In Nucleation in Condensed Matter, key theoretical models for nucleation are developed and experimental data are used to discuss their range of validity. A central aim of this book is to enable the reader, when faced with a phenomenon in which nucleation appears to play a role, to determine whether nucleation is indeed important and to develop a quantitative and predictive description of the nucleation behavior. The third section of the book examines nucleation processes in practical situations, ranging from solid state precipitation to nucleation in biological systems to nucleation in food and drink. Nucleation in Condensed Matter is a key reference for an advanced materials course in phase transformations. It is also an essential reference for researchers in the field. Unified treatment of key theories, experimental evaluations and case studies Complete derivation of key models Detailed discussion of experimental measurements Examples of nucleation in diverse systems
One of the most striking phenomena in condensed matter physics is the occurrence of abrupt transitions in the structure of a substance at certain temperatures or pressures. These are first order phase transitions, and examples such as the freezing of water are familiar in everyday life. The conditions at which the transformation takes place can sometimes vary. For example, the freezing point of water is not always 0°C, but the liquid can be supercooled considerably if it is pure enough and treated carefully. The reason for this phenomenon is nucleation. This monograph covers all major available routes of theoretical research of nucleation phenomena (phenomenological models, semi-phenomenological theories, density functional theories, microscopic and semi-microscopic approaches), with emphasis on the formation of liquid droplets from a metastable vapor. Also, it illustrates the application of these various approaches to experimentally relevant problems. In spite of the familiarity of the involved phenomena, it is still impossible to calculate nucleation accurately, as the properties and the kinetics of the daughter phase are insufficiently well known. Existing theories based upon classical nucleation theory have on the whole explained the trends in behavior correctly. However they often fail spectacularly to account for new data, in particular in the case of binary or, more generally, multi-component nucleation. The current challenge of this book is to go beyond such classical models and provide a more satisfactory theory by using density functional theory and microscopic computer simulations in order to describe the properties of small clusters. Also, semi-phenomenological models are proposed, which attempt to relate the properties of small clusters to known properties of the bulk phases. This monograph is an introduction as well as a compendium to researchers in soft condensed matter physics and chemical physics, graduate and post-graduate students in physics and chemistry starting on research in the area of nucleation, and to experimentalists wishing to gain a better understanding of the efforts being made to account for their data.
|Author||: Frank H. Stillinger|
|Publisher||: Princeton University Press|
|Release Date||: 2015-11-17|
|ISBN 10||: 0691166803|
|Pages||: 528 pages|
This book presents an authoritative and in-depth treatment of potential energy landscape theory, a powerful analytical approach to describing the atomic and molecular interactions in condensed-matter phenomena. Drawing on the latest developments in the computational modeling of many-body systems, Frank Stillinger applies this approach to a diverse range of substances and systems, including crystals, liquids, glasses and other amorphous solids, polymers, and solvent-suspended biomolecules. Stillinger focuses on the topography of the multidimensional potential energy hypersurface created when a large number of atoms or molecules simultaneously interact with one another. He explains how the complex landscape topography separates uniquely into individual "basins," each containing a local potential energy minimum or "inherent structure," and he shows how to identify interbasin transition states—saddle points—that reside in shared basin boundaries. Stillinger describes how inherent structures and their basins can be classified and enumerated by depth, curvatures, and other attributes, and how those enumerations lead logically from vastly complicated multidimensional landscapes to properties observed in the real three-dimensional world. Essential for practitioners and students across a variety of fields, the book illustrates how this approach applies equally to systems whose nuclear motions are intrinsically quantum mechanical or classical, and provides novel strategies for numerical simulation computations directed toward diverse condensed-matter systems.
This successful and widely-reviewed book covering the physics of condensed matter systems is now available in paperback.
|Author||: European Physical Society. Condensed Matter Division. General Conference|
|Release Date||: 1993|
|Pages||: 747 pages|
Explore a Kinetic Approach to the Description of Nucleation – An Alternative to the Classical Nucleation Theory Kinetic Theory of Nucleation presents an alternative to the classical theory of nucleation in gases and liquids—the kinetic nucleation theory of Ruckenstein–Narsimhan–Nowakowski (RNNT). RNNT uses the kinetic theory of fluids to calculate the rate of evaporation of molecules from clusters, and unlike the classical nucleation theory (CNT), does not require macroscopic thermodynamics or the detailed balance principle. The book compares the rates of evaporation of molecules from—and condensation on—the surface of a nucleus of a new phase, and explains how this alternate approach can provide much higher nucleation rates than the CNT. It applies RNNT to various case studies that include the liquid-to-solid and vapor-to-liquid phase transitions, binary nucleation, heterogeneous nucleation, nucleation on soluble particles and protein folding. It also describes the system, introduces the basic equations of the kinetic theory, and defines a new model for the nucleation mechanism of protein folding. Adaptable to coursework as well as self-study, this insightful book: Uses a kinetic approach to calculate the rate of growth and decay of a cluster Includes description of vapor-to-liquid and liquid-to-solid nucleation Outlines the application of density-functional theory (DFT) methods to nucleation Proposes the combination of the new kinetic theory of nucleation with the DFT methods Illustrates the new theory with numerical calculations Describes the model for the nucleation mechanism of protein folding, and more A comprehensive guide dedicated to the kinetic theory of nucleation and cluster growth, Kinetic Theory of Nucleation emphasizes the basic concepts of the kinetic nucleation theory, incorporates findings developed from years of research and experience, and is written by highly-regarded experts.
|Author||: G. W. Crabtree,P. Vashishta|
|Publisher||: North Holland|
|Release Date||: 1982|
|Pages||: 346 pages|
|Author||: Shankar Prasad Das|
|Publisher||: Cambridge University Press|
|Release Date||: 2011-06-16|
|ISBN 10||: 1139500678|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Exploring important theories for understanding freezing and the liquid-glass transition, this book is useful for graduate students and researchers in soft-condensed matter physics, chemical physics and materials science. It details recent ideas and key developments, providing an up-to-date view of current understanding. The standard tools of statistical physics for the dense liquid state are covered. The freezing transition is described from the classical density functional approach. Classical nucleation theory as well as applications of density functional methods for nucleation of crystals from the melt are discussed, and compared to results from computer simulation of simple systems. Discussions of supercooled liquids form a major part of the book. Theories of slow dynamics and the dynamical heterogeneities of the glassy state are presented, as well as nonequilibrium dynamics and thermodynamic phase transitions at deep supercooling. Mathematical treatments are given in full detail so readers can learn the basic techniques.
This volume embodies the most recent research on shock compression of condensed matter, and includes 335 plenary, invited and contributed papers on topics including equation of state, phase transitions, chemical reactions, and warm dense matter. Also covered are subject such as fracture, geophysics and planetary science, and energetic materials, among others. All papers are peer-reviewed, and recent developments in the field of shock compression of condensed matter are covered.
|Author||: European Physical Society. Condensed Matter Division. General Conference|
|Release Date||: 1989|
|Pages||: 264 pages|