Nucleation of Water: From Fundamental Science to Atmospheric and Additional Applications provides a comprehensive accounting of the current state-of-the-art regarding the nucleation of water. It covers vapor-liquid, liquid-vapor, liquid-ice and vapor-ice transitions and describes basic kinetic and thermodynamic concepts in a manner understandable to researchers working on specific applications. The main focus of the book lies in atmospheric phenomena, but it also describes engineering and biological applications. Bubble nucleation, although not of major atmospheric relevance, is included for completeness. This book presents a single, go-to resource that will help readers understand the breadth and depth of nucleation, both in theory and in real-world examples. Offers a single, comprehensive work on water nucleation, including cutting- edge research on ice, cloud and bubble nucleation Written primarily for atmospheric scientists, but it also presents the theories in such a way that researchers in other disciplines will find it useful Written by one of the world’s foremost experts on ice nucleation
|Author||: George R. Wood,Alan G. Walton|
|Release Date||: 1969|
|Pages||: 171 pages|
The book containing 18 chapters is divided into three parts: Part 1: Fundamentals of Ice Formation and Ice Characteristics; Part 2: Ice Adhesion and Its Measurement; and Part 3: Methods to Mitigate Ice Adhesion. The topics covered Include: Factors influencing the formation, adhesion and friction of ice; ice nucleation on solid surfaces; physics of ice nucleation and growth on a surface; condensation frosting; defrosting properties of structured surfaces; relationship between surface free energy and ice adhesion to surfaces; metrology of ice adhesion; test methods for quantifying ice adhesion strength to surfaces; interlaboratory studies of ice adhesion strength; mechanisms of surface icing and deicing technologies; anti-icing using microstructured surfaces; durability assessment of icephobic coatings; bio-inspired icephobic coatings; challenges in rational fabrication of icephobic surfaces; protection from ice accretion on aircraft; and numerical modeling and its application to inflight icing.
|Author||: George K. Swinzow|
|Release Date||: 1971|
|Pages||: 37 pages|
An anomalous liquid phase forming in an atmosphere of reduced water vapor pressure was investigated. The liquid was grown in capillary tubes. Technical experimental refinements resulted in high nucleation rates not previously observed. An examination of vapor pressures disclosed the relationship of nucleation growth and equilibria of anomalous water. The possibility of nucleation and growth of anomalous water on flat surfaces was confirmed by observation. Anomalous water was nucleated and grown on glass, quartz, Teflon, polyethylene and metal. Growth rates on free flat surfaces were higher, and the total amount of fluid obtained was several orders of magnitude higher, than those obtained from capillary tubes. Refractive indexes and other properties were measured directly. The new method of growing anomalous water outside capillary tubes is an advantage that may lead to large-scale production. Neither investigation of nor conclusion on the nature of the substance was made. Its low freezing temperature, high boiling temperature, low vapor pressure and high viscosity, reported by previous investigators and observed by the author, are of primary importance and justify a search for large-scale preparation methods. (Author).
A quantitative introduction to atmospheric science for students and professionals who want to understand and apply basic meteorological concepts but who are not ready for calculus.
Mixed-Phase Clouds: Observations and Modeling presents advanced research topics on mixed-phase clouds. As the societal impacts of extreme weather and its forecasting grow, there is a continuous need to refine atmospheric observations, techniques and numerical models. Understanding the role of clouds in the atmosphere is increasingly vital for current applications, such as prediction and prevention of aircraft icing, weather modification, and the assessment of the effects of cloud phase partition in climate models. This book provides the essential information needed to address these problems with a focus on current observations, simulations and applications. Provides in-depth knowledge and simulation of mixed-phase clouds over many regions of Earth, explaining their role in weather and climate Features current research examples and case studies, including those on advanced research methods from authors with experience in both academia and the industry Discusses the latest advances in this subject area, providing the reader with access to best practices for remote sensing and numerical modeling
A unified overview of the dynamical properties of water and its unique and diverse role in biological and chemical processes.
Cloud physics has achieved such a voluminous literature over the past few decades that a significant quantitative study of the entire field would prove unwieldy. This book concentrates on one major aspect: cloud microphysics, which involves the processes that lead to the formation of individual cloud and precipitation particles. Common practice has shown that one may distinguish among the following addi tional major aspects: cloud dynamics, which is concerned with the physics respon sible for the macroscopic features of clouds; cloud electricity, which deals with the electrical structure of clouds and the electrification processes of cloud and precipi tation particles; and cloud optics and radar meteorology, which describe the effects of electromagnetic waves interacting with clouds and precipitation. Another field intimately related to cloud physics is atmospheric chemistry, which involves the chemical composition ofthe atmosphere and the life cycle and characteristics of its gaseous and particulate constituents. In view of the natural interdependence of the various aspects of cloud physics, the subject of microphysics cannot be discussed very meaningfully out of context. Therefore, we have found it necessary to touch briefly upon a few simple and basic concepts of cloud dynamics and thermodynamics, and to provide an account of the major characteristics of atmospheric aerosol particles. We have also included a separate chapter on some of the effects of electric fields and charges on the precipitation-forming processes.