industry, working in materials science, engineering, chemistry and physics disciplines. Provides overview of key and emerging materials systems including polymers, crystals, and supramolecular networks Discusses best practices of processing, patterning, and characterization methods and techniques Addresses current and emerging applications of organic piezoelectrics and ferroelectrics for electronics, materials development, sensors, transducers, energy harvesting, and biomedical technologies
This book presents the basic physical properties, structure, fabrication methods and applications of ferroelectric materials. These are widely used in various devices, such as piezoelectric/electrostrictive transducers and actuators, pyroelectric infrared detectors, optical integrated circuits, optical data storage, display devices, etc. The ferroelectric materials described in this book include a relatively complete list of practical and promising ferroelectric single crystals, bulk ceramics and thin films. Included are perovskite-type, lithium niobate, tungsten-bronze-type, water-soluable crystals and other inorganic materials, as well as organic ferroelectrics (polymers, liquid crystals, and composites). Basic concepts, principles and methods for the physical property characteristics of ferroelectric materials are introduced in the first two chapters for those readers new to the subject of ferroelectricity. Not only professional researchers and engineers but also students and other readers who have limited physical knowledge and an interest in ferroelectrics, will welcome this book.
Provides a comprehensive overview of the emerging applications of ferroelectric materials in energy harvesting and storage Conventional ferroelectric materials are normally used in sensors and actuators, memory devices, and field effect transistors, etc. Recent progress in this area showed that ferroelectric materials can harvest energy from multiple sources including mechanical energy, thermal fluctuations, and light. This book gives a complete summary of the novel energy-related applications of ferroelectric materials?and reviews both the recent advances as well as the future perspectives in this field. Beginning with the fundamentals of ferroelectric materials, Ferroelectric Materials for Energy Applications offers in-depth chapter coverage of: piezoelectric energy generation; ferroelectric photovoltaics; organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites for solar energy conversion; ferroelectric ceramics and thin films in electric energy storage; ferroelectric polymer composites in electric energy storage; pyroelectric energy harvesting; ferroelectrics in electrocaloric cooling; ferroelectric in photocatalysis; and first-principles calculations on ferroelectrics for energy applications. -Covers a highly application-oriented subject with great potential for energy conversion and storage applications. -Focused toward a large, interdisciplinary group consisting of material scientists, solid state physicists, engineering scientists, and industrial researchers -Edited by the "father of integrated ferroelectrics" Ferroelectric Materials for Energy Applications is an excellent book for researchers working on ferroelectric materials and energy materials, as well as engineers looking to broaden their view of the field.
|Author||: Indre Urbanaviciute|
|Publisher||: Linköping University Electronic Press|
|Release Date||: 2019-10-24|
|ISBN 10||: 9179299733|
|Pages||: 102 pages|
Ferroelectric materials are known and valued for their multifunctionality arising from the possibility to perturb the remnant ferroelectric polarization by electric field, temperature and/or mechanical stimuli. While inorganic ferroelectrics dominate the current market, their organic counterparts may provide highly desired properties like eco-friendliness, easy processability and flexibility, concomitantly opening unique opportunities to combine multiple functionalities into a single compound that facilitates unprecedented device concepts and designs. Supramolecular organic ferroelectrics of columnar discotic type, that are the topic of this thesis, offer additional advantages related to their strong hierarchical self-assembly and easy tunability by molecular structure modifications, allowing optimization of ferroelectric characteristics and their hybridization with, e.g., semiconductivity. This not only leads to textbook ferroelectric materials that can be used as model systems to understand the general behaviour of ferroics, but also gives rise to previously unobserved effects stemming from the interplay of different functionalities. The core-shell structure of the molecules under the scope enables multiple pathways forrational design by molecular structure modification. This was firstly pursued via peripheral tail engineering on an archetypal self-assembling ferroelectric trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA). We found that by shortening the alkyl chain length all the ferroelectric properties can be continuously tuned. In particular, changing the tail from C18H37 to C6H13causes an increase in depolarization activation energy (~0.8 eV to ~1.55 eV), coercive field(~25 V/?m to ~50 V/?m) and remnant polarization (~20 mC/m2 to ~60 mC/m2). The combination of the mentioned characteristics resulted in a record polarization retention time of close to 3 months at room temperature for capacitor devices of the material having the shortest alkyl chain – BTA-C6, which at the time of writing was one of the best results for liquid-crystalline ferroelectrics. Taking one step further, we experimentally demonstrated how introduction of branched-tailsubstituents results in materials with a wide operating temperature range and a data retention time of more than 10 years in thin-film solution-processed capacitor devices already atelevated temperatures with no measurable depolarization at room temperature. The observed