Inflammation is a central mechanism in many neurological diseases, including stroke, multiple sclerosis, and brain trauma as well as meningitis and contributes to the generation of pain. We are now beginning to understand the impact of the immune system on different nervous system functions and diseases, ranging from damage through tolerance to modulation and repair. This book discusses some of the more common neuro-inflammatory diseases. Topics covered include multiple sclerosis, optic neuritis and Susac syndrome. Comprehensive review of the latest developments in neuroinflammation Includes contributions from leading authorities
An unprecedented review of our current knowledge of the neuroinflammatory mediators and cells involved in neurodegenerative diseases. Beginning with a detailed review of our current concepts of which biochemical mediators are involved in neuronal loss and the mechanisms of cell death, the distinguished contributors critically examine those areas of current research involved in the design of specific pharmacological agents to inhibit at defined points in the neuroinflammatory cascade. They also address the molecular, cellular, and disease model actions of first-generation agents, as well as the potential clinical relevance to AIDS-related dementia, Alzheimer's disease, amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Down's syndrome, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and stroke.
In this thoroughly updated and revised edition of his much praised book, Paul L. Wood and a panel of leading researchers capture these new developments in a masterful synthesis of what is known today about the inflammatory mediators and cells involved in neurodegenerative diseases. This second edition contains extensive updates on the mediators produced by microglia and their role in neuroinflammatory-induced neuronal lysis. There is also increased coverage of the animal models used in the study of neuroinflammatory mechanisms, of the new imaging methods that allow the noninvasive evaluation of microglial activation in human neurodegernerative disorders, and of the role of neuroinflammation in amyloid-dependent neuronal lysis.
Neuroinflammation has long been studied in its connection to the development and progression of Multiple Sclerosis. In recent years, the fied has expanded to look at the role of inflammatory processes in a wide range of neurological diseases and cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's and autism. Researchers have also started to appreciate the beneficial impacts of neuroinflammation in certain diseases. Neuroinflammation in the Central Nervous System looks across the discipline and provides a comprehnsive picture of the field. Neuroinflammation in the Central Nervous System is divided into five sections. The opening section looks at fundamental aspects of neuroinflammation. This is followed by two sections that look at the detrimental and beneficial aspects of inflammation on the brain and nervous system. The final two sections look at emerging research on systemic inflammation and the impact of neuroinflammation on the peripheral nervous system. Providing cross-disciplinary coverage, Neuroinflammation in the Central Nervous System, will be an essential volume for neuroimmulogists, neurobiologists, neurologists and any one interested in the field.
The last decade has seen an upsurge of information on the role of immune responses in neurodegenerative disorders. In many of these diseases it is still unclear whether the innate and adaptive responses are pathogenic or play a role in repair, and thus understanding their precise roles is key to controlling these diseases by designing immune-therapeutic approaches. The connection between many neurological diseases is the realisation that the immune and nervous systems are inextricable linked, and that perturbations in this delicate balance are involved in many disorders. This has opened up new avenues for therapeutic approaches to treatment of CNS inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Neuroinflammation and CNS Disorders brings together the very latest information on the interactions between the immune system and central nervous system. The first section of the book highlights the basic concepts in the field whilst the second section, the main body of the book, covers the role of the immune response in specific disorders of the central nervous system. Neuroinflammation and CNS Disorders will provide an invaluable guide for both researchers and clinicians working in this complex and dynamic field.
