|Author||: George R. Wood,Alan G. Walton|
|Release Date||: 1969|
|Pages||: 171 pages|
|Author||: George K. Swinzow|
|Release Date||: 1971|
|Pages||: 37 pages|
An anomalous liquid phase forming in an atmosphere of reduced water vapor pressure was investigated. The liquid was grown in capillary tubes. Technical experimental refinements resulted in high nucleation rates not previously observed. An examination of vapor pressures disclosed the relationship of nucleation growth and equilibria of anomalous water. The possibility of nucleation and growth of anomalous water on flat surfaces was confirmed by observation. Anomalous water was nucleated and grown on glass, quartz, Teflon, polyethylene and metal. Growth rates on free flat surfaces were higher, and the total amount of fluid obtained was several orders of magnitude higher, than those obtained from capillary tubes. Refractive indexes and other properties were measured directly. The new method of growing anomalous water outside capillary tubes is an advantage that may lead to large-scale production. Neither investigation of nor conclusion on the nature of the substance was made. Its low freezing temperature, high boiling temperature, low vapor pressure and high viscosity, reported by previous investigators and observed by the author, are of primary importance and justify a search for large-scale preparation methods. (Author).
This book will provide an understanding of the behavioural properties of water which is fundamental to gaining an appreciation of many scientific processes and principles.
Atmospheric particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere: they form the seeds for cloud droplets and they form haze layers, blocking out incoming radiation and contributing to a partial cooling of our climate. They also contribute to poor air quality and health impacts. A large fraction of aerosols are formed from nucleation processes – that is a phase transition from vapour to liquid or solid particles. Examples are the formation of stable clusters about 1 nm in size from molecular collisions and these in turn can grow into larger (100 nm or more) haze particles via condensation to the formation of ice crystals in mixed phase or cold clouds. This book brings together the leading experts from the nucleation and atmospheric aerosols research communities to present the current state-of-the-art knowledge in these related fields. Topics covered are: Nucleation Experiment & Theory, Binary, Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation, Ion & Cluster Properties During Nucleation, Aerosol Characterisation & Properties, Aerosol Formation, Dynamics and Growth, Marine Aerosol Production, Aerosol-Cloud Interactions, Chemical Composition & Cloud Drop Activation, Remote Sensing of aerosol & clouds and Air Quality-Climate Interactions
|Author||: John R. Howell|
|Release Date||: 1967|
|Pages||: 42 pages|
|Author||: Hanna Vehkamäki|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2006-03-22|
|ISBN 10||: 3540312188|
|Pages||: 188 pages|
Nucleation is the initial step of every first-order phase transition, and most phase transitions encountered both in everyday life and industrial processes are of the first-order. Using an elegant classical theory based on thermodynamics and kinetics, this book provides a fully detailed picture of multi-component nucleation. As many of the issues concerning multi-component nucleation theory have been solved during the last 10-15 years, it also thoroughly integrates both fundamental theory with recent advances presented in the literature. Classical Nucleation Theory in Multicomponent Systems serves as a textbook for advanced thermodynamics courses, as well as an important reference for researchers in the field. The main topics covered are: the basic relevant thermodynamics and statistical physics; modelling a molecular cluster as a spherical liquid droplet; predicting the size and composition of the nucleating critical clusters; kinetic models for cluster growth and decay; calculating nucleation rates; and a full derivation and application of nucleation theorems that can be used to extract microscopic cluster properties from nucleation rate measurements. The assumptions and approximations needed to build the classical theory are described in detail, and the reasons why the theory fails in certain cases are explained. Relevant problems are presented at the end of each chapter.
|Author||: Benilde de Jesus Vieira Saramago de Almeida|
|Release Date||: 1978|
|Pages||: 44 pages|
Cloud physics has achieved such a voluminous literature over the past few decades that a significant quantitative study of the entire field would prove unwieldy. This book concentrates on one major aspect: cloud microphysics, which involves the processes that lead to the formation of individual cloud and precipitation particles. Common practice has shown that one may distinguish among the following addi tional major aspects: cloud dynamics, which is concerned with the physics respon sible for the macroscopic features of clouds; cloud electricity, which deals with the electrical structure of clouds and the electrification processes of cloud and precipi tation particles; and cloud optics and radar meteorology, which describe the effects of electromagnetic waves interacting with clouds and precipitation. Another field intimately related to cloud physics is atmospheric chemistry, which involves the chemical composition ofthe atmosphere and the life cycle and characteristics of its gaseous and particulate constituents. In view of the natural interdependence of the various aspects of cloud physics, the subject of microphysics cannot be discussed very meaningfully out of context. Therefore, we have found it necessary to touch briefly upon a few simple and basic concepts of cloud dynamics and thermodynamics, and to provide an account of the major characteristics of atmospheric aerosol particles. We have also included a separate chapter on some of the effects of electric fields and charges on the precipitation-forming processes.
|Author||: Vitaly I. Khvorostyanov,Judith A. Curry|
|Publisher||: Cambridge University Press|
|Release Date||: 2014-08-25|
|ISBN 10||: 1107016037|
|Pages||: 800 pages|
This book advances understanding of cloud microphysics and provides a unified theoretical foundation for modeling cloud processes, for researchers and advanced students.
|Author||: Felix Franks|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2013-11-11|
|ISBN 10||: 1475769520|
|Pages||: 484 pages|
This Volume, the last of the series, is devoted to water in its metastable forms, especially at sub-zero temperatures. The past few years have wit nessed an increasing interest in supercooled water and amorphous ice. If the properties of liquid water in the normal temperature range are already eccentric, then they become exceedingly so below the normal freezing point, in the metastable temperature range. Water can be supercooled to -39°C without too much effort, and most of its physical properties show a re markable temperature dependence under these conditions. Although ade quate explanations are still lacking, the time has come to review available knowledge. The study of amorphous ice, that is, the solid formed when water vapor is condensed on a very cold surface, is of longer standing. It has achieved renewed interest because it may serve as a model for the liquid state. There is currently a debate whether or not a close structural relation ship exists between amorphous ice and supercooled water. The nucleation and growth of ice in supercooled water and aqueous solutions is also still one of those grey areas of research, although these topics have received considerable attention from chemists and physicists over the past two decades. Even now, the relationships between degree of supercooling, nucleation kinetics, crystal growth kinetics, cooling rate and solute concentration are somewhat obscure. Nevertheless, at the empirical level much progress has been made, because these topics are of considerable importance to biologists, technologists, atmospheric physicists and gla ciologists.
Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current developments in this rapidly developing field that falls between the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. With invited reviews written by leading international researchers, each presenting new results, it provides a single vehicle for following progress in this interdisciplinary area. Theoretical methods have dramatically extended the reach and grasp of atmospheric scientists. This edition of Advances in Quantum Chemistry collects a broad range of articles that provide reports from the leading edge of this interaction. The chemical systems span the range from atoms to clusters to droplets. Electronic structure calculations are used to uncover the details of the breakdown and removal of emissions from the atmosphere and the simultaneous development of air pollution including ozone and particles. The anomalous enrichment of heavy isotopes in atmospheric ozone is discussed using RRKM theory, and a number of techniques are presented for calculating the effect of isotopic substitution on the absorption spectra of atmospheric molecules. * Publishes articles, invited reviews and proceedings of major international conferences and workshops * Written by leading international researchers in quantum and theoretical chemistry * Highlights important interdisciplinary developments
This volume is a collection of papers presented at the 14th International Conference on Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, Helsinki, 26 - 30 August 1996. The first conference of this series took place in Dublin (1955); second, Basel and Locarno (1956); third, Cambridge (1958); fourth, Frankfurt am Main and Heidelberg (1961); fifth, Clermont-Ferrand and Tolouse (1963); sixth, Albany and University Park (1966); seventh, Prague and Vienna (1969); eighth, Leningrad (1973); ninth, Galway (1977); tenth, Hamburg (1981); eleventh Budapest (1984); twelfth, Vienna (1988); thirteenth, Salt Lake City (1992). The Atmospheric Aerosol conference has been held jointly with the Nucleation Symposium since 1988 in Vienna in order to stimulate contacts between researchers in these closely related fields. The broad nature of the meeting and the scientific program resulted in 32 countries submitting papers for presentation. Covering both experimental and theoretical studies these papers are divided amongst the chapters on Nucleation, Stratospheric Aerosols and Ice Nucleation, Tropospheric Aerosols and Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interaction. In addition to these contributed papers invitations to present a plenary lecture on topics of particular current interest were accepted by P.J. Crutzen, J. Gras, J.L. Katz, A.A. Lushnikov, D. Oxtoby, J.E. Penner, Th. Peter, F. Raes, S.E. Schwartz, R. Strey and G. Vali. These plenary papers together with the contributed papers provide a well-balanced perspective of the current research over the entire field and highlight some important issues.
A unified overview of the dynamical properties of water and its unique and diverse role in biological and chemical processes.
This comprehensive volume explores the preparation, examination, and analysis of organic, hydrated, and biological specimens using cryomicroscopic techniques. More than 200 illustrations supplement the text.
|Author||: Eduard Wiedenbeck|
|Release Date||: 2019|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Written by leading experts in the field, this book gives a wide-ranging and coherent treatment of water in confining geometries. It compiles and relates interdisciplinary work on this hot topic of research important in many areas of science and technology.
Was held in Zichron Yaakov, Israel, on 16-21 September 2000. This book is the complete collection of the invited lectures presented at the Symposium. Research interest in the fundamental properties of water and water-mediated phenomena has generated a wealth of new knowledge and novel technological applications in widely diverse areas: food science, agriculture, microbial and plant physiology and metabolism, human health, environrnent. ...The title of lhe Symposium: "Water Science for Food, Health, Agriculture and Environrnent" was defined so as to reflect this diversity. True to the tradition set by previous ISOPOW meetings, ISOPOW 2000 was planned according to the Gordon Conference concept. About 110 participants, not including accompanying guests and students, from 21 different countries attended the Symposium. The scientific programme consisted of 22 invited lectures, 60 poster presentations and two sessions of expert panel discussions with audience participation. Two additional sessions were devoted to the oral presentation and discussion of selected posters. Sufficient time for discussion was allocated at each session and between sessions and this was utilized well by the participants. The scientific leveI of the program met with extreme participant satisfaction. One of the most significant events of the Symposium was the panel discussion session entitled "Critical Issues Related to Water Activity." The original views and ideas expressed at this session and the heated discussion around controversial issues and open questions should lead to the following conclusion: "Water Science" will continue to generate new material of utmost importance and high scientific quality for many more ISOPOW meetings to come.
Thermodynamics of Clouds is Volume 6 of the International Geophysics Series. This volume is an attempt to be a single reference of meteorological works of thermodynamical problems in relation to surface tension and adsorption. Numerous applications of various formulas accompany the text for further understanding of the reader to the concepts featured. The book is divided into 13 chapters where Chapters 1-6 serve as the first part of the book and the second part is from Chapter 7 to Chapter 13. The first part generally discusses and establishes the general formulas of the thermodynamics of surfaces. The method used by the authors is the one by Defay and Prigogine of studying systems in a state of partial equilibrium. The second part of the volume applies the general formulas established in Chapters 1-6 into some meteorological problems such as studies of a droplet or ice crystal suspended in the atmosphere. The text can be used by both graduate and undergraduate students with interest in thermodynamics and climate studies. Professionals such as meteorologists can also use this book as reference in solving some meteorological problems.