differences between linear- and branched-tail compounds were analysed using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We concluded that morphological factors like improved packing quality and reduced disorder, rather than electrostatic interactions or intra/inter-columnar steric hindrance, underlay the superior properties of the branched-tailed BTAs. Synergistic effects upon blending of compounds with branched and linear sidechains were shown to further improve the materials’ characteristics. Exploiting the excellent ferroelectric performance and the well-defined nanostructure of BTAs, we experimentally determined the Preisach (hysteron) distribution of BTA and confronted it to the one obtained for the semi-crystalline P(VDF:TrFE). This allowed to elucidate how the broadening of the Preisach distribution relates to the materials’ morphology. We further connected the experimental Preisach distribution to the corresponding microscopic switching kinetics. We argue that the combination of the two underlays the macroscopic dispersive switching kinetics as commonly observed for practical ferroelectrics. These insights lead to guidelines for further advancement of ferroelectric materials both for conventional and multi-bit data storage applications. Although having strong differences in the Preisach distribution, BTA and P(VDF:TrFE) both demonstrate negative piezoelectricity – a rare anomalous phenomenon which is characteristic to two-phased materials and has never been observed in small-molecular ferroelectrics. We measured a pronounced negative piezoelectric effect in a whole family of BTAs and revealed its tunability by mesogenic tail substitution and structural disorder. While the large- and small-signal strain in highly ordered thin-film BTA capacitor devices are dominated by intrinsic contributions and originates from piezostriction, rising disorder introduces additional extrinsic factors that boost the large-signal d33 up to ?20 pm/V in short-tailed molecules. Interestingly, homologues with longer mesogenic tails show a large-signal electromechanical response that is dominated by the quadratic Maxwell strain with significant mechanical softening upon polarization switching, whereas the small-signal strain remains piezostrictive. Molecular dynamics and DFT calculations both predict a positive d33 for defect-free BTA stacks. Hence, the measured negative macroscopic d33 is attributed to the presence of structural defects that enable the dimensional effect to dominate the piezoelectric response of BTA thin films. The true multifunctionality of supramolecular discotics manifests when large semiconducting cores surrounded by field-switchable strongly polar moieties are introduced in the structure. We showed how the combination of switchable dipolar side groups and the semiconducting core of the newly synthetized C3-symmetric benzotristhiophene molecule (BTTTA) leads to an ordered columnar material showing continuous tunability from injection- to bulk-limited conductivity modulation. Both these resistive switching mechanisms may lead to the next-generation high-density non-volatile rewritable memory devices with high on/off ratios and non-destructive data readout – the element that has been desperately sought after to enablefully organic flexible electronics. Utbredd elektronisering och det högst aktuella fenomenet sakernas internet (Internet of Things) ställer höga krav på nästa generations elektroniska system. Produkterna ska vara lätta att framställa med miljövänliga metoder, låg kostnadsproduktion och skalbarhet (t. ex. tryckt elektronik), återvinningsbarhet eller biologisk nedbrytbarhet (gällande engångselektronik), mekanisk flexibilitet (formbara bärbara system), kemisk stabilitet, till och med biokompatibilitet (t. ex. implanterbara system) – dessa är bara några utmaningar som den kommande tekniken behöver övervinna. Organiska material kan åstadkomma alla dessa önskade egenskaper, samtidigt som man skapar unika möjligheter att kombinera flera funktionaliteter till en enda sammansättning som underlättar nydanande komponenter och design. Ferroelektriska material kännetecknas av pyroelektriska, piezoelektriska och dielektriska egenskaper. Denna mångsidighet möjliggör icke-flyktiga minnesenheter, temperatur- och taktila sensorer, olika transduktorer och manöverdon, som alla baseras på förändringar av den ferroelektriska restpolarisationen genom fält-, temperatur- och / eller mekaniska stimuleringar. Diskformade supramolekylära organiska ferroelektriska ämnen ger ytterligare fördelar tack vare deras modifierbara molekylstrukturer och starka hierarkiska självorganisation som staplar diskarna i kolumner. På detta sätt kan lättbearbetningsbara organiska ferroelektriska material med hög restpolarisering och extrem datalagring konstrueras molekylärt. På grund av deras väldefinierade nanostrukturer kan sådana material användas som modellsystem för att förstå det allmänna beteendet hos polykristallina ferroelektriska material. De uppvisar också ensällsynt negativ piezoelektricitet som är atypisk för små molekylära material och härrör från deras komplexa nanostruktur. Den verkliga multifunktionaliteten hos diskformade supramolekylära ämnen framträder när stora halvledande kärnor omgivna av starkt polära delar, som är växlingsbara via ett elektriskt fält, introduceras i strukturen. Oöverträffad resistiv omkoppling, inducerad av den asymmetriska laddningstransporten beroende på polarisationsriktningen med rekordhög datalagringstid, upptäcktes efter optimering av molekylstrukturen. Även en konceptuellt enklare resistiv omkopplingsmekanism bunden till en modulation av laddningsinjektionsbarriären genom gränssnittsdipolerna observerades. Båda dessa fenomen kan bidra till nästa generations icke-flyktiga överskrivningsbara minnesenheter med högdensitet, stora på av-förhållanden, och icke-destruktiv dataavläsning – vilket är kritiskt för att möjliggöra helt organisk flexibel elektronik.