|Author||: Arthur Liesz,Christoph Kleinschnitz|
|Publisher||: Frontiers Media SA|
|Release Date||: 2015-11-13|
|ISBN 10||: 2889196917|
|Pages||: 284 pages|
Mechanisms of brain-immune interactions became a cutting-edge topic in systemic neurosciences over the past years. Acute lesions of the brain parenchyma, particularly, induce a profound and highly complex neuroinflammatory reaction with similar mechanistic properties between differing disease paradigms like ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Resident microglial cells sense tissue damage and initiate inflammation, activation of the endothelial brain-immune interface promotes recruitment of systemic immune cells to the brain and systemic humoral immune mediators (e.g. complements and cytokines) enter the brain through the damaged blood-brain barrier. These cellular and humoral constituents of the neuroinflammatory reaction to brain injury contribute substantially to secondary brain damage and neurodegeneration. Diverse inflammatory cascades such as pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion of invading leukocytes and direct cell-cell-contact cytotoxicity between lymphocytes and neurons have been demonstrated to mediate the inflammatory ‘collateral damage’ in models of acute brain injury. Besides mediating neuronal cell loss and degeneration, secondary inflammatory mechanisms also contribute to functional modulation of neurons and the impact of post-lesional neuroinflammation can even be detected on the behavioral level. The contribution of several specific immune cell subpopulations to the complex orchestration of secondary neuroinflammation has been revealed just recently. However, the differential vulnerability of specific neuronal cell types and the molecular mechanisms of inflammatory neurodegeneration are still elusive. Furthermore, we are only on the verge of characterizing the control of long-term recovery and neuronal plasticity after brain damage by inflammatory pathways. Yet, a more detailed but also comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted interaction of these two supersystems is of direct translational relevance. Immunotherapeutic strategies currently shift to the center of translational research in acute CNS lesion since all clinical trials investigating direct neuroprotective therapies failed. To advance our knowledge on brain-immune communications after brain damage an interdisciplinary approach covered by cellular neuroscience as well as neuroimmunology, brain imaging and behavioral sciences is crucial to thoroughly depict the intricate mechanisms.
State of the art reviews by experts in the fields of neuroscience, immunology, microbiology/infectious diseases and pharmacology addressing the convergence of the immune system (neuroinflammation) and the loss of neurons (neurodegeneration). Many of the diseases that are discussed in the book are of epidemic proportion, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, viral encephalitides and substance abuse. In addition to discussions of the involvement of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in these disorders, scientific reviews are presented on the cells and mediators that participate in defense of and damage to the nervous system. With rare exception, no or inadequate treatment exists for the diseases discussed in this book. An underlying premise of the book is that understanding of their shared pathogenic mechanisms will lead to improved therapies. Given the rapid evolution of the field of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, readers will find this book to be the most timely and authoritative reference on the subject of each of its chapters.
"Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation" book explains how the neuronal cells become swollen at the moment of the blood-brain barrier disruption and how they lose their immunological isolation. A cascade of cytokines and immune cells from the bloodstream enters the nervous system, inflaming neurons and activating the glia. This produces a neuroinflammatory process that can generate different neurodegenerative diseases. Better understanding of mechanisms that are activated at the time when the damage to the brain occurs could lead to the development of suitable therapies that revert the neuronal inflammation and thus prevent further damage to the nervous system.
|Author||: Angelika D. Wahner|
|Release Date||: 2006|
|Pages||: 236 pages|
|Author||: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2018-03-16|
|ISBN 10||: 0309463653|
|Pages||: 90 pages|
Neuroinflammation is a burgeoning area of interest in academia and biopharma, with a broadly acknowledged role in many central nervous system (CNS) disorders. However, there is little agreement on the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie the manifestations of neuroinflammation in the CNS compartment and how neuroinflammation operates as a driver and also as a consequence of disease in the brain. Moreover, another unclear area is how to translate increased understanding of the mechanisms that underlie neuroinflammation and its manifestations in the CNS to therapeutics. To address these gaps in understanding mechanisms and how to translate that understanding into therapeutics, the Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop on March 20-21, 2017, bringing together key leaders in the field from industry, academia, and governmental agencies to explore the role and mechanisms of neuroinflammation in a variety of CNS diseases. The workshop also considered strategies to advance the identification and validation of biomarkers of neuroinflammation that could accelerate development of therapies, bringing much-needed treatments to patients with disorders ranging from neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) to neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2019-02-15|
|ISBN 10||: 0128157178|
|Pages||: 300 pages|
Role of Inflammation in Environmental Neurotoxicity, Volume Three, in this comprehensive serial, addresses contemporary advances in neurotoxicology by providing authoritative review articles on key issues in the field. Edited by leading subject experts, topics of note in this new release include Neuroinflammation (Introduction), Organophosphates, Lead, Manganese, Drugs of abuse, Peripheral vs central inflammation, Air pollution, Developmental neurotoxicity, Ethanol, and the Blood brain barrier, amongst other topics. Provides a unique, first of its kind resource Contributed to by world leaders in neurotoxicology Contains a diversity of topics (from molecular to epidemiology) in neurotoxicology
Recent work has implicated inflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis. In this book leading experts in the field discuss molecular, in vivo and clinical aspects of neuroinflammation. It is hoped, with the wealth of research being conductied in this area, that novel therapeutic targets will be identified which will allow successful therapeutic intervention in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases.