Over the years, approaches to obesity prevention and treatment have gone from focusing on genetic and other biological factors to exploring a diversity of diets and individual behavior modification interventions anchored primarily in the power of the mind, to the recent shift focusing on societal interventions to design "temptation-proof" physical, social, and economic environments. In spite of repeated calls to action, including those of the World Health Organization (WHO), the pandemic continues to progress. WHO recently projected that if the current lifestyle trend in young and adult populations around the world persist, by 2012 in countries like the USA, health care costs may amount to as much as 17.7% of the GDP. Most importantly, in large part due to the problems of obesity, those children may be the first generation ever to have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents. Obesity Prevention presents the most current research and proposals for addressing the pandemic. Past studies have focused primarly on either genetic or behavioral causes for obesity, however today's research indicates that a strongly integrated program is the best prospect for success in overcoming obesity. Furthermore, focus on the role of society in establishing an affordable, accessible and sustainable program for implementing these lifestyle changes is vital, particularly for those in economically challenged situations, who are ultimately at the highest risk for obesity. Using studies from both neuroscience and behavioral science to present a comprehensive overview of the challenges and possible solutions, The brain-to-society approach to obesity prevention focuses on what is needed in order to sustain a healthy, pleasurable and affordable lifestyle. Explores the "brain-to-society" approach to obesity prevention, focusing on an integrative approach to addressing the obesity pandemic Presents both the nueroscientific and the behavioral factors that impact eating habits Identifies the challenges and suggests solutions for altering attitudes toward food on both an individual and a societal level
Obesity is an increasing problem on a global scale, and strategies for its prevention involve experts from many disciplines including nutritionists, physicians, policy-makers and public health professionals. This book covers the latest advances in obesity development, management and prevention with specific focus on dietary interventions. Part one covers the development of obesity and key drivers for its continuation and increase. Part two looks at the role of specific dietary components in obesity management, and part three discusses the role of behavioural factors such as eating patterns in managing and preventing obesity. Part four focuses on structured dietary interventions for obesity treatment, and part five looks at public interventions and consumer issues. Reviews how different foods and diets can affect obesity management Examines various ways of preventing and treating obesity Explores how governments and industries are preventing and treating obesity
Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment, Second Edition summarizes the latest scientific knowledge on obesity in children. This edition focuses on the developmental aspects of obesity, especially on the influences and factors predisposing individuals to obesity from early periods of life. This new body of knowledge stems from both basic
Obesity is one of the biggest public health challenges in the 21st century. Devising effective policy and practice to combat childhood obesity is a high priority for many governments and health professionals internationally. This book brings together contributors from around the world and showcases the latest evidence-based research on community and policy interventions to prevent unhealthy weight gain and improve the health and well-being of children. The authors highlight from the evidence available what is and what is not effective and provide recommendations on how to implement and evaluate promising interventions for obesity prevention. This book is an essential read for all public health practitioners, early childhood professionals, health care providers and clinicians working to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity in their communities.
To battle the obesity epidemic in America, health care professionals and policymakers need relevant, useful data on the effectiveness of obesity prevention policies and programs. Bridging the Evidence Gap in Obesity Prevention identifies a new approach to decision making and research on obesity prevention to use a systems perspective to gain a broader understanding of the context of obesity and the many factors that influence it.
|Author||: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention,Food and Nutrition Board,Committee on Prevention of Obesity in Children and Youth|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2005-01-31|
|ISBN 10||: 0309133408|
|Pages||: 434 pages|
Children's health has made tremendous strides over the past century. In general, life expectancy has increased by more than thirty years since 1900 and much of this improvement is due to the reduction of infant and early childhood mortality. Given this trajectory toward a healthier childhood, we begin the 21st-century with a shocking developmentâ€"an epidemic of obesity in children and youth. The increased number of obese children throughout the U.S. during the past 25 years has led policymakers to rank it as one of the most critical public health threats of the 21st-century. Preventing Childhood Obesity provides a broad-based examination of the nature, extent, and consequences of obesity in U.S. children and youth, including the social, environmental, medical, and dietary factors responsible for its increased prevalence. The book also offers a prevention-oriented action plan that identifies the most promising array of short-term and longer-term interventions, as well as recommendations for the roles and responsibilities of numerous stakeholders in various sectors of society to reduce its future occurrence. Preventing Childhood Obesity explores the underlying causes of this serious health problem and the actions needed to initiate, support, and sustain the societal and lifestyle changes that can reverse the trend among our children and youth.
|Author||: National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Transportation Research Board,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Food and Nutrition Board,Committee on Childhood Obesity Prevention Actions for Local Governments|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2010-01-10|
|ISBN 10||: 0309139279|
|Pages||: 138 pages|
The prevalence of childhood obesity is so high in the United States that it may reduce the life expectancy of today's generation of children. While parents and other adult caregivers play a fundamental role in teaching children about healthy behaviors, even the most positive efforts can be undermined by local environments that are poorly suited to supporting healthy behaviors. For example, many communities lack ready sources of healthy food choices, such as supermarkets and grocery stores. Or they may not provide safe places for children to walk or play. In such communities, even the most motivated child or adolescent may find it difficult to act in healthy ways. Local governments--with jurisdiction over many aspects of land use, food marketing, community planning, transportation, health and nutrition programs, and other community issues--are ideally positioned to promote behaviors that will help children and adolescents reach and maintain healthy weights. Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity presents a number of recommendations that touch on the vital role of government actions on all levels--federal, state, and local--in childhood obesity prevention. The book offers healthy eating and physical activity strategies for local governments to consider, making it an excellent resource for mayors, managers, commissioners, council members, county board members, and administrators.