Scientifically defined in 1880 by the Curie brothers, piezoelectricity - from the Greek piezein, meaning to press (squeeze), and ilektron, meaning amber, a material with electrostatic properties - is a phenomenon with many applications. The related piezoelectric materials have been undergoing a long-lasting evolution over the years until today. The field of organic and inorganic piezoelectric materials is continuously expanding in terms of new substances used, new structures, and new applications. The seven chapters of this book present modern aspects and technological advances in the field of piezoelectric materials and applications. To present a balanced view of the field, some chapters focus on new piezoelectric materials and structures, while others examine interesting applications of piezoelectric sensors, energy harvesters, and actuators.
Ferroelectricity is a symptom of inevitable electrical polarization changes in materials without external electric field interference. Ferroelectricity is a phenomenon exhibited by crystals with a spontaneous polarization and hysteresis effects associated with dielectric changes when an electric field is given. Our fascination with ferroelectricity is in recognition of a beautiful article by Itskovsky, in which he explains the kinetics of a ferroelectric phase transition in a thin ferroelectric layer (film). We have been researching ferroelectric materials since 2001. There are several materials known for their ferroelectric properties. Barium titanate and barium strontium titanate are the most well known. Several others include tantalum oxide, lead zirconium titanate, gallium nitride, lithium tantalate, aluminium, copper oxide, and lithium niobate. There is still a blue ocean of ferroelectric applications yet to be expounded. It is and hopefully always will be a bright future.
|Author||: Inamuddin,Rajender Boddula,Mohd Imran Ahamed,Abdullah M. Asiri|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2020-05-04|
|ISBN 10||: 111965095X|
|Pages||: 496 pages|
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous crystalline polymers constructed by metal sites and organic building blocks. Since the discovery of MOFs in the 1990s, they have received tremendous research attention for various applications due to their high surface area, controllable morphology, tunable chemical properties, and multifunctionalities, including MOFs as precursors and self-sacrificing templates for synthesizing metal oxides, heteroatom-doped carbons, metal-atoms encapsulated carbons, and others. Thus, awareness and knowledge about MOFs and their derived nanomaterials with conceptual understanding are essential for the advanced material community. This breakthrough new volume aims to explore down-to-earth applications in fields such as biomedical, environmental, energy, and electronics. This book provides an overview of the structural and fundamental properties, synthesis strategies, and versatile applications of MOFs and their derived nanomaterials. It gives an updated and comprehensive account of the research in the field of MOFs and their derived nanomaterials. Whether as a reference for industry professionals and nanotechnologists or for use in the classroom for graduate and postgraduate students, faculty members, and research and development specialists working in the area of inorganic chemistry, materials science, and chemical engineering, this is a must-have for any library.
|Author||: Tim Cornelissen|
|Publisher||: Linköping University Electronic Press|
|Release Date||: 2020-08-26|
|ISBN 10||: 9179298281|
|Pages||: 94 pages|
The continued digitalization of our society means that more and more things are getting connected electronically. Since currently used inorganic electronics are not well suited for these new applications because of costs and environmental issues, organic electronics can play an important role here. These essentially plastic materials are cheap to produce and relatively easy to recycle. Unfortunately, their poor performance has so far hindered widespread application beyond displays. One key component of any electronic device is the memory. For organic electronics several technologies are being investigated that could serve as memories. One of these are the ferroelectrics, materials that have a spontaneous electrical polarization that can be reversed with an electric field. This bistable polarization which shows hysteresis makes these materials excellent candidates for use as memories. This thesis focuses on a specific type of organic ferroelectric, the supramolecular discotics. These materials consist of disk?like molecules that form columns in which all dipolar groups are aligned, giving a macroscopic ferroelectric polarization. Of particular interest are the benzenetricarboxamides (BTA), which are used as a model system for the whole class of discotic ferroelectrics. BTA uses a core?shell architecture which allows for easy modification of the molecular structure and thereby the ferroelectric properties. To gain a deeper understanding of the switching processes in this organic ferroelectric BTA, both microscopic and analytical modeling are used. This is supported by experimental data obtained through electrical characterization. The microscopic model reduces the material to a collection of dipoles and uses electrostatics to calculate the probability that these dipoles flip. These flipping rates are the input for a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation (kMC), which simulates the behavior of the dipoles over time. With this model we simulated three different switching processes on experimental time and length scales: hysteresis loops, spontaneous depolarization, and switching transients. The results of these simulations showed a good agreement with experiments and we can rationalize the obtained parameter dependencies in the framework of thermally activated nucleation limited switching (TA?NLS). The microscopic character of the model allows for a unique insight into the nucleation process of the polarization switching. We found that nucleation happens at different locations for field driven polarization switching as compared to spontaneous polarization switching. Field?driven nucleation happens at the contacts, whereas spontaneous depolarization starts at defects. This means that retention times in disordered ferroelectrics could be improved by reducing the disorder, without affecting the coercive field. Detailed analysis of the nucleation process also revealed a critical nucleation volume that decreases with applied field, which explains the Merz?like field?dependence of the switching time observed in experiments. In parallel to these microscopic simulations we developed an analytical framework based on the theory of TA?NLS. This framework is mainly focused on describing the switching transients of disordered ferroelectrics. It can be combined with concepts of the Preisach model, which considers a non?ideal ferroelectric as a collection of ideal hysterons. We were able to relate these hysterons and the distribution in their up? and down?switching fields to the microscopic structure of the material and use the combined models to explain experimentally observed dispersive switching kinetics. Whereas ferroelectrics on their own could potentially serve as memories, the readout of ferroelectric memories becomes easier if they are combined with semiconductors. We have introduced several molecular materials following the same design principle of a core?shell structure, which uniquely combine ferroelectricity and semiconductivity in one material. The experimental IV?curves of these materials could be described using an asymmetric Marcus hopping model and show their potential as memories. The combination of modeling and experimental work in this thesis thereby provides an increased understanding of organic ferroelectrics, which is crucial for their application as memories.
Combining both fundamental principles and real-life applications in a single volume, this book discusses the latest research results in ferroelectrics, including many new ferroelectric materials for the latest technologies, such as capacitors, transducers and memories. The first two chapters introduce dielectrics and microscopic materials properties, while the following chapter discusses pyroelectricity and piezoelectricity. The larger part of the text is devoted to ferroelectricity and ferroelectric ceramics, with not only their fundamentals but also applications discussed. The book concludes with a look at the future for laser printed materials and applications. With over 600 references to recent publications on piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials, this is an invaluable reference for physicists, materials scientists and engineers.
|Author||: Sven T. Lagerwall|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2008-07-11|
|ISBN 10||: 3527613595|
|Pages||: 445 pages|
The study of ferroelectricity is a branch of solid state physics which has shown rapid growth during the recent years. Ferroelectric materials exhibit unusual electric properties which make them useful in modern (opto)electronic technology, esp. display technology. Ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystals, including also various polymer forms, are the hottest research topic today in liquid crystals. The field is at the very beginning of industrial exploitation - a sensitive phase in which a good reference work is needed and will have a broad spectrum of readers both at universities and in industry.
|Author||: Byung-Eun Park,Hiroshi Ishiwara,Masanori Okuyama,Shigeki Sakai,Sung-Min Yoon|
|Publisher||: Springer Nature|
|Release Date||: 2020-03-23|
|ISBN 10||: 9811512124|
|Pages||: 425 pages|
This book provides comprehensive coverage of the materials characteristics, process technologies, and device operations for memory field-effect transistors employing inorganic or organic ferroelectric thin films. This transistor-type ferroelectric memory has interesting fundamental device physics and potentially large industrial impact. Among various applications of ferroelectric thin films, the development of nonvolatile ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) has been most actively progressed since the late 1980s and reached modest mass production for specific application since 1995. There are two types of memory cells in ferroelectric nonvolatile memories. One is the capacitor-type FeRAM and the other is the field-effect transistor (FET)-type FeRAM. Although the FET-type FeRAM claims the ultimate scalability and nondestructive readout characteristics, the capacitor-type FeRAMs have been the main interest for the major semiconductor memory companies, because the ferroelectric FET has fatal handicaps of cross-talk for random accessibility and short retention time. This book aims to provide the readers with development history, technical issues, fabrication methodologies, and promising applications of FET-type ferroelectric memory devices, presenting a comprehensive review of past, present, and future technologies. The topics discussed will lead to further advances in large-area electronics implemented on glass, plastic or paper substrates as well as in conventional Si electronics. The book is composed of chapters written by leading researchers in ferroelectric materials and related device technologies, including oxide and organic ferroelectric thin films.
|Author||: Adam C. Jandl|
|Release Date||: 2009|
|Pages||: 80 pages|