One-third of adults are now obese, and children's obesity rates have climbed from 5 to 17 percent in the past 30 years. The causes of the nation's obesity epidemic are multi-factorial, having much more to do with the absence of sidewalks and the limited availability of healthy and affordable foods than a lack of personal responsibility. The broad societal changes that are needed to prevent obesity will inevitably affect activity and eating environments and settings for all ages. Many aspects of the obesity problem have been identified and discussed; however, there has not been complete agreement on what needs to be done to accelerate progress. Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention reviews previous studies and their recommendations and presents five key recommendations to accelerate meaningful change on a societal level during the next decade. The report suggests recommendations and strategies that, independently, can accelerate progress, but urges a systems approach of many strategies working in concert to maximize progress in accelerating obesity prevention. The recommendations in Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention include major reforms in access to and opportunities for physical activity; widespread reductions in the availability of unhealthy foods and beverages and increases in access to healthier options at affordable, competitive prices; an overhaul of the messages that surround Americans through marketing and education with respect to physical activity and food consumption; expansion of the obesity prevention support structure provided by health care providers, insurers, and employers; and schools as a major national focal point for obesity prevention. The report calls on all individuals, organizations, agencies, and sectors that do or can influence physical activity and nutrition environments to assess and begin to act on their potential roles as leaders in obesity prevention.
|Author||: Expert Panel on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults (U.S.)|
|Release Date||: 1998|
|Pages||: 228 pages|
Of evidence-based recommendations -- Introduction -- Overweight and obesity: background -- Examination of randomized controlled trial evidence -- Treatment guidelines -- Summary of recommendations -- Future research.
|Author||: Ronald Ross Watson|
|Release Date||: 2014-02-26|
|ISBN 10||: 0124079342|
|Pages||: 560 pages|
Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity focuses on the important roles that exercise, dietary changes, and foods play in promoting as well as reducing visceral fat. Nutritionists, dieticians, and healthcare providers seeking to address the abdominal obesity epidemic will use this comprehensive resource as a tool in their long-term goal of preventing chronic diseases, especially heart, vascular, and diabetic diseases. Experts from a broad range of disciplines are involved in dealing with the consequences of excessive abdominal fat: cardiology, diabetes research, studies of lipids, endocrinology and metabolism, nutrition, obesity, and exercise physiology. They have contributed chapters that define a range of dietary approaches to reducing risk and associated chronic diseases. They begin by defining visceral obesity and its major outcomes; they also discuss the importance and the challenges of dietary approaches to reduce abdominal obesity, as compared to clinical approaches, with major costs and risks. Offers detailed, well-documented reviews outlining the various dietary approaches to visceral obesity with their benefits and failures Includes chapters on types of foods, exercise, and supplements in reducing obesity and its chronic clinical companions, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease Helps nutritionists, dieticians, and healthcare providers approach patients in making decision about nutritional therapies and clinical treatments for abdominal obesity, from an evidence-based perspective
This report issues a call for urgent action to combat the growing epidemic of obesity, which now affects developing and industrialized countries alike. Adopting a public health approach, the report responds to both the enormity of health problems associated with obesity and the notorious difficulty of treating this complex, multifactorial disease. With these problems in mind, the report aims to help policy-makers introduce strategies for prevention and management that have the greatest chance of success. The importance of prevention as the most sensible strategy in developing countries, where obesity coexists with undernutrition, is repeatedly emphasized. Recommended lines of action, which reflect the consensus reached by 25 leading authorities, are based on a critical review of current scientific knowledge about the causes of obesity in both individuals and populations. While all causes are considered, major attention is given to behavioural and societal changes that have increased the energy density of diets, overwhelmed sophisticated regulatory systems that control appetite and maintain energy balance, and reduced physical activity. Specific topics discussed range from the importance of fat content in the food supply as a cause of population-wide obesity, through misconceptions about obesity held by both the medical profession and the public, to strategies for dealing with the alarming prevalence of obesity in children. The report has eleven chapters presented in five parts. Part one, which assesses the magnitude of the problem, explains the system for classifying overweight and obesity based on the body mass index, considers the importance of fat distribution, and provides an overview of trends in all regions of the world, concluding that obesity is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate. Chapters in part two evaluate the true costs of obesity in terms of physical and mental ill health, and the human and financial resources diverted to deal with these problems. Specific health consequences discussed include increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other noncommunicable diseases, endocrine and metabolic disturbances, debilitating health problems, and psychological problems. The health benefits and risks of weight loss are also assessed. Part three draws on the latest research findings to consider specific factors involved in the development of overweight and obesity. Discussion centres on factors, such as high intakes of fat, that may disrupt normal physiological regulation of appetite and energy balance, and the role of dietary factors and levels of physical activity. In terms of opportunities for prevention, particular attention is given to the multitude of environmental and societal forces that adversely affect food intake and physical activity and may thus overwhelm the physiological regulatory systems that keep weight stable in the long term. The possible role of genetic and biological susceptibility is also briefly considered. Against this background, the fourth and most extensive part maps out strategies for prevention and management at both the population and individual levels. Separate chapters address the need to develop population-based strategies that tackle the environmental and societal factors implicated in the development of obesity, and compare the effectiveness of current options for managing overweight or obese individuals. Specific strategies discussed include dietary management, physical activity and exercise programmes, behaviour modification, drug treatment, and gastric surgery. While noting striking recent progress in the development of drug treatments, the report concludes that gastric surgery continues to show the best long-term success in treating the severely obese. The final part sets out key conclusions and recommendations for responding to the global obesity epidemic and identifies priority areas where more research is urgently needed. "... the volume is clearly written, and carries a wealth of summary information that is likely to be invaluable for anyone interested in the public health aspects of obesity and fatness, be they students, practitioner or researcher." - Journal of Biosocial Science